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1-4 i 1.6 

:a iM/tGE Ine 

Publications of the 

Carnegie Mndowmcnt for International Pearc 

Division of International Law 






With a Collection of Oiticial Documents 




lA.MLS BROWN SCOTT of ,he Dn.sion of In.ernn.ionai U^ of ,he Carneg.e Kndo«n,en. 
tot lriicrnation:il Peace 



I.l'M.oN ],;Ki..\l,, \|tIHi.l.K\F AM. luninw 


PI v I HI' 
W \SHINC,1.).N, It L 


l-roni timi- tn time a pk-hiK-ituni lia^ l.ccn iioM l,y the mtcrotcl natmn. in 
order to ascertain tlic -entinitnt nt a o.inininuiy in the matter ,,í tran>ier of 
the alle-iance ,,i the inhal.itanl. ,<i a i;iven ternary uhieh, l,y a-reement ot 
the nation, mvnlve.l. i> t,, l.c ceded in on cmintry to another Withui 
recent year, the dnctrme ni' plel,i-cne. l.a~e,l m.,re or le-, npun i-olated prac- 
tice ha-; innnd it- way nit,, treati-e- ..ii international law. ïh- treatment ,,f 
the (loctrme, however, has hitherin heen fragmentary and the d.,cnment, np,,,, 
which the dcctrine is based have iir.t hitherto been asscml.led. 

In the hehef that an expnsitidn of the theory and ¡mactice nf plebiscites as 
applied to States would n,,t only be valuable historically but that it w.,n!d be 
ot service to publicist, havint,' to deal wilh such (|uesti..iis. Mi,, Sarah Waiii- 
bau,i;h has collected for the Division n{ internatinnal Law ,,f the ( arnepe 
Kndowment for International Peace, the .locnmenls relatm- t,. this subject 
and has prefixed to them a mon,.L;raph m which she lays before the reader the 
result of her investigations ¡n this interestin,!; but hitherto unexplored domain. 
The importance and timeliness ,,f this volume are \erv j;reat. It is im- 
portant in that it is ilic tirst ade(|ua:e treatment ,.f the subject. lavin- l>e'ore 
the reader, as it does, in the .^ri-inal lan^^nia^e. an.l m F.n,[;l¡sh trauslaf/.n when- 
ever the ori.^mal text is in a torei-n lon.mie, documents relatin- to plebiscites 
which have never before been brou-ht together and uhosc verv existence has 
not been s„,,,ccted even by pers,,,,, „„c-esic,! in the subject, 'it is timely in 
that the Treaty ,.f I 'e.ace betueen ihe \llird an,l \s.' ,ci;itf,l l',.wers 'an,l 
Germany. si,m,e,i at \ersailles. june Js. lol-i, ,,r,.vi,les f,,r plebiscites to Ix- 
helil in iiiany instances. 

In view of these fads, .M¡., Wambau-l.-s v,,lume h,,s a present interest not 
merely tor the stu,lent ,.f internati, .nal lau, but f,,r the .hpl,.,nat 
an,l exi.ert called up,.n t,. ,leal uith plebiscites i„ the concrete cases pn.vide,! 


.y the various treaties putting an .■ 

IUI to 

the War of 19!4. 

I' Mils, I'UAN-Cl'. 

Jiilx 15, l')]<). 

ÍAMKS Rf;ow\- .Scott. 
Dire -tor of thr Pirisinu .,f intrnuitioiui! 


I.ucn,,heam:n„n,: I'Mr I .a....!.-! In Dr ).u... Kn.un So., IVrm.r 

"'^^ '''^"":;:;" "'^- '''■'■'^^'•^' '■' "^"¡""^'l -•I,-,k.,a-n„„at¡,,„ ,n rl,a,„.. „Í .„,r- 
e:«my. ! h. ,„■,..„, „i.,,,,,;;,,.,,!, ua. an-nr,li,u;'y nn.krtakr,, „n,lcr In. m„kt- 
Vision, ' 

"•"'" ';^'Y''-''-'I '"^'"v :n,,rc. in.tan.., ,„ rocnnr^. t,, ,h. ,l,„,,,n. ,lun 
""^' ?':''' ■"■^' ^'^"■•■^•''■.'t..l M, ,]„. ,,sc. „„ ,„t.rnan,.nal lau , ,r „, tin- 
^.■::cra. In-t-.n.^. v.t ai ,1„. ^.^w n,,;,. ,he oAWuuu ,,. ,I,,r;„i„nt. ,II:,-;ra!;n.^ 
', 7'"'"''; 'T"'''"'^''^" '''•''"'■' '■''■•■•'''-■l--'-"y^''I'-'.à; 
■-""•;■' ""■ '' = -""■>■ '" ^••"■'' ^■">'>'"-.^ 'rrai.,1 l,a. lirrn nm-.arv Mn^ .„ ,1k- 
'''7- ''■■'''■ ■'""'^•■'' '■■■'"r-v.'is,al .pH-ii,,n~. an,l ,luu a carvfnl ap,,rc. • ,.„ -n 
aii.l -îalnnrn, ,.| rari, m, K- ha. Kcni inipiTalivc 

T!ic in,.n..„a,.l, l,a. !.rn >cn,,.nl, ,u>ly lnnn.,| ,-, ,h. ,l,,.,rnu. uni, rru-.- 
'"-; 1" '■'•->u;. . M, .„v,.rc,^nty. Matinal ,v,anl,n^ the „nnuTnn. yk-UunU: 
'" '''"■nn:nr ih. i,„n, .,1 ^^,,vmnnn„ ,,r ih. per.. ,nalitv ni ,!,.■ ., ,v .r.-.n 
M.>], a. ,lu- pKl,,.,-,,.. „Í X.,,„,|,,,n |||, ,;,,„,,. K„„„„„, |;,.¡^,„„, ^„„, ^l^^; 
^^^'>. ''■'- 1-" >M-ln,U,l l,,.n ,,,nM.Ura„n„ a. .,„ h a .i,„lv, allh„u^.h „ n.i^ht 
'■^' '■> ,i^r-ai nnrrr.t. ,l.aN uni, a ilu-nu- c-scniallv ,hlUrc-nt Imm thal',,t 
M'paraiinn. i-fs-.|..ii dr annr\ 

''■'■^•717 '-"' - a't.n,,.; In pr.-.c.nt -lata „n ,!„■ n.anv ,..rrn,.r,al .pu.- 

" '" '••'^''''7'-'''--'^''^''M'l--)n.a. ,lK.n, „nr,h,l,h, ;nuh,,ro, 
;;; ';; '7' '•' ''" ~'''>'^- ■■' ''''^ ^•••'l> •■■ I--' a pian n,r ,lu. -.,Hnncm 


"■7""'-'""l"'~'''''-'^'-'-""-"l ll--l'-M.Tnnna,„.,,-,-,h.. Cnn.l 

" /; V'^ V'^'^^^^^^^^^ - a -„r, „, hall,,, wh,e 

'am. lata , lUv ..,h,r luvan... n ,t una- put ,n n. „,-,,,.... ,1,^ „ i „ , 

r;r::';;'V "• ""•■"'' '"-^"-'""^ i..,,,. h., : : 

Of a na.innal ,han int, ,nah,.,;al a.pnl. .,, far a. ,t nfï..,-,. H,i. .; ... ,. 

"'"'"•"" "'•"'^^- ••■^"■1''- ''•'''HMh..vM.n„,,n.;,;7an;,;.an,,; 




pn.Ii.-iMy lMra,i-r tlir-c pr. il,l,iii. ,l!,l n, ,t ¡miiioliatcly r .front the leader^ 
.•|n.| 11, Ihr later aniiexaüon^ ,,: l..„iiMaiia aii.l l-lnri,ía the principle uà. not 
'""'"'^■'' ■■' '■"' ■•itli-il ;iIaMe, prrha,,-,, ,,, ihe ^par-elv p..piilate.l 
ni illume tern; rie~ 

It may he t]i,,n.uht that the ea^e ..l' the n„„,n ,,! Walla.],, a aii.l Mnl.javia 
mi" Riiinaiiia .h-nl.| lia'>e heeii ..inute.l. aii.l m.lee.l the aiith.^r i- auare ,,i 
ha'.in.i; iM,..|hl-. -iretehr.l a pnim „, niehi.lint; it a^ a change of ^nverei-ntv. 
Ihe I'rme, palme- li,.ur,er. ,a!le,l -.,wrei:;n Mate-, alilmn-h thev uere 
iHi.l.r hirki.h Mi/,Taiiity. an.! elVeete,! ihnr .in:,,,, ,,i lu,, n, ,vcrei-niie. int.. 
one hv means ,,i iw,, appeal- t., p,,p„Iar v,,te. The ea-e ha- heeii mehulcd 
heeaiive it preMiii- the hr-t. an.l -,, lar liie ,.„ly. m-taiiee ,,f an international 
c« i,. a.liiimi-trr a \..te 

"I the ea-e, melu-le-l, tlm-,. .,f ,]„. p',,,,,,, K',,,,!,,,,,,,, ,,,„, ,,,■ [,,^,^, .^^^ 
mManee< n, reparation an.l inte.^^rati. •„ Savuv an.l \,ee m lS.,i) ,he 1 .ani^h 
West In.lies ,„ ]S>,7. ,s,_ j ianl,,,], „,„.,, ,„ ps;; ,,„, , .„„.^ .,,,,, ^_.,,.^ ^^^j, 
un-ettle,l, are mstanees ni .ess„.„ .,|i„h „io.he m parat,,.,, an.l „,te^,-at,nn. an.l Uallaehia are an m-tanee ..f i,„„,„ ,,r. p..,-l,ap-. ,nte^rat„.n 
.VhlesuiLT Is an in-iane,' ,,f ,!,;,.,..„ an.l ees-„,n. a pn.ieet 1.,,,^ .I,-,,,-..,! and 
st.ll iminlnlK.l Th. !a-i ea-e. that ..f \-.,ruav. ,. an m-tan.e ... separati,.n 
ot a >,overei.i;n Slate a le. Imually v.hmtarv i,ni,,n an.l ¡here- 
I'T,' pv, -uit- a iinvel pr..h!e,n .,t . lian.-e ..( -..vereiuntx , 

The term i.lehiseile in itse,,n„i„,„ n.eanii,-c..nn.'.tes'i,niver-al male sulttaL-e 
1.1 n,:uiv nt the ea-e- in, h„le.l whuh helon^ uithin a .h-e„-M,.n of 
the ,l,,ctrmc ot sdt-,ktenmnali,,n the vnte ua, hv a hmile.l Mitf.a.e an.l uh 
tisnallv tor .lek-aies. in-^tniete,l as a rule, i,, an as-ernhK .„/ A.,, Tin. ,s 
tnie ..I ni.,-t of the votes ,,f the Irenel, ke\,.l„t,..n. ,.f Moldavia an.l W alia 
dna, the Itahan votes of 1S5" and that ..f ,ho L.nian i,lan.l- 1,. ,h. [,,],,„ 
votes o, IS4S, IS,.(), l,v<,(, an.l \.Tn , ,,,,,„.„„ „, „,^, ,.,^ ^.^.j,,^.,, ^^,,,^^, ^^.^^ '^^^^^^ 

Ihe eleclurate inehtdcl praetieaily .he ul.ole male Italian p..pnlation uluther 
hterate .,r n,.t I h.s was also true in Savoy and .Vice. a„,l m the v., tes ul 
St llartliolnnieu and the islands .,f St. 'riionias and St h.lni 

In all the cases where the uncinai text .,f the documents Jus h.en avail- 
.ihle >t has been Riven. Extracts have hecn n,ade where space cc.uld be ecuno- 
nn^ed wii!i..„t .sacnficin- accnracv in presentatum. Tt„. translations are as 
taras po<s,M,, ,.-,l,cn fro», uell-kn.,un sources, sneh a, the iirilid, P^rlii- 
»m•«^,rv /•a^•^v. Where tluta. ,- n.. s.atenu-nt of the sonrcc oi the trans- 
lation .t has been made esp.callv for .h,s ».„no^raph. fare has bee., u-ed 
in correct.nfî these translations m harmonizinR th • translation of corrc- 
sp..n<!inR wunls in different lanpiajres. bnt doubtless mistakes an.l inconsis- 
tencies occur, to the n.uticrous citations the title of each work i* 
cued only „t the lirst reference. In succeedinp references i, ,s rcferre.l t., hv 
the author H name only. In each case the fuii liile he , „„„i .., „;, ,,:, 



..f amh„ri,K... The k.,.n,K. nan.c. of ouunru.. ph.e. riv,,-,, „c. ,.„ the 
aa„n,p,,„,,„í, „,a,. have l,cc„ !ef, n, .he ¡an^na^e „-e,l „„ „,, „r,^,„al :„ap, 
ot uhieh ihey are n |.rM,huii, ,in. ' 

1 an, „„,-, .leeplv „„leMe.I t,, ,l,e Can.e.^ie ha^ln. „u-nt Mr Internat;, „nl 
cace lor „uk,,,;; ,„...:1,K. ,he ,,„l,h>au..n n, „uh an exteuMve n^rk, and to 
the ~kil!i„l a.lvi.enf I^r. So.i, ,„ ;, „,^.,nal pkinnm- 

mJe^'T;^ ",""r''"'"" "'""""•" '""'''"'" I"-^-^"'"^"'' ' ''-- --'eel 
h.v';' ; ;' "^'""'"■'■''"'"^ '''■'■'■'^' ^'-'"na n. „nerna,,,,,.! 

"■''\''"' 'l'l'!''-ut)M.--,., all „■ uh.,n, I ,].., ...h „. ex,,re^- the wärm- 
et ,ratUn,e. A.f,,r,hennah,a,,k.a,,,ande,,nr,e,,,.a..',anee;,r;:. 
th. ..era ,„rar,an. ,„ uhn„, 1 have ,ake„ la.lhn, ,|Ue,„.,„. n, , aeknnwle,!,- 
nieilt Wduld he a<lei|uate 

Wa-iiixctox. ¡). (_• 
March 6, 10] 9. 

S. \V. 


(.'lirriii(il,ij;ii-al List ..Í C, 

It (. haiu 

Drtcrmiiiatioii lla> [iten Fve injni/c'l Li«t (.1 l'rn)ti|,al Work-. Citi-.l 

>■ lit' S,)Vl■^(■I^;nt^ m hIi:.;i the Kiijlit to Seit 

\ \\ Il 

A Stiui5' of the Theory am] Practice of Plebiscites 
HisToiiicAi. Sim \i \k\ 


Aviffiion and tlif C.mtat VenaisMii I/')I 

Sa\..v. \7'U ... 

Vice. I7<M . . 

The Rclijiaii rniiriiiitics, ir'i.i 

TIk- Kliiiie \'all,y. i;q.5 . 

The Rfimhlii-, nt MnlliaMM-ii an.! <'..iir\a, ir'i.>i 



Tut. I'l hi. M .,] I,«4S-l.>'7o 

Tlie Italian FMi-liiscitis ..t !^!,s 

The Italian Xati'.iml \vM-t,il,|„., ,,i' ]s5ii 

Tlif Italian I'lrl.isiitrs ..f ÌHiA) I.S7II 

Tnscany ami Kinilia. 18«) 

Sa\oy and \ii<-, \m) 

Sicily and N'aplis. I*i0 

I'mliria ati.l the .\lanhc-. l.SoD 

V'inetia. lK(i<> 

M'dd:nia and Wallacliia. IS.-/" 

The Ionian Mands. IS'ò 

The Schleswig Unitimi. 1,S48- 

Ma,.s: ro,u- „f the (¡erntat-Ma,. hy K II. I. (.eer. Showing ,!,e Dntrihut,.,,, 

lancnaije* in the Dnchy ..f SchleswiE. I«.?8 
.\> Sh.iHinu til.- Divtrihiition ní l.aiiKnaKCs ii 
Sihle-wii;. I'>lKi 
The Mand> of St TIiomi;,, and ^' !..■'• 'w. 










TllF I'kRI.Ii Ol 1,S71-1')14 

'^aini Hartlio|.inu\v. We'.t Indie.. ÌH7'; 

The T.iena. Arica Question 1««.! 
Map Tacna ancí .Arica . . 

The Separation of Norway from Sweden, I 'Ml.; 

I opposite I 
N'Jrth and Centra! 

(opposite I I4'i 


■ ■ -■ "" »MMrvT \f.n\is-iv. 17<)I 

''i^i'^-^''',"!' n,:.He. Frnnroi, Fi !■ , rr,.voe.-,t,l,. In f ,>,. r 

L(j.\ ri;.\ IS 

'''imi"' if'i;!.;'' ''" ''"'"''" ''"""'■'' "' "'" ^'-'"'»'^"^ ■■' the r„v of Avignon, 


A.Mr.vs .11 th, Ki|,ri-fi,t,i!ni- I'.r.dy of tlic (■..niiat Venaissiii, Jnic _'J, l?«! j^j 

Adoi)ti.-il, Aliarli -t -7. 1790 
Pccrci- oí the National Avscnibly. N'mcmlier JO, 17'«) 


Scc..n,l Rrport of the Coniinittfc- r,„ A- ^non Rci;ar,l,nu tl,<- fnmn of Avit;„nn anfl 
tli,-(o,„lal \vna,,,,n uii!, I r;u..c. an,. D.scuss.on l,y the As,en,l,'v. Ai-nl .iO-\Iay 

• ■ 1H8 

^li/',ll''7"' '"i.'''" "■""''."' Avignon Propose.! l,y Meno., ni th.e Th:r,l R.nort 
of the Committees on .Xmk'iioii, May .'4, 17'il i i^ i n ^^^_ 

"S-.:;^ fc ifi-Vl •^-''"";"v Provi-lin. tha, M.,l,a,,,r. shall be ..„t to ^^^ 

« the Meetoral .Vscmhlv ..f t ¡c Municipalities of Avignon an.l of Tariuntra anc 
.. t,e Anny of \ and„se. eal!e,I tl,o Army „f ,\vi«n.,n. in th,. PreMUc. of the 
Mcliatiim ( oniinns eri- ..| Iran.e. Dq.nie.l by the KiiiK, Jiiiu 14, 17V1 . . .212 

Letter of the, to the President of the \ali.ina! AsscinMy .it I;, ,!ari,l.s 215 

'■'t'ir.Me.liat'ors"""""""' ^''" ''•' "'" ''■■*-'"''•"' "^ «'"• As.enihly ,,t the K,..|„e.t .,f 


Pormal M.nnte of the O.m „1 Assembly of SÍKnret, \nwu^t 11. o'/l 216 

Kepurt of I.e Scene .les .Maisons on his Mission as Me.liator, September 10, 17'a ¿1^ 

Fonrth^R..p...-t of the f.,in:Wl,.,.s „n A.i.n, „ an! f.- Tonnât Venai.Mn, September ^_ 

[•"orttial Charaes r>roil«l.t \t.oi,-i (:,,M,. ,,,.,,r- l,, \i,i„M-,..rv l',.f .. ,i, v. i 
Assembly, and Replies of the Me.liators. SeU'.nbcT U. I7'>P '"'""•""• •^""■■"•'' _,,„ 

Reply of Î.C .Scone iles Maisons 

Merrre .if ill, Vational ron\enli,.!i I',.' 
IV.iiue. September 14, 1701 

'. '11 ai:.i tiiC ( \ .v-lKl^sin t'- 


Savoy and N'icE. 1702-.^ 

PrncUmafion of General M..iiteM|MÍon t.. th, Pe.iple of Savoy, Septcmbir 2!. 1702 260 

I.rtl.r ,j fK;ner,-.I M...itev,,„io„ to the Minister of War, an<l Discussion R...,ir.biie 
It in the Tren.h .National Convention. *ieptenil«r 28, 1702 l^< __^^ 

Proclatnat-on of the r.miinisM.mei 
of the Alps, Oflober 6. 1702 

Vational Convention t,) tlie \rr 


V 'w^i Minnie of the Vole of the Communal Assembly of Monthiers, October 11 
' " ■ ' JSI 

''■'rt;[,,",:ft'i;;'-':::,'!T7";' 'yUn- I'mlomatic Comniitttee Re«,.r,linR the Con- 
rtih^t to r, Ir.-.ri....! to .he Freiuh Cuerals ,„ F >■ . -, ,.,.,tries, October 24, 



-V. I '»' • ' r • ■■•'j_v: •■; i::j i^;;. .,;..; I. oiinlv of N'ice to 
an.l Action of the Conv.ntion, N'ovember 4, Ì792 .285 

_o.\ I K.\ rs 



Adclre.vs of the '• N'atioiial Asvcnililv ni the Mlohrc.w, . ■ \,i,„„ t,,r .1,. i- 
"l7'IJ ' ' '''' '/■'"'' ^^"'""•'' ^"'■"^^■"""" l'"iti"L; Sawn to France. Noveinhcr 27. 

TtiK I'l-'iMv r,,MMiM< \N!i Tin: RiiiNi \-m.i.kv, 1 79,î 

raitîh.iii K<-[iort-; RiL'ar.I'ii:; tl''' ('miilp.t t(. I,.- I',,I1m-v-,. I I, .i,„ i- . ,- i 

the G..,„„-ios CV,.„p¡..., l,v ,1k. Arn,i.'.!,; tl!; Jj'uMu.:'! v.,'l.'^^;^;/,r''' ^'^ "■ „,, 

Dn.-r-',. I.y uMrl, Franro IV.H-Iainis t!-e I.iKcrtv aii.l ^..^e^.it^Uv of all the Peonie, to 
wh..m .h>' ha. rarr,.'-l or .Iv.ll (■arr^ her \r,n-. an,l Pre^rihef h Co Z , , 
her (.ciierals, D.r.mlier l.i and 17. I7'<_> » on.iirt ot ^^^ 


Protect „f the Penr, sMiratu e \.s,,„l,|y of llainaolt Xs^ain-f the Drrrec of P-eremher 
I.-'. Proeiitr.l to ire ( o„>.eiition, Deeenihcr 2.\ 17"J l'< ^^^ 

''íii;;^''í;.'^':^p'^""'""'''' "^ "^ '"^■"'''^" '■'■""'«^ "f ""■ f^--'-- of ^am„r, ' 

' ■ " , ,1!.' 

Secnn,! Derree Reu-anlinu ,|,e Cotvlnet of ,he Generals in thn., Co .„tr'es 'vh-re 
t.ic Armtci of Irance have Kntercrl .,r .hall I-^it-r, January ^]. 17'ii .^14 

Decree Re.^lr,^ipt; the Pnion of ,!„• Prlnei,K,l,ty ..f Monn.o. of a Part .,f th,- Ra,l,- 
WR'k of SchamhourR. an<l other Xeielihori. ■ 'i emto, i, ,. !'e!.r'.ar'> 14. 17'M ;¡„ 

Pr-.ela,na,ion to the Reh.ian Pe^.ph' In the Cnnni.sloner, of the Freneh Vational 
CoMvention. Oelaero.v r.o.o.;,, ,„„1 M„iin (.1,. i,„,,,^j, Fehrnarj n i;^? ,ilK 

T!-.' Cnmn of nr.,..elv r,l.,.,„ ,„ , ,„,,„ r,,,_,¡,,„ ^a,,, ,„•,,, p-...^,, Fv.raets from 
the Minute-, o, the \:„',,nal 1 ..„.,ent;on, F.hrnarv .V-Manh .'. 17'M ,,,_, 

of the Xatmnal C ottvennon t.. Ma.vener. \„no',n>i„u t!,e I'T.rtw,,, of a Kevolm?" 
ary Mnnie.pal.ty. Rea.l hef-re the foiuention. Manh 1.'. 170.^ ' J i^" 'Hinon ^^^ 

Fener^.t (,e,,,,a! I, -^ r,,„,.,.;„..l,T -„.rhief of ,1„. Amn of ,he Vort!, to 
t.;e \, 111.. nal ( •■inrntion. Mareh I.', l"'!! "''' " ^_,^ 

^7j,\lT'l''J'''^u7- "'^^"•■':i'-"•■'' <^"nven,i..n I.v !Ia'-«.nann. r.nimi-soner to the 
\rniie<i of t!ic Rhine, the Voices, an.l ihe M.-elh . ,\I ir.ii .5(1. 17oi ,4,, 

'^Vnrif r'*?^ Nali.nial Rhrno-Cerniaine (-onvention to the Fren.h Repnhlie, an-l 
Vote of Lmoii by th.- National t onvention of I'ranee. .March .iO. 17'M 1.^4 

Tilt Rh'i-hi K s OF Ml' 

' n ('.ysi\\, 17'W 

The I)irc<'tnry HeWate. jean Tlrie Met.cer as Commissioner to the Hepiihh- „f 
Mnlhanscn with Reearrl to the \-o|,. of Tnion. January 1, 170S '^^'unii. ,,t ^_^ 

■'Mnm;t;::„'''£:;a,^î^;^^Î7^ ".'■' '='~'-^ -■' ^--¡1 of ,1.. Rep,.,,.- of ^ ^^ 

Reiily of th' Magistracy. January 1''. 17'W 


'28"'l798 ^ "'"" "' ""■ '^•''"''''*'' "* '^'''Ih.insen w„h ti,,. Iren,!, R.p.hh. . Jannarv 

. .Vi.i 

o >x'ri-:.\Ts 

D.rrc.' .,f the nircctory AppointiiiLr f"iti/,n Dcspnrtei Cminh-iom-r to the Repuhlic 
"f (iriifva to h'ii-ui' the' \'. ti oi t ni. .11. March J5, 17''S j^j/ 

Treaty ni [ninn of thi iU¡. ; .^i (,fni'\;i aÍi:, t!)o I'renrh ki-;vilili,-. .\],r)\ 2'<. 179S .Î(j8 
Tili'. I '!■.!■; Il M I I II- 1S4S isril 

lr.\I.H.\ Pl.HUSl ITK> ny IS-tS 


r'r..rlaniati..ii .',f tlie Muni.-pahiy n," tic Cty ,,i Milan m, \.-,in-incr Poucr. March 

JO. 1.^4,^ 


Tir IV.. MM. mal (,..v, riinuii' I'..^ti...n> - all I >,,n as t.i the Political F' 
(It [.oiiiharily. .Marcii _'-', 1.<4S ' ;7! 

Pr<iclainati<m iif Kiiif; larli. Albert.. Promisiiii; a I'rcc \'(.tc. March .il. 184S .Î71 

Ci.ntiili-ntial (■..mrii'uiication t.. ih- ( iovcrnin. m ,.í I'vpr. í-íiil' the He- 
Mr( ..I Carl.. ,\ll..Tt.. l..r the C. in ..cation ..Í an Ilc-tue V,-en! t.. Mei. le the 
iH'vtiiiic- of the Itiliaii Prl)^ince^, Maich .îl. I,^4X ^7; 

The IVovisi..iinl Covernnii tit Ni.point« a Cnm^issini. to Drau y.n a Plan for 
the ( r.nvoeati..ii ..f a N'ati .nal .\ssenihly, April 8, 1S4S ?;; 

The Pro\i-.iorial <..■^enllllem ..I I...inhar.Iv Pr..,la'nis a Plel.iscite. M.iv IJ. I,v4s ,57«, 

Statement hy the Pr.ivixional (,n\crnnunt ,.f the^ -.ilii.h tli. I .jiiilar.l P.-oi.l- 
NoA Possess. .May i8. 1.^4« ... ' ;,v; 

Proclamati' .n .\nn..iincinL; the Result of th,' Ple'.i-cite, Jniie ,>;. 1S4K ,5S7 

l-'orma! Pr.-M-iitati..ii of the V.-te ..f rin-n P. Kiiii; Car!.. \:i),rt.., Iiuu II. 1,^4.-! .V)\ 

Ke[ily .if tlie Kim; .... VÌ2 

.\rMrrss of the \\'..inen ..I I.onihar.'y to the W.inien ..1 the Sar.hnian .'^tates Tiilv 
.'. 1848 ' ■ ■ ^()5 

\'ot_e ..f the S'lhalpiiie P.irliani. i:t \.cei.iini; tic \',.te ..f l..> an.l the I'r-. vines 
of Palina. \'iceii/a. Tre\iso an.l K..M-... an.l Cmrin^ the^e l'r..,ince> t.. ^ar.lima 
Law of (illy J7. 1848 .... 




The Provisi..iiaI Government of the Rcp.iMic of \-enotia \nno. that th-re will 
he a Sinsle riiii--litiient .\sseinhlv for the I.ileraicl Pr..viiiç. <, \la.-ch _'4, 1,'<4,>I .iO.s 

The Departii'.ntal C.mmittees ,.f Pa. h.a. Vienna. Tr. cs,, an' R.ivi.'o Prn,,.^t 
Niianist a Senaral.- Reimhlic an.l \nno...,c,- that \"' f..r Cni n with P„-.!n,ont 
has l.eunii on (he Wiietian M,ii;<, Mrn .'] . \XU 

Re(ily of the Provisional G..\eriiinent, .Inne J. l.s!4,'< 

n-Tce .if the Pr.nisional r,.,verniiunt ..Í the Wnctian RepnI.hc ( ..m..kini: a Rcn- 
1 atne Assembly, July .1. 1848 ... >• i ^^.^, 

Vote ni the Consulta of Venie. June 2ti. 184S . . 4(V, 

Speech of ^Ianln U-fore the Representative Assemhiv, .111, 1 \ol.' ..f the \,scmhlv 
for lue I moil of \ cince with I'iedmont. Jiil> 4, 1.S4.S . . ' 40,, 

Vote of the Parliament .Xcceptin« the V,.te ... .!„• Citv an.l IV.nince 
ul Venu-e and I nitiiiK tliem with the Sar.Uniun Slate,, l.a ..t Jnly _'7. l.s4,S 4iN 

Parnta and I'iaccn/a 

' n ^im'^ '"' '■''''" •^'''"''"'* ""■■ Ml''"''«-'-* "i th.e' C„,>.rnnM,t. \;.n! 

Tl'' Pruisiiiisa! C.nvrrnmrnt .-f T'ir 
L'tiioit with Sardinia, May 8 h-<4.s 

11. c v^.esii* 


roxi K XTS 




, J68 





Formal Minuti- <il the Kcvilt ..f the I'U-l.i^. ite. May .''i. IS4S 4i.i 

I.a«- ot the Sarliniaii '•arjiaiiient A.ccDtiii« th,- \-..U: ..f Panna ,,n<l C.iia^talla ami 
l nitint,' thrni uith tlic ^^ar■lmlan States ,ii hwie lo. 1S4S 417 

'^\"i '.'"r/'Vi'i'! '■"^^■'■""■'•'' "• l'i.ieen,-a Makes F^nMir thr Re-ilt <.l the Plel>i-;cite. 


Mo. lena and RennJ.p 

• ■ 4_'4 

The Po.le-ta i'iihli.he, tlie ["l..-.,ral Xrra.iueinents. May .", 1,-<4,S 4.,, 

The M,.niei|,aüt> -í M. .lena l-pvla,,..- a l'Irl.i-.-ite, M.n In. m4S . . . . 4JX 



!f thc'rMf-!,''''""''T "• ,^';"''"^'' i^^'^';-' an.l .iMa.taüa I n,ho,|,e, the Re,.,l. 
..^f_^_thc Ilehi,e,t.. w a l-.-rmal Aa ut L ni„„ with the Sanhnian Stat.,. May j" 

Fornial Act I-.mhodyini; tlie Rcsnlt> of th. l'IehK.ite ..r Ke^up.. .May ,50, I,S4,^ 

\..te of the .<ar.hinaii Parliament .\rr,i.|¡nLr the \'..tes ni M, „lem -itul P ., 1 

l n,t:n^ the Pro^¡nees to the Sanl.nian St.Ues.'f June iì ¡^4" ' '" """ ^"'' 

TiiK Ii\ii\N .\\ni.\-.M .\~<K\iniiEs or 18.^') 


Preliminaries oí Peace, Signed at N'illafranca. Juiv II, ]r^9 441 

"Ä;M:e ^;^LI;,^nef:;r{^ln;;;rj;;^-^''''-''''^'*''^ '=-*~" -'-■™ -- 



IWk. M "m";' •■■■;.^^"""-'>' R'^.-'aMi;hin^ the Klectnral of li<4K for the 

a;;, pJ:a'i":í.;:n::í^T:l't?;';].;l,r:- ;-rF!;i^ :;: ^^z-ix^Vui, 44. 

'7ub-' /<^rÏ859'"."'^ ''■:'^^:"' '--™' '■■— I unh.r ne.a.U ,.f the 1 ,e. t,on, 

";h:'T:;:ea;;' Ñ::;;l„^v'- '^■'-'" •' "- ''-^" ^'"-'- -rh-rence. ron^em., 

Convocai,,, n .,f the I-.leei,,ral Constifien, ,. - Ju'y .«>, I.^v, ^-,, 

^Au«u,rl 'i^^r"'"'"" ^''''^"^ 'li' '•""'■ti"-.' to the Gn.ncl of Mnn^tcr. 


Fv!eas..h >. Appointed Presiden- of t!ie Co-.incil. .\";,.,;.t 1. Wo 4;, 

Decree Fixing Condition^ of Ehi;i|.iliiy of Deputies. Au^o,,, J, isf'i , 45, 

I"y-Ian,afon „f the M,n„try, rnin^j the Approa. hing Ilecti..,,. .\„....,, 4. 



ree of C'invocatili, of the A^-enili!y, August 7, 1839 , 

ni.spatc!, fron, [.ord John Russell to the, Minister at Turn,. Au.o,,, ,0 im 45^ 
'':ítííl^i:::A£;:'f;,^';iP" - ^■'-"- - '-" J'.'.n Ku.e., 

'■K-,:Uî'-'^-":"'i"p:^"^"""r ;f Tfscany for Tn,,., u:,h the Constitution,! 

S5 of the Delegates of the Tn.scan AsscmWy t,. the Kuii .f ^ard.-,-. Pr 
ng t::e \ ote tor Union, September .i. ¡.«i.^Q * ^ard.,,,a. Ire 




fl ) MIC XTS 

Rrply Ili lile Kiiic 


. 462 

The rrovisional r,ovcriii!n nt Aiuinmiiccs tlia! It Will ExiT>-ise A;¡t!i Tity iii tiv 
NaiiK' of \'ictor limair.icl. Seploinbcr ¿'K l>s59 4íaí 

EUct.jral Uw i. t a Xatiuiial A=:tinbly oí the Provincci of Modena, July 2'). 185'» +4 
Cûiur-cati<-'n oi tbe Klectora! Colleges, August 3, 1859 . . •'74 

The Assemhly nf the Pr 'viiices of Mt^lena Detlirone^ the Ho'.:«e of 

Hapfbur^r-Lorrainc. August 20. 1859 


The National As^emhly nf the Pr^vinrrs of Moilena Decrees the Union o: the 
Provinces with the Constitutional Monarchy oí Sar^liiua. A\¡g;ist 21, 185V . . 475 


Arpia! í.ir a Plehi'-cife. Jrlv 22. I«?") 


The Sar(hiiiaii Commissioiur Retires from OtTiec tiiat the \'"tr m;;y he I'fc, July 
is. 1859 •'"8 

The (Jovcrninn Council Announces that an Asscnilily will lie IleM. Anf;nst _'. 185'' . 479 

Instructions in Regard to the Aiipma.liint; Kluti^ns. AlIl;;'^t 8. 1S59 ... 4,S0 

Circr.lar Letter to the Otlicials of Roiiiai;na ICmpl'.asi/ing the lir;)ortar.ce of t!;e Aji- 
proachinR Elections. .\tit;ust _'_'. 1S59 481 

Convocation of the I'hctoral Con^tit'!encic^ of Ivoiuau'iia. Aiii;n~t J4. 1859 485 

Coiu.icatiiiii (.f the XatH'nal A>Mn;hIy ot Rotuaena at r.ido<;n.i. A">;;;~t -'5. 1859 4,86 

llecrei- nf the A^^cnlhly of R.nnayna I le|ii .siii^' the Temporal Power. 
September (>. 1859 ... 48(, 

Decree nf the National .Ns'etnhly <■! Romagna for Union with the Con?tititional 
Kingdom <if Sardinia, September 7. 18.59 . , ... 487 

Kr"!v of Kine X'lc.r I'ltiaiircl to th.- DelcLíaicí Pr. "^entina: the \'otc (if the People 

of Romagna 


Parn-a and Piaren.'a. 18.=0 

1 he S.irdinian ( In'.eriii.r Kivr-if~ i'l'Wir tu iiiiKefini Manfredi a^ I'mviMonal Clov- 
ernor, Auijnst 8. 1859 489 

('.■nvncation of the PeopK of Parma in Popular .\sii mhlies. for a Plehii-cit' . Aucust 
8. 1R59 491 

("oinocalion . f the Electoral Constit"encii ^ fiir the Election nf Deputies to a Rep- 
resentative Assembly, AuKUSt 30, 1859 494 

I.'ccree of the Representative .\s«emblv of the States nf I'arma llelhr.inine the llo-isc 
oi Rotirbon. September 11, 1850 495 

Dearer nf the Same \i«emldy fnr Union with the Cnii-titutinnal KiiiLtdnni cd Sar- 
dinia. September 1-'. !~^5'' 49^ 

Lnmbardv. 1859 

The t ontrecation ami the \lnnici))alitv of .Milan Attest the Unanimous Desire of 
the Population t» Renew the Pact of 1848, June 5, 1859 4oo 

The Cnminnnal Council uf .Milan Ratiiies the \'ote nf the Municiiial Cnm;r< t;ati "i, 
June 0. ls59 4'y7 

Proclamation u( Victor Emanuel to the People of Lomhardy. June 9. 1859 



It.m.i\n Pi nil-. ii¡ - I k 1Sí.Ii-1,v;(i '"■*''' 

Tn5.;an> an. I I'liiilia. IS'ii) 

Hisnatch oí 1 ,,rr| .I,,lui «li.sill to Fari Lowicv HritiO, .\„,i, . 

Con,a„„n. „,e Hn,.!, f,„,„.., „Í ,lu - 1.,,^ "òi,, "-W^l^^^l^l^V^;::;: ^' ^"'^' 4,,, 

"'Fr-àrv',!-;;;.,/"'" '^■^--"' •■■ ^'^ ■'-'- "•"-"■ Hru.h N,,n,.„ a, ,,.,„. 


Iroposit:on Made- hy Th..„vcnH t.. Tallrvra,,.! t,.. Trin.m.s-, , ,1, í , 

Uispati-li of Cav.iur to the Governors ot [-milia ami TiiM-anv iv, 

Proportion ,„a,i... .,■ th,- Fr.nd, r,ow.n,n,e,,, W^'àry !-; ,s"n' "''""'"' "" ,..„, 
Reply of Ri.-asoli, („o,ri„,r of In-Mny. .Nfan-h 4. IXr.i) ,,,,, 

I'rrr.;.. r,f .i,,. Tn„;an r,.,„ , nnient [Vo,la„n,ni; a I>l-li,M-,t,- on the (>-.-tr,M „t 

In.on w,.h the Con.tUn.ional Kin.don, „f Vu-.or Kn,an,„ I, Maích I. ¡Z 51.< 

t.-rree ■■! the f.overn„„;nt of l-nnha I rodamene a I'h-h,.r,te on th,- < )„r.t,o„ of 

In.on w„h the Con.tunt.onal Kincrion, of X'i.tor Fn.anMe!, Mar'h T \m¡ Mu 

l.t-!er of Cavour to V,llam..rina, Mini.tir of Sanlinia at Xaplrs, March. 1,^',/) ;_>; 

Bon-CompaKn, ReMi;,,. tlu Ortire of f„oer„or (.onerai. .March -', !h)(( ,^j,i 

'^ PeSr'Ma'h'l ''is;"" ' """" '■' ''""^"'^ '^--'■'- "" "-^ "f '■ ^ T.H,an 

■ ■ , 52^ 

^1m"' ';"■• ''"^''*'--'""" '■' '!"■ '--"¡'^ of the I'lH.Knte n, Knoha. Mar h Iv 

5 J' J 

ProrIaniat..n of the Re^itlis of the I'l.-hi^cite m Tuscany, Mar.h 15. I.SMJ S2'> 

Proeiam „ ,,," ,i,^. Ke,„i„ ,,f „,^, |.|,,,„.„.,„. ,„ (.„„ij^^ x,.^^^,,, ¡; ,^,,„ ;,,^ 

"ii":, n'":^rM;i "r:p^":'"^ "' ''' ^'^'^'^^"^ -• '^"'"- - -■■- ^.cor ^^_ 
"Ml!''M:rc^îs"*ix;''^ '""'"^^ ''"- "' '■"""=' ^"'^ ^^"""« ■• -^ '»-^ ^"^"-" . , 


."'avoy anil .\'i,c, US6I) 

"'S:;''.' A,:;;',r T'¡^'" ' '^""^'' ■" ^^^-^ - •^<' ^^p--*^ of ,he 

'^Mard,'3 !S6o'"" '" ''"'"'^ ■^^''■^"'« '" ""■ '^^■■-''I'le of SeIf-l»eicrn„nat,o„, 


^\CrMar'h VlK^';'"""'" "^ ''""'^ Anno„u,n, tha, ,h, r- w,ll he a Popnlar 
Dispatch of the lirit.h .\n,ha>.a,'or at Par,, to 1.,,,,, ,.,,,„ R,„,.,l, Mar.h 9. IK.o ,û 
Proclamation by the Governor ,,f Chanih. ry. .>I.,r.h 1(1. l,S6o 545 

P,v^e.,^f the Swi. Governnu-n, ,h,. ^n„,.. „: , c,,„, ,„ ,,.,,„.,. „_^^^, _ ^ 

V,eu. „f th. French Gowrnn. „, .„ the <w.s IT.te.t. Mar. h U. l«ó„ Í4I 

Swiss Prote-.! to Sardinia. March 14, l.v.d 

Councils of Savoy 1' 
.March ¿1, I80U 

iv a I 'epiitation troni the I' 

rovMieial and M'lnii ipal 

-luiK \j,.aiii-t ihe Scparati.ii ,,| ChahJais an,l I 

am ¡Km . 


1 1 1.\ 1 1'..\ 1 

Aliiirtss to \'ictur Eniamifl liy tlir .Miiiiii-iiiality of Nice. Protesting Against 
the l'rfip'K^iíl .\iiiH\ath'ii. Manli 1''. ÌXitH . 55S 

Nole< I-"xclianKt'<l Hetwein Swit.crlatìil, I r.iiuc ami SardiiDa, Marcii, 18')il - . Shu 

Treaty F!( twccn I"ram"e aiid Sar'üiiia fur tlic l'iiinn oí Savoy anil Nico with France. 
Sijincfl at Turin, March J-), ISWI ... 5f)'i 

I'roclatiialioii of Victor Ernannt 1 to ilu- Inhalntan!^ of .Savo\ aiiil Xico. .Xpril 1. 18'jiJ - 5ov 

.Spiedi nf \'ictor lúnamiel (.m ' ip<-'i"M tlie Saflinian I'arliani' iit. \pril J. IXM) , . 571 

Prnclaination nf tlic Provisinna! governor of Savoy, Xjjril 4. ISoO . 57' 

Proclamation of tlie Cioveriior Kcgmt of tlu- I'liy an^l I'ounty nf N'uc, .\i>n1 .-. IXon . 57-t 

.■\il<lr(-;s to tlie Sardinian I'arlianicnt bv tlic IVpntic-; I'.lected from Savov to tliat 
Pocly, .\pril 5, l.^rtl . 57(i 

{-'avonr .At-sures tlic Swi^-i (rc.rnnnrnt t!;at I'raiirc mil not tak.' Possession until 
after tlie T'leliiscite, .\pril 6. ISoo .... 57,'< 

Proclaniatiiin of tin- Provisi. .nal <i.i\. rn..r of lli.- District ..f Nice. Fixiniî t!;f I'ctaiN 
of the I'.Icctinn. .\pril 7, 18'i() 57'» 

Proclamation of the Syndic ..f tlie City of Nice. .Xprd ,>.!. l,~.!'ii) 5.S1 

r'r.i.-laination of tlie Svndic of the I'itv of Nice. Reear.liiii; Registration, \pril 8, 
V^tM ' 58.Ì 

I'roclamation of the «..Pernor Re^ent of the Pr..\in-e ..i rhanil.irv Reeardin;i the 

I'ctails of the lilection. .\pril 7, ^'^oll 


Tircnlar oí Instructions Tesimi t.. the Sxr.'li.- of Sa\ov hv .nc (i.ivernor. .\pril 9. 
I.-ifiil ■ ■ 587 

The Swiss Federal Cnincil Renews Tts Pr >ie-t <■' llic I'.uer-. .\pril 11. IS'iO , 5,-i,< 

rirctilars Sent '.y the Intendant Re:;eiit of I'a'icitiny t.i the Syndics. Cnninmnal 
Maaistrates, (iovernor-, ..f ("h.iritahle \~~. .ciati. .ns aii'l P-hlu iomctionaries, .\pril, 
I.S(,n 5"1 

The Vote of the t'oniitv of Xiic a^ \r.iioiiiice.' tv. the Ci'ir' ot .\ppeals, April J8. 
180(1 5''5 

Rf'tdt of the Plehiscitc ..f Sax.n a- IV.clainie.i Lv t!¡e Municipal Junta "f ('haml»rv, 
-\pril J<), ISdO 5''7 

The \'i>te of Savoi hv Districts an.l i '..niniiires. as Announ.'cd hv the C."irt of 
\ppeals, .\pril iO. l.SdO .-91 

Observations nf the President of the Coun.-il of Ministers on Presenting to the 
."Sardinian Chambers the lull giving l-'.\cciition l.i the Treaty .it T'lrin. May \1. 180(1 ooo 

Extract from Discussion Regardinjs the \'.iles ><\ Sa\.jy an. i Nice. Italian Chamber 
of lii'puties. May J5. ISi.o .... OU,? 

Statement of the Positii>n of Cireat I'.ritain Regarding the X'.te. M.iy 15. ISM) . . fjl5 

Report Ma.le to the Knipcror hv the M'nistcr F.ireiijn .Viïairs, Regar. liniî 
the Treaty of Turin. June 11, ISW) 017 

Senatiis-CiinMiUe unitiiiK Sa^oy and the lh>trict of .\"i. e t.. I'raiice, June 1-', I8fili '.!■' 

Sicily and Naples. 18<>0 

Ciaribaldi Assumes the Dictatorshij. of Si.ily, M.iv 14, l.'ioU ó2o 

The Sardinian Cunstitution is Proclainie.l tlie h'un.i inieiital Law ..f Sicily, .\umist .1 

mtì ■ . . . . 6-'i 

Cav.-iir presents to Parüament â Bii! for .\nnvxatijn hy Ríiya' Dr-rec -if t::-.-e 
Province? of Central and Southern Italy in which there shall he a Direct Popular 
Vote tor fnion, Ûctoher 2, 1860 tíi.) 

rnxTKX TS 


I'M. E 


PncIan,at,o„ „f ,l,e l'r„-l hc,a.„r „i S,.,ly L-rgn,« a Vote for r,„on, ( 15. ^ 

■ 'I'v 

Cim,Iar to ,he Governor, .f ,1„. I'rovnuvs R...aM„,^ the^Ce. Ocohcr 1',. 

■ ■ . ■ . . . f,,;s 

i-'onual .Mm,n. of t!;,- Kciilt of ,:,,. I'l, !„s>.,tf of ,l„. \,.;,,,o|„ai, I'row.ucs as I'r, 

'"c";íÍ^^,'^'"ín'il"" "'p'',' "' "■\!'l^'"-"'' ■" as A,n,o„m-..l !,v ,l,e 
L.Mirt ot Justice oi raliriiio. .\o\fii:hi.r -1. ISoO 

F'n-sftitati.iii of t!ic t'Miisciu- ,,f .\a|,li~ to \ 



"xlnlî;:;';"'!^^" :'''"'"''"^ "'" '•■"■ ■'• "-■ ^-'■'■-' -> Siciüa,, fVoM,.s 



M r liiuiii;!. I. \",,vtinInT 7, IS'jl) . . o48 



"¿^^ci,;;:"'!;' ,l:<r"'""" "' "" ^'■^'■"■'"- '■— - - 'I.' K,„„,o,„ „f u.U. 


I'mljria and tlie Mar.-lies, 1800 

''prírU'^,^';[ía-;.^:i;7:;.^;;^^^^^ '"•"••-• - -..n,... fo. „„. ... 

. '):?n 

Appointmem of Gioacclimo I'oi.oH as Coi„n„\.i,,,„ r f .. . ì ; i- , ■ 
tier Ì2. 1860 M ■> as .. .nii.ii-ion, r („„.ra! tor I tiil.ria. ^cpttrii- 

rn^,, of ,He Royal Cot,„„issio„cr ,o ,hc IVo,,!. of ,h,. Marche.. Jl. 


Convocation of the I'op.tlar Assembli, s „Í tl,c IT, . i,„ .-s of T 'ntlTta. ( )cto|,er Jl. IS'.o 66^ 

"Wn^rt/^;'" '^'^:■^"^"';• ';'^'--" - "■• ''-vinces of ,!,e March,.. 
'^l""s alíüT ISoo"; '^r^":' ':' '!"^ '■'^-— "^^ ¡•r-.-cs .n r^hna. Xovcn,' 
'T'tsfii' "' •^'^^■^I"^"'-'^ "f the Plebiscite of the Marches ani .f ftttbria. VoecoK,., 

'" t'-o Italian St.iti, ! ,cr, tiihcr 17, l^-. , 



J-', 186(J 
Koyal Decree of Annexation of th. Mar, ' ,s ,,. ,¡0 Ita 
\'cnctia, I860 

. ■.vnvontion Briwccn Austria ano i-ratu-c t,.r the ( essmn ,,f \Vn,.t,-, ' \ , 

t.. France. S^ned at Vietina. \,„;:„, _'4 IS'., ' '' ' ^ ^ ' ''\ -„ 

_ ■ ■ ■ . 1}/') 

Trcatv ,,f Pc:,,-. I'., o. \ ■ ,r:-, ■ ,-,i i,.i,. ^ ■ ,. 

-tria .,i,'I Italy. >i.i-'nf,l at \ unna. ( Vt..hrr .1 1,*./, m\ 


xxii LI »XTEXi'S 


ki'¡iort liv lile Presiiltnt of the Ctmncil to Victor Kmamiel Rornmniciidiiig tiiat a 
I'Uliisciti.- 1)1; I Kill 111 till- \'tiictiaii I'r'niiKCb. llctulK-r 7, l.S'j'j ... 083 

Koyal Decree LiunokiiiK the I'"|iiilar A^M'iiihlic-. m tlu' \'< iietiaii !'ra\iiici's. 
I'lililisluil Ovtoliir l'I. ixt», ... (:Sb 

Ii'niial Minute nf the Drüvirv ut Wnctia to the Venetian Antliorities hy the 
I'rcikli Ciiiiimi>sioner. Sigiieil at Wiiiee. Oclnher V). lSo6 ... 68'' 

Formal Minute of the Kcstilt of the Pieliiscite of the Wnetiaii aii'l MaMiuai I'rn- 
\iiicc-. Uetolicr .7, 1800 . 0V4 

Kiiyal iJecree I'nilint; Veiittia t'> the KinKdoni of Italy, N'.nem'Der A, ISriti . 7U1 

Katificalion of the Decree of Union, January JU. 18()7 /HJ 

Koine. 1S70 

Proclamation "I L-nlTiia .\lt'-r the lakiiifc' ul Koine. !-e;itet!'.!'er Jn. 187'J . . 7IJ-* 

I'-leelioii of a rri>\ Niiniliiixtiatue (liiima Ijv a Popular .Xs-iiiililv. Sinteniher 
J_'. 187U 7u5 

Cadorna ap|>■'lIit^ a I'rm^iuiiai ' uuiiia. .-^ejUinin r .i, l>i/i) . 71X1 

Iiifpaidies of Mr. Jcrvoise to Lari Gram ¡Ile, Septemher ¿7 and 2S. l»7i) , 7il7 

I'roclaniation of the Kuma*-i Giunta Fixing the Date and Form of the Plehisritc. 
.Septi inlier JV. 1S70 .708 

Kiik> of Procedure for the Plebiscite, Septetnher Í). 18/0 . 7Ü9 

.\iithentic Copy of the Statement of ;he \'otes Cast in the Leonine Citv, Octobtr 
.'. 187(1 . ■ '. 713 

lorinal .Minnie of the Result of the Plebiscite, October 6. 1870 715 

Formal Minute <i' the Preioiitatioii of the Plelii>cite to Kin« Victor lunamiel II, Oc- 

toher 'I. 1871» 720 

l<o\al llecree In'-orporating the Uotnan Provinces in the Kingdom of Italy. October 
V, 1870 '¿A 

.\Ioi u.wi-v .\.\ii \V.\i.L.\i iii.\, 1857 

L litiriiice ■'! \ leiiiia.— Extracts from Mcmorandnm Coniiminicatcd by tlic Pleni- 

potiiiiiarie- oi .\u>tri:i Ì .ind Cireat Uriiair ' ' ' rtsliakolf, Ueccmbcr 

.», |8¿4 ... . . , . 726 

¡>evelo|.iii. nt of the Firj.1 I'uiiit of the Mcmoraiid.iiii. .March 15. 1855 .... 727 

;'.,..... I 1*1. ti., (...n.' .! ,f' \ !■ , ,r It III.' I . .ii-MÌr Ol, 11 ,it il-,' Prir,. in (litil's 

' 7JK 

■ I th' MeiiiTaiMMti K- iinaiiy .Xiloptci, .March 
. '. - . . .' 7Ji) 

! Protocol 8. wiJ 22, February 25-April 

. IVaiue. fireai I'rii.iin, Pnisnia. Russia, Sardinia 

,U Paris. ^!.■I.h ,in. m.V, ,741 

. ;-íü 

.ind nt Moldavia. 

• --'. . ■. . 757 

'.'. 2$ anri 34 of th«« Ffimt^fün 
Wallâthia - to 

. . . 76« 

o )\Ti-:x'is 




A(líirc-s ni the M )!ílauaii I'atriiit> tu tlir Ijiru|ican C'-mim:ssioii at F.iic!iari-i. 
I'ri>t(.'stimí .\('am>t the l.iectoral Lisls l'ublishctl hy the Laniiacaní, June >')-2u, 1,S.^7 Si).' 

MoüioraiKliiiu liuerprctiiiK' l'ie ririuan of Cmu leaíii'ii nf the I>i\.im> '¡4 h lime 
11-17. 1,S57 ... ... SiW 

h'inii III (Certificate of Lieeiimi I're^cril>^(l }•;- the .M,i¡ ì.r. mu < him i ¡l'iuiit l'ine 
I2/J4, 1S.-7 .SU 

Iileiitie N'i-te .*^elit tu tlu Pnrte hy the K. jTe-eiUatiies nf I-'raiue. F'ri^^ia. Rii>Ma 
aiul Saniinia, June J5, 1857 ... . , 814 

Prntest aiH KcsÌRtiation of .Alexander Coii/a as [Veteet oí 'i.ilat' J me '4 liil\ 
í>. lí<57 . HIS 

N'ntes of Lord Stratfonl de Rodelilïe and Üar.m fnikesch-Ostcn to Ke^ehid 
Pacha OlllJo^'llH .AdjuiirMnient of the Molila\ian l".leeti.'ii>. July 18. 18.^7 SI8 

.\dilress of the Mptropolitan of Moldavia to tin- I'tironeaii ronimission at lUieharest 
July 10/22. 1857 . KJi) 

Identic Note of .\ali-( -i aiih I'aclia to 'I- K'..,r,,, ..,,.,,;, 
Rii<.'ila and Sardinia, jiily .^0. 1857 

ii>^e. Prussia. 


Décret' of the Caiinacam of Wallacliia KeuMrilihL' K'eï^trat mi, JuK l.V.'O. 1857 SJJ 

Identic \o|e of \ali I'aeha to t!ie R i.n M!iiatl\e~ ..f F"raii-e Tr R'is,ia .-(iid 
Sardinia, .XiiKHst 4. 1857 821 

Manifctn nf the Central ("oiirniiiee <.i I'.'-, ii ir»-t ( Walliulii.i i. \iiu' -t .' 1\ 1857 SJo 

f>isnati-lie« of \.di rVlia to the Caitnacam of M,i!daMa. (^rderini; a N'ew Fleelion 
Aiiiti'st 24. 18^7 ....... ,?:« 

Wie of Tnion \vit!i Wallaehia Passed ' ■• ^'■.' l'r,,<if :i,i .'; •, m' M,.|.i.nia i 
7. 1857 ■ . . . S.W 

Vote of t'nion with Moldavia Passed hv the .\ssimhlv nd line of Wallaehia Oc- 
tober 9. 1857 ' ' 8J1 

F.vtraets from Report on the Re«r.ijanÌ7ation of the Principalities of Moldavia and 
Wal'achia. \ u> (' e r,,,,;..,,., ..f Pari^ '>v l!ie l":r..i,. an l^,,iireisMon 
.\liril 7. 1858 ' Rt.l 

\'ote of Wallaehia I I. tir.i; \¡. satnh r luiin (on,- a I'rnire .,t Wall.ii i.a larv 
24. 1,850 .'837 

I MAS lsL.\Nns. 186.Î 

Vote of the Ionian Assembly for I'nion with Greece. January 27. 1850 «18 


Petition of the Ionian .\»sembly to the Qticen. January 30. 1857 

.•\ddre*» of the Lord Hiijh Commissioner on Deliverinp tl-r Reti'v of the Oneen t > 

the Petition of the .Nssemhly. February, 1850 

llispatch from Sir TI '^t-rlc K C R . tie Rud" T 
February 21. 18.'" 

" ' ■■ ■" "resele e 1 i.i t^e Ionian .Asiembly. Marcii, iRtil 

Í War'iiî^c by the I.- rd M e'l ronimi'o.ioiier i 
.\!i;.:i 12. ISfil 

ProroRation of the , .;, , , ;. ¡, ,i 

Ili»|.3iili ■.( Fart R>!«srll to fbe IV^li^h ReurfSfnf.ü 

:i isiiail Ut I.i 




. 841 


Inntx I- 

on the One Part, and Henmark, 
i.f Prince William of Denmarl 

xxiv U i\l I'lX IS 


rriitoc'.l <if ill.- ('••lU'irtiKi. lUl'l 111 I. Uli. loll l.y l'!fiii|iotiiitiariC5 ui Austria, l-raiuc. 
drrat ISritain. I'ru-Ma ami Kii~~ia, .\ni;ii~t 1, li^')3 850 

Adilrt-ss <>! til. l-.ird HIkIi C"iiiniis>iiim r ■■! ihe I'liitid Slates .if the I.iniaii Islanils, 
to tin- l,cj!i*lative As^ciiilily <>i the- Sai.l Stati-s, l_.MU..k((l t..r tlu-¡i..-c .1 
\'iitiiiK uii tilt fJiKsliun u{ L'ili. ill t^Si 

Urcrii- lit tlic Ionian Asscml>lv i..r I'lii.«!! wiili tin- Kiih;.1.hii .ii lin...', Scptciiilier 
2.1 1863 «53 

Tnatv r.fUMiii .Austrin. I'raiut'. I irrai llritain. rr'.i>>ia ami Kii^sia. Ri i^anluii.; the 
I'liKiii of ilif liiiiiaii lslaiiil> III tlic Kintiiliiin "' (■n-t.M.-. Si>;iif.l at l...n.l.iii, 
Nui-mlicr 14. l'!03 854 

Tnalv I'xtwttii (¡rcat Ilrit.iin. I'raiue ami Uus.-ia on the One Tart, and <'ireeci- on 
the < Itlier l'art, I<e>|"-<tinn the V'liioii oí the Ionian Island- with tin- Kir.wl.'uî of 
(ircice, Sisneii at Lomlon. March _">. I.^'i4 SOU 

Till; Si iii.K.swK. yt KSTiiiN. 1S48 

.\iMri»s of llic Proxi>innal (io\ernmnit of Sihlt>HÍv; Holstein tu the Peoiile of 
I'cnmark. I'roposiiiK a \'iite of North Schleswi>{ as to L'nion with Denmark or 
C.erniany. M.iroh 31, 1848 864 

IVoli^t I', t! . I'r.a isiunal lioM rnineiit of Schlcswin-Holsti in Aeainst the Proposal 
• 1 ! \orlh SchU'swiy Aecor.lii to Nati.inality, Made to the 

(i< ;lie Priis>iaii Minister for P .-ikii Affairs, .May 17. 1848 . 8W) 

Kei'lv .'t the I'nis-ian Miiii-trr of ForeÌRti Affairs to the Provisiunal lìoverntiieiit 
of the Dili hies. May l'i. 184« 870 

Keply of the Provisional («nerniiieiu to the Prussian Minister. May 22. l.'<4,s i<71 

( orres]« .iiilence Hetween ihe llritish Sicretarv .if State for I'oreiiin .\tTairs ami the 
Prussian Miiiisiir in l.oiulon, ('.inieniiiiK the Prussian F'ro|io-,il ..Í .i Di.'si. n .f 
SiliIeswÍK Accordili« to Nationality, May and June, 1848 . .'^74 

I strait fr '■•■ " • •''. r- \ •■ ■■,' \sseniiil\. .-.isM..n ol June 

'». l,-<4,s tí79 

liispatili of till 1 mull Miuistir of lortiK" AiTairs lo ilie French Plenipotentiary 
,it l.oii.lon, March .M, 1S(.4 883 

I'rotocoK of Conferences Held al I-on.l .n I'.ilueell (ireat Hritain. .\itstria. Detiniarls. 
France, (iermaiiie Confederation, Prussia. Kns«ia. and Sweden and Norw.iy, for 
the Keeslalihshiiii nt of Peace Hetween .\nstria, Prnttta and Ik-nmark, ".^pril 
J.S to June 22. 18(i4 .... 886 

I reaiy of Pe.ico Retween \iistria aiicl I'rnssia on the One Part ami Denmark on 
ili4 (iiiiri i'.irt. Sinned at \'ietiiia. Dctobcr 30. 1864 933 

If'-' Itttwcen Pr'i««is and Austria, Sicncd at Prague, AitRust 23, 1866 . 935 

Pni- • • Dcnniai iir a PIr' \orth Schleswig. Inne 30, 

t.sli , , . . <'<7 

:i'ia-l)nni;arv and (iermanv. Modifviiv^ Af 
Mil Ociohvr if. 187.>* '.4J 

:> l'i..l.,..i,¡ . 
t.i the I'nil 



P'rifr <:í the Treaty Norumfaüviiii;; tlio A!.t'\< 
V.r. Veaman to Count Frijs. Mav JK, 1807 
Mr, Vraman to Mr Scwanl. June IT. 18r.7 . . 
Mr. ^^a'llall t" Mr, Scwanl, .hily IJ. ^.>^),7 
Mr. 'i'taiiiaii l^i Mr. Scuar.l. July JJ. 1;'(.7 
Mr. \'caman to Mr. Scuard. .\iigi'-<t 17, 1S^7 
.Mr. ViariMii to .Mr. Stwaril, Scptfinln r _'7. iM'v 
Mr. Vcaiiiaii to Mr. Siwanl. ()ct"'"r 1. I,'^'i7 . 

Inclc'Slirc: -Mr. Ka.i-lotf to .Mr. Nt,i;ii,i'i, i i- t,.l,r 
.Mr. N'c.iiiiaii l^ .\ir. >tviaril, (Ictoin-r ,', 1ín(i7 
.Mr. Waiiiaii to Mr. Seward, Octolur 7. IHü7 
.Mr. Stward to Mr. ^■^alnall, (liiolur _'4, 18(i7 



. 949 
. 951 
. 953 
. 955 
, 956 
. 95'j 

1. is. 


L ikotiiiilctdl Treaty lletuem the L iiited .States of .\mcrna and llis Majesty tlic 
KIiil; of JJeiiniarU Lonierniiiy the Ce.'.siim of tlic Ulaiids of St. Thuiiias atiJ St. 
John, Sijiiied at CopeiihaKeii on Uttober 24, 18()7 9w) 

.1 i: .. rioi>-d s,;,i^.. 



I'vlraols i>o;ii Lorresp itiilciiec I'elucen .Sicrciary Siu.irl 
Ai^eiits ill the islaiid.s, Dctoher J6-l)eoei)iber 4, l.■^o7 

■Ir. Siward t« Uevereiid Charle* Ila«lcy, Oct"l)cr J(>, I.m.7 

Mr. llaulcy to Mr. Seward, N'dvtiiilicr I.l. lSfi7 .... 

' r llawk'> to Mr. Seuard, .November J-'. l8o7 .... 

.Mr. Hawley to Mr. Seward. November _'9, 180/ ... 

Mr. ilauley to Mr. Seward, Xoveiiiljer .ill, lSi)7 o,„, 

.Mr. I'erkins to .Mr. Seward, Deiembir 4, liio7 '/>,7 

Inelostirc; Koyal I'roilamatioii to the liilial>ilaiits of llie Islands of St Thoiiia^ 
and St. John, tk'tober J5, lN)7 yoy 

.\ddre5> i.f .Merchants of St. I'homas to the UanUh Comniis»toner . . 97(J 

Proposed .\dilitional .Xrticle.s to the Convention Itetwceii Denmark ami the Lnitr.l 
.Stale, i.t .\nieriea .Made at Cüpenhanen on October 4, Ifio? ."l 

Letter from .Mr. Seward to .Mr. IlaHrlrv, Utfccmhcr 16, 1867 

The Resnlf of the !\Icctiot, 

Kvtract fmrn the Si. Tliom.,, l „¡,ii,li-. Jaun iry II, I.I'.n 'j74 

Mr, I'erkins to Mr. Sevvanl. tanuarv 1.1. I.SivS c,-; 

! Ill-: I'IKIOI) Ul- 1K7I 1914 
■ ■ >' i 11 "1 oMiv. \'\i-r IvMf^. 1877 

l"ri-.iiv riiivv.,,! Froire nnd Sweden :■■ i,.; >-. ;-,.,,,. 

Irt> to France. Signed at l'ari», .\uriiM in, 1877 

• .ai \i:ir v-i: I'lcMsiile. Rcgardinn ihr Drlail 
- France. (Vtoht r M. 1877 

■t of the Bill \ 
•le« by Dttkr I >' 

•ir I'reai 
lister of i 

Tilt iji xsTli .n. ]m3— '^°' 

I•;Mral■t^ from tlic 0« lictwtin tlic Secretary uí át.ite uí llit L lunil 
.Static and the L mti-J StaUs Minisior l'I. iii^utcntiary t.) Chili.-, lune J« lt<S' 
July ^. 188.) • y^5 

Mr. l-'rclinHliiiyscn to Mr. I.c.);an. }\un- H,. IMS.' ^^5 

Mr. Lilian li> Mr. [•Vflin«hiiysi'n, Oclohir J'l. LSiiJ ... ijs? 

Inclosnri-: .Mr. Locali to .Si-ñr,r .\I<l:'iiati', i'ct,.h,r IS. ISSi , us? 

IVacc I'rulocul üitwicn Novna and I«!. sia> . .,71 

Treaty „{ IVa.i- an>I l-'riciul.ship lietwftii Chile and l'era. .Sii;ne.l at \ii.-..n. < )^tn!.er 

-"• I****'' . ' (/j2 

The .limeiic/ Aial .Sular I'mluol, Signed Jainiar> 2<>. W»4 '.n^ 

Uneomplete.l Secret Treaty Ilelueen Cliile and \:„\n\2L. Signed May IS, IS''.S V)7 

riic l!illiiiKlinrst-I. atorre I'mtuoil. Signed .Xpril Id, 1898 ioih) 

Treaty of I't-ai'i-, I'riuid^liii). and ("..nmi.r.. !^i.,,., ,, ;: ,■'■.■. , .,,.1 

at SanliaRo. Octoher ^), 19(1) ¡JH,.; 

''"■'V/m,'" ifwT '*'* ^"'*"' ^■«'■''anKed l:ctw.en tue Uìantelieries „í l'.ru and ut Chile. 

I «J.'>-|*/(IH Ifil2 

Ihe MiniMrr of I-ureiRn KeLttinns ..f I'eni ti the Minister of lorei«n Relations 
.'t I hile, xvith IJHcretKe t.. the Treaty ni l\acc Iktueon Chile an.l Molivia. 
l-ehriiary 18. VHM jqj2 

The .Minister of Foreißii I' t rhiU- m th,. Mli l.t.r f I ..r..;„., Relations 

»f IVrn. Proprtsing a Co . .; ce, March 15. 1905 .' . ' JOH 

The Minister uf l"oreÍKn Relations of Pern to the .Mhh-i.t «t I .rc-n \ITairs 
"f Chile, .Ncccplin« the Proposal for a Conferenee. .\pril 25. 1905 . " 1021 

C.nlidential rommniiication from the Chilean Minister of Foreiiin Affairs to Sr 
St.)ane. Spellai I.nvoy of Peru, March 25. 19<I8 . . ' ¡njs 

Reply of Sr. Scoarc, May 8, I'HW mj,; 

Snmniary of the Chilean and Pcrnvi.m iTr,t>,,.aN for tl'c II„!dinc .il th,. Plehiscite 

with ()h<ervations by the Peruvian Forcifín Office. Deccmher 23, 19()9 . . . .' 1046 

'''■"'io I9P ""'''"* ''■"■ f'''-'''^^''^- ^Is'i^' by '''<- I'TUvian Government, ^■o^ ember 


Trih .Ski-aration of .Vorwav kiiom Swedk.n, 1905 

,\ddres. lo the Kills- hy the P.ilcs.laK P.^slponin« NVeotiailon. Reu-ardintf Separation 
28 iwi ■ -mnafth,' ■ ,sian People. July 

i!K l.> li.i .\..rweKÌan I)ei..,riniriil ul Justice RccnnimeniüiiR a 
rway. Api.rj.ved hy Kes.dntion ,,f the Nurwesian (.-vertnncnt of 
• ■ July 2/. 1903 . . ,„5, 

Oralt of Reiîulalions for the Plel.isi-ite - ilh ih. Alwve Report . 1 i^t 

..r.nlar..t liMnietions f,o,„ ,1,,. I lepartn,, „• ■ .e Resistratlof, Oft. 

'' I iî N -1 Il..>i..,, |„lj 29, looj |,^^^^ 

■ Feelf,ja,tica| Affair« to the Clergy, July 2Q, l<itj5 \i\,.>) 

"^""Tl/zi %5""'" >• Rcwrding the Plehi,cite Held Au. • 





Chronological List of Cases of Change of Sovereignty in which the Right 
to beli-Deternîination Has Been Recognized 





I'tKIOli (IK rilK I KKM II KkvoI.I TION 

\^v^v...u .uhI t'lc C.nitat \-, aiiiirscM t., I>.,ih r after ites 
Savoy annexed to 1 ranee alter a plelii^ ite 
Nice annexed to KraiK-e alter a pkl.isrite. 

Tlie ll.lyian Cotmnnnes and I.i.y,- aiip. se.l t.. [-ranee afler plehisit.s. 
Connnnncs of the l'alai,„ate a,.,] M..-.- annexed ,„ l>an.e ait-r ple'.v.t.s 
The of ^hllllan^en and (.ene^a annexe.l to 1 nnuc aff. r .otes .,{ ot„cn, 

I'nion ,.K 1S-4-: isril 

The Italian Plel.i,eite. of 1K4S^ I.orn),ar.l> . Wnet^a, I' Modena I'.a.en/-. and 
l<e«L,o ann.xed f. the KiiiRdom of Sardinia after plebiscites. "•" '"•''^' «'"' 

TPe S.hlesvviK Qnestion. I'roposaU l,y I'rus,ia and the (iermanic Conted-Tat,..,, for 
the division of S.dilcswnr hy a plehiveite in Northern Schleswit' """^""'""■" '■" 

Keorgani/ation of ,|,e Prinripalities. The Treaty ..•- Paris e.tahhsl,,,! , 
'''ií^.rS ""'''""■'' '""" ^ ••' '''" ''■"-'- ^'•■''■■- '•■••"-, P,a,e,„a. and 

I'.. I rMilM . i'ar-na. Modena. KomaKiiai, .Naples 
annexed to the Kin«'lom of Sardinia alter 




The Italian Plebiscites of ISfiii Ins., 
Sicily, the Ma.clies, and I n.hria 

Savoy and Nice annexed to IVanre after plebiscites Tie Tr.atv of T,,r,„ „.„..I 

The Ionian Mands .cded by f.reat Britain to Greece after a vo... ,,i fl, I • i . 
Vse,nbl> o, ,be Islands, espeuallv elected In ,, alilK ,„tïr ; • 1 ' Pr f ■ ' 1 "," 
.niidnn siKiied A„«nst 1. and the Tr. atv of London s. né teem be 14 SM ! 

:-e •)"^;;:,i:;^í;;ie,:S'^/'í;:^'Li:^r''- • ----Ä'-'^'^^iie 

''Sie:.'!:'"''' -""•'""■ f""f-""-" "' ''•""- f- tl.e seiHenien, of ,he l,.n,sl, 
Vcnctia annexe<l to Italy .itler a p|rl„>,,-,te 
"'\nii;,s,'''V; '*',£"''""" V' ■'^'■^"> '"■ •'^='«'"' '«••^^•■"' I^rnssia and .\„s,ria smned 

\f*T(l ihr I it'. 



'•f V 

'■iMted lo i' 
l'huioi. OK ls7l \'n-i 

: exed lo Franee after a plrbixcitc The Treatv of Pari« 
einlade the cession eonditional on the consent .,f the 

'^";"i,;:';;'* íVTacnran.r.Uira"íf.'""" '"^•""" ""'' »"^ P"" l-- '^^ '- » 
S.j¡;.,i o'tiir ¿0 ' * ''""^'^" Pf"*<»ces occupa hy cVdU-. .,f,ef ten 

i e >.paration of Norway from Sweden l.y a plebiscite ; Norway 




Bibliographical List of Principal Works Consulted 

./w.-rí,„„ /,„„„«/ ,,/ lutrnuil,.„ujl /.„av Xew York, l'.n;^, 
AM'I'I. .1. l- llisl.nrr ,/,■ /„ ,v;-,î/»/,,>„ j;',y«.H,„ü/.sv. i'an.s. lf(44, 

'-'"».<.■,/,..,/..„.,•»„.„,/„. H,s,o,re ,n.^r„l, ,l,s .li;rrs .„IS. l'ari. 1^5M.,.S. .4v„U. 
A.AX.,o-R, w. (¡AETAXo. .V/cri., ,c,».//,„rM„a/,. ,/.•/ rc,.u, di ItaUa ( I848-IS9S,. I.-iorcnc.. 

/ ,/.:v. ,/,r/..m.,.„/,„..,. .,..„,.// ,y,. ,,,./,„„„„,, ,,./,;,,,„,,. ^, ^,,, _,, ,, .^_^._.,^_^, ^^ |,^^^^^ 

HNN.-...:r, lK,:„KK,.. 77„. /.,/.-,>/ /C,//;,,,,, //, ,,,,.,„,. x^« York 19.),, ^ „.,s 

vols.>, „Í,,,,. ,/./«, ,., ,¡()ra„¿,,., (. arpeiitras. IS41, J 

'"■''K'Îi^rîi"'^^^ ''"'■^^- '■■ '''-' ""-"."-"../ '„.lif,,. Tra„sla,..I l.v M. C I..,nlv. 
I!"VFn..s.,. i/„„„,/ ,,, ,,,„, ,•„,,,„,„•„„„, ^„,,,.. ^,,^„;, ^,^.^ ^.^^^^ p,^^.^ j^^_^ 

""'Îs;;Î:<S' T" ^"""" ^'"'""^ '"^'-- '''^ ^■•'-- '- ^' -' '/■. AT///- W.V/.., nr,„.cls. 

"""InNic: hm:'y:(tp!m.'''''''''' '' '' '''•'""•■• '''•'■"' ''"'^'"' <>•• droit iMer„a,innal 

IV.t-«r.EO,s. LÉON. Pour h sociétf de, „alio,,.,. Paris. 1010. 

R«.AK.Tr,.. II I.. Th. Co„si!u,lio„ nf „.e Kw.d.,,, „f y..r,,ay, I.on.lon m: 

' 'a.rñW:''i;;,"ri^Í ■' ""'-"^ "' '^^'•"^'' ^"W- ^"- Tra,„Iu.ion hy Jame, XV. 
. K\Ri Jo<íAs. Kroiherr von. .U,>m-ii. ttilutinñal Rù! ■ 


l'..';.í.-n. . ;-, . fiihlith,;! •ill, 1/ /. ,' • ' ' ' ■'"'«•'•í'"»« "V thnali.r 

""• "«'-"' ''- '-" '"o;;;';:;;';,-;t.l;;;;r^L;í;;3^,;:",^S¿/^'""^'' """""-■ ■""' -" 



lUn.I' H ,!.'.\|'!!!C \!. i.|s-¡ 

C.MK)i/s\, KA,t\F.iK. I.a lih,-ra:i.iii- di A'. ;i;.i uclftinn.' l^To ,-,/ 1/ /-/,7m.!. i/ ■ J.! i-.l l'iirm 

Cm.vij. (AKl.ij--. !\-rcchi,, nuli i> Hill l,-''iü,: \ r"''' ' '■<■ ¡."r •(■., v ím,>u,¡ 1 \,,N 
l'.iri>, liVi.iJ 

■ /•»■ (/'»i/ i-.,-, í.n.;¡.-,,,ji !,i,,>„ii,,- ,1 i-ilUi,¡!ií . /'Ilici. .ii.<: .M," ,(.■ iiutjrujiic d-ò 
tr'>!:rt's ili- la .'<-ii-i¡<¡- du lìrnil dis ì:iIIs. .VI c.I. l':uis. 18(i8 SI 4\,il, 5th fi l'nris 
1«W). (. viiU. 

lite i. amhndKi- Mi>d,-iii Uislor\, plaiiniil \<\ tlu- l:iu- Ij i.l Acton. < iiiiilin.lei.' ■ Inflan. ¡ ), 
I'.;!).'-. 14 vol». 

(.IIARI'KSNK, PlKKKK. Lcs f^rtiiids I'l'isiidi's dv ¡it rc-rlutiflit dans .¡ ,1 ¡e i I'lu/al 
A. ¡Kilon, I'JIll. 4 M,lv 

CliIM.A, l.ri..i. L,i;,r,- edit,- cd vuditc di Cnmillo („■:,■.■<••. niccutc ,-d i.'/:i.t;r<!/,- ,¿.1 / ;ii^'i 
C /lia/il. Turin, 1883-«/. b \oh 

' IUI K. Minisiçrin ile rdacioni's f.xtcriorcs. C.Diiioiit.i. í.m¡,-í .a;iíí'iu./ü.í .);í.,- I. is dm il- 
U-iiiii lie Cliili- \ il l'i ni v aUuiuKí anttccdentis suhrc la tui-sliiin uV ïii.iii v .!'i.,i, 
l'/ii--l'JID. .M t(I. Santiano (le Cliilc, l''U. 

Meniiiria di'l Miiiislcrin </,• rclationcs i-.itcrinres. t'ctul'rv Jr VHl nilw de ¡''lì. SaiitUi,-.. le 
Clule. I9I7 

(■|n y' KT, .Amili li Mammi /,,■.< ci'm.-.t de lu rmiliili^ni \..] 4 ./,iii, ;//■,! ,■/ /; c'iiqm-ie 
de la liel<iii¡iie. 17''_' l?';,! XHI 6. I.!:xféditi, ^ii ,/,• ( ¡..i/i».- \',,l 7 U.iv.-'i..- ;/'^.»- 
/rv-.'. Pari.s. l.S'dl 

Ci.KR.'j. Ai.EW.viiUK Jkii.w IIenky iik. Recueil des traili s de ¡a ¡'ruine, puhlu- i.nis tes 
aiisl-icfs d'I Miiiistére des ntfiiires .'Iraii-^i-res Paris. 18(.4- 

Tiiriii. ISJJ lyui 117 

Collccwne celerífera delle lein/i. decreti, ií/ricíi.iii c circolari 

D.\MÉ, pHÉnÉKir. lìisli'ire de la k'nuiname co-.tiemf. '.m.c licruis l\iz,r,cincnt des princes 
mdiijcnes jusqu'à nos jours (JS3¿-lfOO). Paris, 1'iiKi 

DiniiKPiK. Antomn. Hisli^ire difl^maliqiie de VEur.^p, derms ioii: ertine d< Cmi.'r.-s :!.< 
l'ieniie jusqu'à la fermature du Conqrés de Berlin (1SI-1-1ÌÌ7.1) Paris, 1891. 2 vols. 

La Defensa dr Chile. Buenos .Xyres, .ArRciilina. Tin- t'irst issue is .latid [.inimry 4. 1919 

Dn.llMZK. Ji I.K.s. /.,. di'miiialioH jraihnise en Belt:iq:ie <i l.i lin dn XV ¡II' et .1:. commence- 
ment du XIX' Si. de. Rnissils. 19i)8-12. 6 \ols 

lH.s( NMfs. F. I'.. and !.. Rexaii.t. h'eeiieil inlernulioriii des traites du XX' siede, eonlouin. 
iensenihie du droit cnntentionnel entre les étals et les sentences arbitrales Paris. 
1901-,'vr.NhX Fk\STZ Ci.ÎMKVT RÉMÎ. C'Iiì^j ./.■ dr,<il luterralhim: pul lu l'in, l.'?94 
.Vd ed.. 1905. 4lli ed . 1910. Ci.ftMKNT, La question des l'rmcifautés Panu''iciines. Perpignan, l''Ki. 

Deu-rième conférence intcmationaU' de la faix — La ll.ixc !'■ -u-.n-ìH oct'hre l'io? .*ctes 
et dueuwenls. Minislere des afaires .'tranaéres. Th.- Ilawc 1907. ,1 vols 

Van Urtj(M. Cil \ri t-.5. l'ici^s'tudes r, ;Ui':ius du tnu:,ir tenip' rei de< r<ire< d.- IT'^n a «■■. 
ioiirs. Lille, 1890, 

Divergier, J. P , "■ . 
«ill Conseil . 

:i:l" .m 1 IS. de, rets, iirdonrances. renlemeiis et ,j;it 
r les éditions otTuiclles du Louvre Paris, Í.S34 19(14 

n(,AV\. Rafaf.1.. ¡he ¡Ji'i.i ond .ìriea question. Historical antecedents. Piflomalic act;:n 
rrfsent State ■( tne affair. Translated from the Sp.inish c<lit¡..n l>y F-dwyn C Reel 
Santiaeo de Chile, 1900. 

Erasmus .(j 1..:.' flur Fdited hy J, \V. Mackail. Uostuii, 1907. 

RE, F'a «íí 

mi'Ue' Hi i I .iiisi.iied 
Antoine, Paris. 1885. 

'^'""''- V^ uteau droit international f>ublie sunant Irs besoins de la .i: -Vi .gf..)« 

tnoúei II, i i.oisi.iicv! by Pradicr-FodiTi-, Pans, l«(i9, M e. I translated b\ iliarlcs 

i'.liü.h M,k\l'lll( Af. I.IST xxxi 

France AnnaWs du Senat .•/ ,/.. ¡a L l.amOrc ,/.-,: ,i.^„,.:. ,s,.,„, ,„ „„y„„„, ,/, ;,-, 

. C/U-i-íí,- ihiltoital,' au /,■ .l,',.,;i(.-„r Ulli: rriii Paris ITKO cri 

/•■»™a/ „ffinVA > It is ci.H hero a,s U,,,//;;,;; /oJ,-fIw: ' "'^' "^^■""' '"'^^ '' 

(iiAroMhTTi. f;. /.•.■!.i,.v.iK.., rfi .Vfrf. Ar; ,„• ,/,-.( rf, 

.•M- »inndr.i, .\I;,ri!i. IS'Ci 

dj Ulta sncieta dl troffsson. Milan, 1897-. '". im-i i«4,-< >.nii„ 
G.IERSF.T, Kntt. ii¡st,-ry of the .Vorrc.-cm,/ /V,././,-. N'm ^•,,r^.■, U-ir 
Great H„itai.v. ¡intuii „„J f, „,.,.„ ,v,„„- /„r,-,,, I.i„i.!.i„. l.v^i 
. I'i.r:uiiiu-iit,vy I'arirs. Accounts ,it:d I'afcrs 

^"{n^r'ylÄ iy"''"'"' ""- •"'""■' '"' "■">■ "-> ''• .'~v ,o 3. J.n.. ,S4H: ,849 
. ^^r..^,,,./,.,.,, ,.,,,,,¿„^ „„ ..,^^.,^ „^ /,,„^, j,„^ ,^^,, _^^ ^^^_ ^_^^^^ ^^^^^^ _^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

lu,„ur n:r.csp:.„d.:i.c , „art J,. ,„ ,...„:,,r>, lS-„>. ,s.„ ¡JuM^y Vol i,7 
/•«'//., r r„rr^.^.«J,■,u•.• -par, ,! , . a„.l M.irch. I8r(,; I860 (JciSl, X'ol 07 

/■«r/A.-r ..rr,,;.,,,./,,,,, ,,,3,, 7, ^,,,. ,,, I H,..„.I..r. I80U: l.K,.,l [.>;í7| v„1 ,,7 
l:<r,lu-r corrcsroiidcuc (part y>. Januar.v a.„l March. 1S„1 . l,s„I |j,s,m) \o1 „7 

A/.....n 0/ /ii/. //.„. ;;■. /;. c;/arf.,„„.. ,„ ,/,. /„„„„ /,,„„,, „,^,^ , ,,,, ^ ,^,^, , \.^, ^^, 

7r,vi(i,-j. C oiiie-Mii.iiij-. .-ii. 7>c,i(v (■■(:.,,-,i // .r 1;,,,. ,. ,; j 

7-r.-,;f.v /,.■/„■.-.•,, //,r .l/„;r.„.v. ,/,, /:,„^,,„, .,/ _,„,.,,,^,^ _ , ,^,,^ , . ,^,| ^.^ ^ ^^^^ 
Corrcst.,„de»cc r.stcctuu, tkr Affairs ,.f A',,,,,.., Ix70-lh71 . 1871 |i M7| V„l 7' 

'.Lfx-BNBWCER. A. .-J GVHrra/ H^,tori of the Chr. , , ,„ ., , „ .,, j, „ 

iiALt.wauA„n.u.,:„ ./r..„,,w ,.„/„„,„„„,„,,, ¿,.^, ,„^.,, ,^,„,_^„ ,^,^. 

. '!iam,-:u,rv i'd-alcs. M «ri-, I ..■■.'„,:, I83,J--18'>1 .i56 

'Iansam, Thom 

M^v^-. C.M-i.],,-. I 

fflhK. \' ,,, .M U ^1 ilLL.M. 

titllikcii. Berlin. 188,3. 

" ••"■' ^ .1.-/ I.nt^.ry of M,„icn, L»,„,-,. X,,,,. y,,,;, ,,^„, 

r.!¡',¡.!i H ,R M'iüíA!. !.!> ! 

llhiMUiii. Jk.w i|i5cii(J.I. llr,iit il,- í.'ik;!!.'/,- rt r.'.' /'/.'^í.fci/r. l'un^. ISVo. 

. 7>i>/i' .llliaitíi- rí AUiícc-l.i'iríiinc. l'ans. IS''-'. 

HoI.TZKMKiKFK, I"k\n/. Mdl. /.i' friihifc i/i'.v iiülinihilitiS >l la lUtnaHir,- itíiltrniu- ii:¡ i/r if 
í/rí ^'i'Hj. Kciuc de dinit iiiUrimtioiial ti <lc IcuLsliilwit iDiiipiiriC. \^~il \i;l. J, p. VJ, 

ii'IiiKVii.i.K. IIf.Nky. Les fiémoiitais à Rome. Lettres r,cnciU\cs et éditées, l'iris, 1S"4 

I 'er lliiluitische lùiiihcit'i ïeider Rum im Seftembcr 1S70 f.ii! <'iiii'»i .liKíeiizeuiien. 
MiiiiítcT. 1S71. 

It.>i.v. t límrrn dei deputati. Le .Isseiuhlee del r¡siir¡;iiiieiil:'. .Itti raceolti e pub' .ali ,"1 r 
delil'erii:tai¡e della Laniera dt-i deputali. Kinm. l''ll. 15 miI^. 

. Caczetla t'fñeiale dei rei/iif d'Itaìt-.i. l-l.iri lui-, 1S70. The C,a.::ella wa?, i>u|p|i^lu-'l 

ir.. m liirlii, iti ISdl. 

Ini del l'arlamenla Italiano. .Sessione del IMO. l)iseiissi"ui della Cameni det 

. Iiire:iniie i/enerale della slatisHea del Ke'itm d'Italia, l'opolaziane. tensimenu de_ili 

aniulii stali .Sardi. ( 1 lieiinaii), IS5>i) e" eeiisiiiienti di Lombardia, di l'arma e di MiUlena 
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. l>ire:ionc 'generale della ¿latisliea. Slalisli.a del Re:;i!o d'Italia, l'opnlazionc — 

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/ 'ire:ione fienerate della slalisliea. Slatisliea del Rcijno d'Italia, l'opolacione - 
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w. ,If>.-KX 1'r.\n/ (piililió sous la iHrei-lidii ilf>. Manuel hislori>¡ue de la ijuesCwn au Sìes- 
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KíuKWM.i.. Vi.sroiNT. l-oiir years in the Ionian l.slands. I heir folilieal and soeial eondi- 
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■il. by M. .\. Ott. Paris. l!^74. 

Ki.i iii-K. J. I.. I'roit des Rcns moderne de I'liurope . . . 

l.\ (ii tkoxxiKRK. 1.1. IIS F.TIKNNK .VkTiiiK DiBKEiiL I'ieomle de lau.i.ii aiiil'i- 
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l.K.oMTK. l-KKiiiNANu. L'Italie en ISni). l'nris, \)^>\. 

I.K.NOKMAXT, Vu vxiESoi. 1.'. I une.xsioue delle isole Ionie al res'io fllcnico. C<<nudera:ijni 
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' ' ■ ! 'Empereur Xapoléon III. et les principantes roHinaines. l'aria. 1X5,S. 

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M Vi l'xnühv. Rlv. I.wiK-, insi.'iv ../ liie i am.'iie lu 
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r. Jiiiix I 

'■ liu- \ fi/.-, ,,■):''! (. eiitii' y. 1 
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.M.VRiLNS. Fk.ik'K Fmk.)Rovihi df.. Traité de droit international. Paris. I.-t*^,) 87. TranOatcl 
Ironi tlif RiLssian by .\lfreil I.i-u. 

M Miri ^-. (¡KoKii l'KiEtiKicH vo.N. Reeueil des Iroilfs d'atlianee. de pai.v. de tré-ie . et 

.'.'■■ I . .mlr.i ,;,.'..■ .Kerroii' .': I.i .-.noi.ii , f.i i., .• ,/■•. . .•/,i/i,iii.5 étrauijéres des puissances 

. itinuen, I,><I7-3.s. .M eri. 8 vnl~ 

depuis 1 

... I. / J I . I • i. 1 . . . i-f (11- plusieurs autres aei 
dons élran::ères des puissanees . . . de l'Europe . 
ii;;i'n. 1,><17 41 16 vols 

IWr.Llí ii ,KAi'iii( Al. i. 1ST 


ís^íi^rs!" ä";^^:- ':;r^ ''•^^-'■' •"•'""■'■^- ^--'^^^ ':y^r^rC'c::^.r¿^,^- 

Mattar. P MI.. IhsmarU- ct s ;> t.mrs. i'an,. I',-,«,, .i ,,,|. 

M.-K. U,us a^s..TT. ., .,/,.., „; ,,„.,.,:an.,.a, U.: Wa.hin.,,,,,. „0. 8 .oís 

M.....KV, JoHx. y;.. Lifr of n,ll.a.„ /;..„., (,/„,,, , , „„,„„ „„_, 3 ^,^,^ 

M.LHo.sf. .l/„í.v /„\r,..M9„r /,■,,//.■.',„. M„¡hai,><.n. !87-,-. 

X^^^^:^. I^rm.t.oh. A-..:.,,,- a.<l ,i,c Cn.,,, u.,k .s.v./o,. Lo, don, !9()5. 

NorK.sK ujenr.isninir .om helt s.,vcra.'n st t m, M,, V", '^''^'T^'Hi'e •■»:... crs-kristii „« 
l'y Jakob \i|l,dm lleiLerK, Chri'tiania. I'««, ^ facsimiles or [„linier. Edited 

XowKow. J. I.:;hac,:I...rra,nc, obstacle à i::vM„sin„ ailcnvnie. V.u.. VnS. 
N-.s. 1-.,....E..T. li,„dcs do droit v,lcn:alio;M ,t </,■ ,/n,/, /-„/„iV,.,-. Ifr„..scls. l.SW, 
'II.1I-H.A.NT. M.Mtr.MlF.T dlll-IIWT Wll.sov l/,mo;V „/ /', . / V / , 

"/ J/u-.- ()/,/■/„„„, h,s ¡¡if,: S,^v \..rk "m f vol's. '' "'^ ^"'"•''"<'- f'^>/..i«/ .,«.< 

OLL.V,«. EMn.K. j:ii„„irc Wrral: ,„„/..., .,.„,, „,„,,„,;, p^^^^ „„. ,,^,. ,. ^ ^ 
"""■¿d H.^'2'v:^r ""^^'^ ''"^-^'- /...•.-,./..„.,/ /„a., „ ,..,„..,. ,.„,,,,, ,„,:,„ 

"' KkV. I-jl.MINI, 1. /■/(,• M.'l- ,, ,<:. I, 

riu- Month. J.lyHeJemLer: \m \ol' h'^'London" " ""' ''-'"' ^ ■•"'"""' ^'^ - 

''"869 ■'■""'■'*■ ''^'''' ''"""'' '''">"■'■ ■'•■■ - 

''""./ lil hr.uoy to My /,.r ,./,,-,„♦ ['„„tnli, 

''"""■¡•'a'^'ìT: ¡1;;, Kela., one. „.I ..,.„. Crn.Ur so¡,.c la ,.,■,./,„. / .. ,„ , 

''■"r;s,,''Lo;:d:í,nóí^""''' '^^^^'^ "-■■ '••'"-- -^ 7--,..... ./ k,,, .„, ,,..., 

^■>nu.„.sox, C0L«,.^^. .,/...., Lorr.„u; Pas,, Fr...„,. ,.„ /:,,„„, ,..„„,,„ ,o,K 

■ Traite , le droil micruatioiui f.^!... ..,.,...„,,„,„.,,■,,„ 

^.-..-'U-. .7 >y.- /. ^u/.vK.- f,.„/..„,Á<'n„„.-.t. i:S85 im 8 loi ' "" ' ^""■"'^ '^'' '" 
l'i tE.MOKF, S.A.MITI F-eillrrr vAn /). 

lated by nasif k '„.h ir I'ndo,^ 'l/«)'' ""'"'"'' " •''•"'"""• \-^'"'!^'-. "^^S- Tra.u- 

I\A.M)OLril. r<R\l>v l'lT7 T'l ■ Í J u ■ 

!■'■ I'. .^rr.M:! I /.^^j ;,,;,„ /^'..,„,. j I,„„J,„,_ \)¡,íy^ 



Revue iitíhn¡i,iuc J,-s iiisliluti 'itj. rl líii .//iii/ /"jr um" sn< iiti' Je junsioti.uiltis <( de fu' in i'jít-j, 
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Retuc genérale de droit vileriialiniíit j'ul'li' . c'.re>it des ¡leití — histtiirc dif' nii,iti,iiie — drotí 
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/ü Dücu- traja,,,- JífuM ¡e¡ ,>r,^:,„,s. 


XfNoio-,. Ai.KxvNra<, [) ¡ des r „a>,u- ,/, 

'.uíqua .iiMi^M des r'-'"' i.-m^l.s ,-.i ;^r., l'ari-, Ks^o _'\,',|s. 

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A Studs of the Thcon and l^-acticc of 
F Ic 1)1 sci tes 

Discussimi Ol" tlic iliic-triiK .1 

-' ^IM \k\ I1..I >vii-.k'tcriiiiiuiii..ii iall. 11;,; ■ 
■nto three ikti.mI.v At least this is true ulie.i the .li.cusMnii ;,s i:, tli 
•ne. ,leal> exchisivelv with national selt-.lctcrmination as a iàct„r in -han-e« 
• s.Ai-ivi.nnty ihroiijjh séparation. ce>si,,ii an.I annexation. 
The hi>t..ry oi the .Inctrine proi.erly he.!iin> uith the I-Vemh k.>, ,„„-.„ 
Jörn ,.t the pohtieal ,.nnriples and practical prohlenis of the Kevoh-.tion the 
doctnne uas a.|o,,te.l a> .he j^nidin« principle in foreign relations, was apphe.l 
Ml fiond .anh in the annexation, of Avignon. Savov. Xice. an.I n^ed , MthiertnKe in the later annexations oi the Melffian Con.inun. 
the KInne \ alley, o.dy to l,e utterly destroyed by the growing' ambition for 
c.piKiuest (i\er a world of eiiemie- 

The next and most prosperon.s peri.^l of its hi.story i.s fro.n IM.S i,, 1S7(I. 

I ' ' ■ ! ' •!:.■ national aspirations for self-government in IMS; res,,rted 

'! ' li.'i^'i, p:.tnot>: .„lopte.l as their own hy I'russia and the (u-rmanic 

.■n.i...M as the soluti.-n for the Schlesui^- .|uestion; .Tlnpfd j.v the 

' ;:lu>.^- ..t I'ans of 1«56. it t;rew rapidly in prestiRe and l.v \h!>u h-vi .n- 

'-. I iiu almost undeviatin^i adherence ..f three of the four leadii 

the tune 
||' I!) . made the 

('a\ (.!•!• k'lKx.n 

till iT ' 

•' Napoleon — and the tempora:. -;ip- 

itivc force of the new Italian kiiij;- 

■1 ii.e union 01 Ittsenny. hniilia. Sicily. Naples, the 

re|>eaied in the sulise<pient union of X'enelia and 

ireaty of Turin fur fin 

the ch 

i(--t..ii 'il S.i\..\ 

I "■■ lile Schle- 
'he |.'ui:in I -hind- 

^ ijlU'-!i.;|i . ¡,,;i,,,wd l,y <ii 
• '¡rrcrc: Iiimtíi-,! Im the treat- 

PIK-al tf 
I 1a reprc»enlati\e ;i-siii||»!!. 
,- :, , ,,-i.,,,, atnouniinK t.. I,, 
. „ u anncxatti.n of 

lN«v. u,n..nt UK.ud i., ,hc p,.n,.,on> o, tlu- trealv o. IVa^nu- and the 
••'""exatton o, NUace-l.orraine in 1S71 .lealt the prmcipk- a Mow „Imh. the 
»rid k-n,^. «mier f.erman tutelage in matters .., historical criticism .„„! ,!,.. 

^ ■"■'■'• u 1 i - . I ■ 1 1 H; r I ' ^ 

elided, lt:i(|f fnir fo c- 


philosophy of the Siale. \va> iiractnaliv iatal. Aittr !S7U it was given a 
nebulous coiilinuancc In the treaty oi' 1N77 luiwecii I lamo and Sweikii 
the cession of St. liarlliolMiiu-w, and In thi- it\ai\ uf Ainuii lutweeii (hile and 
Peru. I he ascendancy of the iloctrnie of puHtnal uporiuiu-üi, however. 
lound accurate e.\pre»ion in the fonj,'re>^ of üeiluí \ second ( oiiijress of 
\ leinia. it was to have the .same resuU, for tlie doeirin.' of national -elf- 
deternnnaiioii, ahan<loned liy (Hploinal--. ua^ to iiave henceforth a place m 
the fdatlorin of every liU-ial or radical movement and with tiie outhreak of 
the war in l'M4 \va> to heconie the -unln.l of rejieneration for e\er\ sulijeci 

I he doctrine of national -elf-delermination is ha-ed on and inseparable 
iroin lliat of popular sovereignty. Hcfore the lien.h Revolution >o\ereij;iitv 
looke.l to the land, not to the inhahitants. Chanfle of .sovereipitx ilir-11-Íi 
inheritance or marria},'e of the rei.!,'nin>,' prince, ihrouj,di harter or tlin.uj;h 
cont|uest was the rec.jjini/ed and legitimate order. Title so acquired was a<l- 
mitte<l!y valid withoiu appeal to the will of the nihaliitains. 

lo the iihiIo,opher> of the I rendi Revohuion the ri^du of con.|iie>t. rea- 
sonaMe adjunct a> it was of the divine rij,dit of kin^^-. was incompatil.le wuh 
the n.^ht of peoples tu choose their own rulers lo assert that a confpieror 
cfiuld retain his domination over the inhaliitaiUs of a coiKjuered territorv 
against their will was to deny the «loctrine of ¡lopular s.uerei<,'nty and to 
.hiiufiv free men lack to .>laves. in .>rdcr to harmonize external relations 
wnh the hasic principles of the new order the doctrine of no annexation with- 
l'Ut con.sultation of the inhabitants was fornmlated. a doctrine new in the 
experience nf lù Vet as no new doctrine of political philosoj.hv spriuf^s 
full sjrown upon a startled worhl. but always, after the event, seeds of it 
may k- fotmd in the words of men of thoin,dit and ma\ be .lis.erne.I in events 
loiiK antedatin^i its period of matnrity. so it is true in tiiis instance that writers 
had indicate.l the princijile, .subject^ had aiipe.iled t.. it. and a few astute rulers 
had m.ade use of it k-fore the linai .tdopn,,!, as a nationil policy by leailers of 
the I reiich Kevohilion. 

Historians in discussing the firigins of the doctrine refer to the case nf 

the provinces ceded |,v I^mis l\ („ Henry 111 of Fnj,dand in the thirteenth 

century, against which cession the nobles of the provinces in (piestion protested 

as contrary to their rights.' ami als» »o the refusi! of the people of Gnicnne 

paraled from the kingdom uid. notwitlistandiiijj the Rrnnt anil 

"' '■'■■'' ■''•'••■ ^ ' '■'-■•> er sij^nificain the-e instances may U'. 

r!le .-itt.-tck Mil title bv rot-inu-.t atld the ridi- 

ii! ..... Iiiu.,.!..ii. /.. ;'.rí««íiir«fríí<riHH,m. lib. A pp. *«. Ml, citiM FroiMai.l, 
: \iruil lli«t .\nKl IJO. 

MIS I ( iK.t \l, ^IMM \m' 


lille Dì hisl(jrical ;ir-iitnfiit> as claims to s,,\ iTi'ii;iii_v alu-n ¡ifoiili--., jmli- 

Ii-hcd by l':rasiiiii> in llu- .■l<la</ionini ('lnlia,i,-s, i-, 1317.' I'.ra-i.iu- staici :n 

Iirecisc lan.iiiia-^v ilial anilii.i;t\ ..\ir nun ami la-a-ls i- imt mÌ iIk' >ann' Mp.lcr. 

iha! all ])Mu.r and amIiMrnx ..\^■r p.'..],!,. rets (,ii their cmiM-nt. and that title 

I'v eoni|iiest i- a iallacy. in view ni the- >,'reat intliieiice nf h:ra>iim- nn o.n- 

tcmp.irary thdii-lit. and the iniiiieiiM- ix.pnlariiy ,>i hi- writiiiL;-.- 't i- im; 

MirpnMiiL; that\ two l■a^es of dehherau- appea! t., the d.u-trine In mlrrs 

thrm-ehe-. whirl; ,,ccnr hi-l'i.iv the eiuhltriith eelitur\ ,-!inii!d fdllou du.rtly 

on his wnrd-. The tirM ..f then- ^reurreil m 15_'7, \\lu'ii I'raiK-i-. I ni i'Vaiice. 

perceuin- the p-hiual \alni- ..t ihc principle. n~e.l it a> a ueapnii ,,f .liplomaey 

hy aj.iieaiiiij,' in ilie t-stato ci Ihiririiiidy in nnlir t.. iiuahdat,- the eessioti ,.t 

the <liH-hy «liieli he had jn-i made !.. (liarle- \' hy the treatv ,.f Madrid. ■■ 

The second re-..rt I.) the iirinc;,,le «as made l.> his -uccessor, lleiirv II. who 

a[)pear> to ha\e desired its sniietmii tor atine\ini,' Toni. .\K-t/ .ui.l \ ,-rdtin. 

and caused a vote ot the people i,, |,c taken U't'ore .•iiiiiexation. W hetlur or 

not litis vote was hy tinix.rsal suffrage, it would seem to he the only oiu- at 

all api roachin<i the character of a plcliiscite occtirrinii iiefore the Ucvolmion.« 

Mv next century >aw the K'^innitii,' of the forimilatioii of iirincijiles of in- 

> 1-or an .s.-.II.nt I-nKli-l, translali.,,., cf. J. W. Ma.kail (r.|.). Erasmns. .ixahul War, 

-'The essay cun < •!« the jiassaRe .iteri was prinlt-.l s.-paralily in .April. IMT ll.ilf 
1 •• >.l!..!arly ph-sl!, • Kiirupe «rrr v.,,„ ,nip!„ye.l in r-printing it. VVilh'in ten v.-ars 
It ,ui.l hem r, ->Me.I at I.„nvaH,, luire at Strasbiir«. twice at .Mavence. at I.eipsic twice 
at Uns. twice at C,.l„KMe. at Antwerp an,l at Venice Cerinan translations of it were pnli- 
,sl.e,t a. Hasel and at S,rasl,„rK in 1519 an,| 1.S20. and an I-nslisli translation app nre.l in 
i.onildii Ml ÌXÌX l/ai .'. p. xxiv. 

»The acconnt given hy François Gt ''Ot. in llliitoin' J,- Fran,e. vol. X p % is i„ the 
.;!..t that Iraners ha.1 ... int.ntion „f carryinw o„t the treaty which, he protested before 
siuninjt. A-as voul W„„e wrnn« him hv force. I'.efore .xecntinv. the treatv he s,,,.,- 
...oned the estates of Kur^nndy at Ccnac. Th^y i.„^My repndiatod the cession as con- 
trary, they said. t.. the laws of the k.n«.l„m and the ri«hls of the kin« who cnld not 
alienate, on his o«n authority alone, any portion of his estate. Francis then called the 
envovs „f Charles V to a s„le,nn n.eetinR of hi, eonncil and court at Cognae. uh.r<. the 

■ . I. .1,. s fron, I.„r«„ndy repeated their protest, «huh Cliarles asserted was an ins,irnio„n,ahIr 

■ I.. I. lo the exechon of the treaty. Cite«! also hv F.mner;, I, .1,. \ .,.,„1 ; ,. /, .;, ¿., ^„, 
lib. 1, p. 2ûy aiKl by de la (¡».'ronnicrc vol 1 p «2 

,„ ';"";;, ';:'";""' [Z "■"''•^f"--""-'.»- <'.•:■<,,, /.., a.,.,,.,.. „ ^4 .n. ,i,at the clause 
I _ tr atv „f Madrid rrservin« the approbation of the estates referred only ,„ xW estates 
..t l.-,M,ndy and in.phe.l the consent of the representatives of ,ho ceded district Jf this 
were so. ,h., treaty wonld he the first to e,.,„ain snch a rlaose r,n ..nJ.lL of 
treatv It appears, however, that Ihr elanso I.I., ■ «ii n oi in, 

and ua. n.eant as a leuislative sanction „nh "' '^'"'"'"'" 

• ■ •-• ^tory run, that the bishop of Verdun said to 1... people " „ue le ro. de France ..tait 

«• l;l-rau-..r. nu'.l voulait tr.-ote, les t»,„r« ..,„„n,e ,|e !„„,« Français , 

;,;;. "T.',.''"."''' ''^ "'""^" ^•^ """"t. » e„ a,pelait an vote libre d.i tieui.le " 

Olhuer. Ihmtn. UWr„l. vol. !. p ,f,5. Ollluer .-ite. f,.„.-,.„ r, ,,';.,/,' '':.,.. 


ltriiaii,.nal ¡au. (.rrnii,,, uriiiiio in 1(,J5. sii.l. - l„ liu- ahcnaUMi. m a part 
..1 thf suxvramy. it is al.., rc.|inr..l iliat ' ■ pari uhich i, al.cMatu.l c.m~cnt 
t.. tlir ac-t," ' an! l'MrL-n.I..rt in 167J. • Wm in ihc alimatinn uf a pari 
■ ■I tlic kiii-d,. v!,., the kiiiií's cijiisfiii, tiKTf :.. reijiiirol not ,,nlv ihc 

'""-''"' '"' '■'* ■''^•1> i-"niinnf> iin.k-r liu- .,1.1 ki„ir. |nu the consent ut 

iliat pan t.,... i-.i)fcialiy. uh..-c- alienation is at stake." - 'lliis view was ech„i.-d 
I.y \attel in ¡lie eighteenth leninry." The ininierotis tran.^fers .,|- territory 
made in the sevenieentii an.l ei.t;hteenili eentnries. however, were made wiili- 
■nit fnnher concession to these teachin.;- i],a,i that .,l a .urain .,f the rÌKln 
of option. l!y this ri.i;ht liie iii.jivi.hial inhal.itants of the cede«! territory 
uere allowed a delitnie jieri.,,! of time t.. choose between the tw.i allegiances 
an.l to rem.,, e tluni>elve-. and their property, .honl.l they choose t., remain 
lie cedinj; State.' 

■' '^'"'^ •''*■' ""•>• allc>i.,i; I ¡¡u' .UK Kilt rule tiiat the soverci^nt v of 

the cn.inerorexten.Ied to all inhahitants of a c..n.|nere.l cuntrv withom re- 
;:ard t.. individual .lesires. i-ven the several pariiti.,ns ,,f j'nlan.l appear t.. 
have cau-ed ii,, comment ,,n the >core of of the p.,i,nlar will. l'.,n- 
<|uests I.y km«,'s f,,r their own au.i,'randiseinent. fur econotmc markets, for sira- 
tefiic \ allies, ¡¡rocecded with scarcely a challenire save as the v .lisreiíar.led 
treaty rit^hts. 

The.Xmerican Revolution had effeci.,, „ ;„-,m,,^ , ii.„,^, ,„ ,1;, ,.e!at,..n ..f 
the citizen to the State. The French Uevolntion I.n.u^hi ahout far-reachin.- 
dianfres „o. only m the internal I.nt al.s,. in the esternal relations of the State, 
ll.e Rev..Inti..n was ahiiust imme.liately onfn.nte.l with .|ue>.ti..ns of the 
relations ,„ States ,-,< to territ-.rial matters. |, „as evi.lent that the <il.! 
principies ot 1er: ,ssinn which con|-.mnded the State with the prince 

were uh,.lly nn-nn, ,i i., the new .l,,ctrine of p..p„lar soverei^nlv which, when 
established N.iihiii the Slate, imphe.l as a croUary that no chain-e ..f sover- 
eignty was ie.ii.d without the consent of the people cncerned. To the leaders 
-•I ilie K'e\.,liiiion. devoted to abstract principles as guides for action, this 

'" ■ ' »'i'"! '"super rtiiniritiir. >il iti.iin p.i' 

.'».■ 11«. • /,,•//; „,- y.j.-,-,. iji, _> ..^j, ,, 


i' ii//i/. hli. 1. cliap iil, 5j 

'Tbo (=--• ,.;,n;i.Ic of ad. 

illil's |i, 

.,,1 k. , 



. , , „. . . ,''..'■ ■ ' ■■ """ '"'"" ^''^'" ''.V .-,ih" IS that 

violi ilW/t. .\rlKlf 17 ..f «hidi r,-::,U ' s,,it ,„.n„i, à ,,„„ .-i.,,,; 

... ilIc <U- .SiMOwifK »u .U's .1. pciflrticcs. .If qii,l,|,ie (•..n.Iiti.i.i niril, v.jfnt. 

■iKrcr. .If trainfériT Kur .imiij.ik- au lieu -m il leur plaira et .IV lranM>.irlcr 

1, _franrh,ve .le t • ,Uns le .l.lai .rnno .„UKe à partir .lr ia r-itification 

^ '"""''"■ • "■« "' »''•■ '><ritv „f ( t recht ( iri.ti. Carl..» Calv.i, 

\\<ì ( iKMi \l ^1 M \1 \.'N 

;iii:iiiitc(l (.1 no ar«;i;imMit. \or <li»l tlicy ailvaiuc liu- ddOiiiiu' iIümh-Ii i,ar 
1)1 ai:nre>>i(.n against l'Vanco. Tin.- siil)Si'(iiK-iit cuur.-c ..í tlu- Ki^vnintiMii. 
wliicli was II) ti-rminatc as it did in emu | not s nmro extended than any .nlur^ 
'■I nin.iern times, Iiave made men cynical ref^'ardinç the ideaN witli wliich it 
(ipened. Tlie periods nf a nation^ Iiistnry wlien tlie leader^ >aLTÌIice national 
material advantage t.. principle are rare, it i-. Imwever. a fact, and .me 
:• ilie eternal credit of the nun who were so ^oon i,, abandon tlieir own 
doeirine-, or. rather, to distort liu-m into their opposites for the salse .f na- 
tional ayijrandi-etnent. that they were suliicieinly loyal to their Iieliei in the 
principle of «elf-determination to refrain for almost two year, from aii- 
nexin- a -mall territory, an ••enclave." of <;reat strategic value— lien. li in 
race, lan-ua-ie and economic ties— from which came many voices imploring' 
annexation as the only means to end .i dcva-latin.i; civil war. 'Ihe annexa- 
tion was finally .i;ranted. I.nt only after the original votes of the communes 
had Leen repeated in a manner which to the ("oiistitnem .\<seml)lv at Paris 
appeared to he fair, free and -iunilicant of tiu- ¡..^nnlar uill ..{ ,;„• 
tiny States. 

Vet. althor;;n uute i- no douhi iron. ÜW delates that the philosophers of 
the Uevolntion I.elieved that the abstract principle was an essential of the 
universal justice which they vscre striving to establish, the <loctrine had for 
them I rom the lirst its practical side, l-earlul of Kuropean resentment at 
any aggres-ive -pirit in the revolutionary government, thev at once saw that 
l)y msistmgon no aimexation without expre-ion of p,,,,„!;,r will thev u,,-.- 
to some extent disarming criticism and di-iruM 

The problem of foreign relations as a practical .»ue ua. presented to the 
' .stunent A-suublv in May. l/"'«). by a letter of the I'rc-sident of the \s- 
• ">-' .....Xi.mcmg that the anuameitts of Knglan.l obliged IVance to look to 
ÍH> sauiy. and that the king had ordered an increase of fourteen ship, P,.- 
lore discussnig the issue of peace or uar. the ( oustitnent Assemble thou-lu 
It necessary to -etk for an abstract principle, to be placel in the new consti- 
"">•'". "h,ch >houI,l harmonise intere-; with justice, extend to the world 
tile ble-s,,,;,. ,„ ,1h. „cw gospd nnd bring peace t.. lù.rope Ine .lecrec linallv 
adopted on May 22 ende.l with an article defmitelv rcn.MiMri,,.^ -• ,, ,-;,. k,,,,,, ;. 
nation all «ars of con.|uest.' This remmcialion o. 

!l.- t, 

t II' n 

■îrme during the Revolution, i wiiuiucd of the ethical 

'!■<• reiiniici.iiion. the ( onsiiiiieiu Assembly made every 

' -nxl when l.ih i evciils had led the French 

i' 1'/. I hi- (Iccl.-iratton was rmbndi 

i ,.M.! (' , Mm,,.,.., ..i v. . ...... ■ 

n. Ill u 
1 i'(nirl< 

■I '" •liru-t.. i I,, ^■■..^■. i.jrt ..i the om- 
fl J,- limit fi.iiilicltIC, |>. ,tf.K. 


i'i.i_r.:--i iji'.r- 

ariiiif-- iar 1>c\mii,1 t!u- l».rilcr.- of the Kopiililii,-, the Convention in I'aris still 
in.-nii- \aiii t-tiiiii, t.i krc]) it-, laith wiili jiriiiL-iple hy a-^ertnii; that the war- 
\.rrc lini e.'ni|iK'^t. and that ail iir..iile> -liMtiM he free !•> ehtm^c' ilieir own 

'ihelir-t .leniand mr aiine\aiiM)i i. , rev . .lin,, ,|,.,r\ I ramewa- iv,m A\i-iii.ii 
and ihe ( .initat \ eiiai-iii. h, ihe Inart ..i the Midi. ,\\ i,L;in m and the 
\ enai>Mii had lur many hundred- ,,i yt-ar^ been under liie >uvere:.L,MU\ of the 
l'.ij.e Willi neea-i..iial hnei ¡lericd^ ,,f l-reiieh rule. 11k- partisan- .ii uiuon 
in the (■,,„. iiineiit -\--enilily pointed uuh -...ine -Imw ,,f rea-..u i,, îh,. iauli\ 
title of the l',,pe autl to the .xtratcfîie value oi \vii;u..n. and '.vere ...ntenl to 
eon:ider the lir-t v..te> III the eoniniinie-, ea-t durni- tla- i ivil War. a- -utli- 
eieiii lhe\ ha.l tiie I'ari-ian crowd with iheni. Init >o devoted wa. the ma- 
jority ot the Constituent \-.-eniM\ u, the |irnu-iple ..i popular v .vereij^iity 
and tlie reeeiu pleil,!.;e a.yainst eon(|ue>t thai for two years no meaMire- Inukin- 
to miion conld .ijet a majority in -pite ..f the fropient ajipeaU whuh e.mir the territory it-elf. hi thr i Mu-tuueiit A-emhIy the pari\ i,,r annexa- 
tion at any price advanced the llaw- in the papal title. The ni.iÍMrit\. h.^w- 
ever. looked on ihi- ari;iiinein a> one of no value tn the h'rench . kmn which 
they Itased <<n the popular vote. This claim heiiii: in ihcir eye- -iipreine. ihev 
rej^arded the iiistorical ar;.;nnient fur the I'reinh tule a- ..f u~e onlv in the 
eyes (.1 a h:uriip<- which .lid not rccoj,nn,'e popular -overei;;nt\ and wh.-i- 
sole eoiuern ua- for treaties and pulilic law. It wa- onh altvr inrdiator- 
had iieeii <lispatched to niil the ci\il war which was C(.u-uniiiiu the ;erntor\- 
and whi.h had rent I'nnence .and moved all I'rance, .and after the-e nudi.Uor- 
had reported that the ..pposiiifi forces had Keen pacilied and a fair \Mtr taken 
ui the communes and ratified t.y the .Xssemhly of elected deleirate- tlie 
Constituent .Xs-emhly finally voted the union.' 

!'.} Iwith contemporary and later hi-torian-, douhi ¡la- l.wi ihrown ou 
the fainicss of the vote cast. Reunions as well as [¡olitical controver-ie- were 
involved. On one side we lind united in an elfort to din-rrdii ihe \oic l.otli 
the latholic historian- and tho-e IVote-tani- who-,, -\iupatln with hheral 
institutions ha.l In-en alienated I,\ the later excesses of the l>ench l^evohitmn 
The conditions of the v..te. the primitive methods .if votinu to iIr. 
time.- the pre-enee of the I'rench ai^ents and arnie.l tn.op-. t!ie fad that th.' 
civil war had an especially vindictive .)ne with nnmeruiu atrocities on 

Ilion of III,- (.lelitwitc» nf thp rpvoliili.m a< mere rome<!i.» to mvrr 

' ■' ■ = ■ '•»■'"■Ir tli.1t ..f .\vit;ii„M Cf. I>.iil(/ IVsp;i«,ut. Pr .(> i»l,-rn„lio»„ 

:. an.l .Mplionie Rnii-r. Primipcs du <hmt dfs Rens. vol. I, p. 208. Such a ihar 

•"'"'.•'" ''"' ""' "t'l«'-"- li"W<-v.r. t.. Ih- ronsi-i.-iit «itll the actual niMorv of fli,- affair 

M.Minp ni th.- nL'lifocnth century was cttstoniarily tijo T-„f.', The l)allot. althoiiRh in 
Vnurican State« in 1*75. was in reality a niiu-t.-enth centnrv instit i 

,!l,,l U.,, „.,. ,„.r...t, ...... I :., p.. ...,,,., ,,,„j, ]g-_. 


iií^ il >i<i( Al. M MM \K'V - 

i'"tli - thc.o f.u-t, make „ „,i,„,-il.K. u, r..infii.i ihat tlic r>i,n.aclu.> are 
ii-t w.I! i.,im,k-.l. tliMM^I, ,t apiK-ar. >rriain ilial ilu-< a v rxaL,-,Taiol \. 
"■'• 111- an,, al u,il ,,1 ,1,.. niaj.Tiiy liaMip, h.rn a „rnaninl tiuT,. can l.c i,.. 
'l""I't- l--'.c'n tiir n..,.i parii^ati li,.-t..naiN a.liiiu ihai tlu- ,naj.,riiv u^iv -a!'.- 
"«■'laii.l thaï ilK-.|'U-n,,n,„ „ni,,„ .„„.aa-ol t,,lHa vital .ne' Tlu. „n- 
'""■'■"'■ ■■'^î"''' ■'■'"^■^'■'■. '^ "■■' -■ inn.h ulu.luT ,I„. ,,„, ,a:.,„ ,,a. annallv 
.'■■'"■■ '"," ^^'•^■"'^•'' tl'^' '■'■"^"•.uan \.-..„,l,lv ,„,,| „ „, ¡,. ,;„, ,,„, „„,„„,„ 
n^nuhcn„lmallya.U-,l,,n„ \^ ., . .1.,. ,|u.M„ „,. , n ,„, a .•a,a.,„U..,an,,na- 
!"""" Ihvma,n pa,:,.,. , ., ,ld,a- thrtrra,, !„■ Imk- .lonln 

,. ';';^"';"7V"""'^~7'''" -'■-l-""l-'naru.r,heuara,auM,lK. 

,"■ '"";", ''■"' '"■>" ;""l^nak.n an.l In.,.], f,„av. ucn- ,„ Savov an,! X,., 
'":"'";'''"■■" ^''';' ;'"""■ '^"'- --'--l W.,.n„n,.,l ,., a,llK.,v ,,. ,1,.. ñ,n,la,nn„al 
i'n.u-,,k.. nn uh,.l, ,lu. ko,.l„,i,.n ua. h;.„\. 1 ],, atîM,,,!,. , „■ ,!,, \,,..,„ 
-nçvn,n,^.aw,vi,r..n.l,, , lu- l,,,I..,,,,-a,.. ,.,„,,, Xn,™,, .,„,.,!„..,■ 

:"■""'■'"",, "^^^'^■'"■-"'•— '—„„■,„„„ an. ,„„|,,n , lu- h>,„rv„f 
'•""■]"■ il'^-^c■M•,.a.,,^.,a■„np,■,,,,],, nninil,u.,ue,Mn am u-ar. i„,pc. 

;•-• -n,,.v„„„. ,,„m al,r„a,!, ,1,.1,|,. ,,unar -n ,1,. „„.t s„k.,„„ „.a,,,,,,. ,,,,,;,„.; 
.!•.■) will cA..,„l ,lu.,r i.rni,.nal l„,n,„|an\., 1,. ,1,,. a.h,,,,.,,,,, ,„■ .,.,.,■„ n.w 
!.r..„uv., u,l,aKu..,l l,v „,„r h„n,lr,.,l ,1„,„.„„1 „v.,,,.,, ul„, l,a,l .•„, ,l„.,r 

:''''""^:';'^"''^'"^'"""- 1"'-— ..pu..„„n„napn,p„M.,.,„,„,l„. k,n,l 
-^ a.nan,lv a „ov .Inn, ,n p„l,t,rs. i,„„i. XIX" u,,„I,l hav. .ana.,! , ,„ a 
^^a^ i,.r iiall a canliin an.l ^arnfnvd tuirc ihal imiiih.T ,,f 1 

l'I ha\r m 

11- i<\\ Il ^llllIl'Ct- M,.i, an aopnMf .„ f,,r 1„. ,1, .„m,, „i." ^ !!,. .Vn,.,,. nf 
>a\(.\-, tii,,i:-li lakiii ilniiii- i!n "^ 

are wiilimit 
p<-t) I" (|iU',li(in, 

TriK/ .K-,iipaiiMi, aii.l nii.lcr the aiNpire* 
-" Ihr ir,.,,,!, ( ..nin.HM.MUT. a> udì a- il,.,. |,,cal a„ilM,„„ 
rq.n.arh Ir..,,, l„M,.na„~, TI,,,.,. ,,t V,.,-. p.rliap- ni..,a 
are iNiUallx aia l'pti'.l, 

•11" 'l'ama ,.f ,lu- Ro.J.ii,,,,, .a. l„,u.wr. pr„,r...Mnt: T-.e 
-ai- a.ain., I-n.^-.a a„,l \„.,na uà. l„v,.,„,n^ th. d,,..," lact tu whid, ali 
tlu,,n m„.i Ih- m:I,. .plinaiol TI,, Pnnd, „.na , ha,l ,„„ „„h ^avov 
•""' ,'"; ' """"'■ "'^ """ "'^ """'- """ -■'•'■'"an trmiurv an,l hnm.-nn..; 

'' l'|"l l"vi. II,,- .-.„„„„„„o an.l.iii,,n ..i man'- kin^^, ,,f |.-,,,„,,. .„„, 
"'•'larlv ,., 1.,,,,. \1\. ,,, „v,,rp,,rai.. i!„. \\.,lu.vla„,l- nim ih.-ir kmc;,!.,,,, 
ami thu, rcuaii, il,., aiuaont h..„n.larios ni Charlrma^^iu'. l,nt !l,i. „aii.mal 
as,.,rn„n,, wa. n.,u ,l..n„ant. 11,.. „La „i ,.,„„,„,., ua^ „„.,,. „„,,.,„ „. 
""■ ••^'"■'"'"■■" '» "- """at-n ilu. r„„M„„nu \..eml,lv had .IcdarH ,he 

^J..el narlow. "A Lc^r ,o the Pe ,.f Pici,,,,.,,,." i„ n. P„U„c.l llnnu .: ..( ,,,.., 


i'l.l-.MÍS« ITKS 

in\i<>l;iliilii'. fi popular maitcìjìiuv: the uar \\a.- a iU'ii.'iir.i\i' mu- I'li'in tin- 
point ' .1 the Ixjiir-lativc Asscmhly whicli lia'l liciiiiii it ami "i tlu 

( "oiiveiiiiori which ua^ carryiiif; it on. Respect for jiopiilar >o\frci.y;ntv hail 
Iii-uii reuardcil Ii\ ihc ca.i,'cr union oí Savoy and Xice. i.ittk- iloiilititi;,' thai 
■ 'iJK-r peoples uuiiM he ei|iially eaj;er In adopt revohuionary ¡nnuipk- ihr 
i'reneli were at first content to repeat tiic policy with the lli.lj;ians. Tin iUl- 
^'ians, however, in their lirsi elections umler hr-'iich occupation, showed an 
atla.hiiKiii to tiieir olfl iiistitmions. 'i'lie f^rowll; of the scale of the war 
and the cost of the maintenance of troops on foreipi -oil were causiui,' f;ra\c 
tiiiancial eiiiIiarra>MiKnt to the l'on\emion. hnrtlur fnnd> were necessari, 
lile l!el},'iaii> -liowed a di~po>ition to adopt neither revohilioiiarv priiiciple- 
itor revolutionär) nione\. In this jnncttire the temptation noi m re])iidiati- 
the [irinciiile of ])opiilar soverei^'iity luit so to tamper with it that the UMih 
Would he assured pro\ed irrc-'^"''.- i '• ■ ' ' armmicm of the natural limit- 
re\ived and adiled it> apjieal 

< >ii Decetnher 13, 17'»_'. t'amhon. in chart;e of ihe linaiuial i).>hc\ of the 
I onveniioii. proeiited a report for the (■oinmiuee> on i'inance, Militarv Ai- 
tairs and diplomacy, rei;anliii,i,' the rondiici to he followed hv the -eiieral- 
in the countries occupied liy the armies of the Repuhlic. ( in ( i.ioher _'+ La- 
source ha.l made a report an<l read a dr.ift decree on ihi> >anie -uhieci wliich 
hail not k-eii acted upon.' The report i>l tanilxiu was far ditVerent fnmi 
that (if i.asource which had urired the Convention to decree that tlie ,i;eiKral> 
should pay a mo-t meticulous re-pect to the sovereijítity of the inv.i.lei; peo- 
ples. Totally ahandoninj; this,y, the decree of Caml.oii >usi>en.led the 
existinj; jro\eninKiits, aholi^hed taxe-, limited the franchise to those in svni- 
jialhy with the revohttinn and jirovided for two sets <jf aident-, to aid in the 
further manipuiatini; of the vote. Thus the Convention, not darin;; t.. for- 
sake the principle of -elf-determination, perhaps iioi re.ili/iufi that it was 
lorsakin^' it, was .i,milty lor the tir>t time of the m. -t dnistic infrin-cmeut 
of popular soverei-nty. These comiitioiis ¡irescrihed liy the ' Tee. even 
the-. Iieeii uii.icc. iiii.ani. d ]<\ the impr.iper acts of liie h'rench a^'eiits and the 

ulti lia\e served to di>credit the vote- of iUi^i.iii »..;, inutile-, methods of coercion not Ik-cii resorted ti). the 
electoral iiitalitications alone w.piild have served to disfranchise the o].po>itioii 
m each community. Tlip ^tifuia atiachinj; to these votes attaches to all 
those cast after the ote. whether in Mayence. the Saar valley, 

or Monaco, »h.-uld h,i e ru. n e.n-idered valid liy the Convention. X., vote free, nn von- was -;!viitie:un. Yet the Convention, de.if to warniujis, 
-le.idfasily pm •: annexations Ikisc«! on pleliiscites without 


Hl-'i'i )RIi ■ \! vi 'Al \| \i-^ ,, 

any a iniipi tu mvc^t¡-atc lile luiuiumn.- m the vie. Tw,, v],, ,rt year- ,.i 
war Iia.l ^t-rvi'il u> chaii-c o>iii|,k.tily the i,{ i"raii>e t-.war.K n.iiiiiu-.i. 
Ihr hcTee of Dcceiiilier 15 marked a transiti. m in tlie ]»ihey .,i the 
t c'liveiiiii.n. It is a ttiriimi,- pnim in the Revnhitnm. 1 iithertn ;ui^ m- 
t'rini^ini;- nil the >. Aerei,i4;nty ,,\ fcreif^n penples. uhm mnitiiitted hv the -eii- 
eraK, had heeii (h^a\Mv\e.I Iiy the \>,enihiy at l'ai;.. Ir. .in n..u ..n thcM- 
aet^ were auth..ri/e.l l.y tlie t'niiveiili. .n it-eli". I'..htieal eNpedieiiev lia.! ..\,r- 
tlin.wu the l.a>ie pliilnsnphv ni the Re\. liuti. .11. Mihiarv nere--.ity an.! ihe 
search for the sinews of uar ha.j mrne.i the Uevolntimi im,, path, >,„,ii 
led them far fmm that renmieiatinii ,.i all e.iiii|iiest with which ilie K'e.,,,lii- 
tioii ha<I started. The uay wa- paved l..r .Vap-.lecn. and hv the lime ..I hi> 
advent an- ! his trinmph the campai-ii of fnreiii- other pe.-ple t.. he free had 
hf.ííiin in earnot. i-Xeept f..r the treatie-, ..f union <,i the htile vepuhiics of 
MiilhanH-n an.l of (.eiieva with I- ranee, in which tiie aiineNati..ii- .ir,' l.ased 
on the votes of the inhaliitrmt-, «.■ Ii. ..i- n.. I'n.-n.,..- ,..■],, . ,,,; ,;,,. ,,,,1,, , ,|- ^^,|.-_ 

The Xapnleonic era cn-i^-ned tiie principle to ohhvioii. ami the ( onu'ress 
of \-ienna appeare.l to he its deathd.low. Thanks u, Talleyrand. Metteniich 
an.l the other reactionaries once more the ancient dyna-tic priiuiple \\a- re-, a^Min the land was held i,, l,el..n- t.. the M.ver' Tlin-. ihe strin^'-le 
hftueen principle an.! expediency cea-^ed. f..r principle ii..w cincide.l witlMlie 
current of expediency, ihit the \ery .lisrei;anl ..f nati. .nal delire. 
mtensilied the n;itionali-tic -pirii anion- the pe..p!e - . (li-¡i..-.eil ,,f.' an.l the 
nmnerons snh>e<|iient onthreak. pr..nii>e.l aiiMhiiii,' hm permanence i..r the 
\'ienna patchwork. 

;..v..lie.l l,y the ..f the Rev..htti..n an.l exhauM.-.l l.v th.' Xap..- wars resultili- fn.m it. the w..rl,l ha.J kronie uea^^ .,f the ,l,,arme of 
l>opiilar s,,verei;;my. .\ny sii.íí};estion of d,,ctrines reminiMent «i the Ui-hts 
oi .Man met with -com from intellcctnaK and harh repre-M..n fn.m -,,vern- 
nientv Stich a cn.lition of instahiiity cnld ,„.t l,e p.rmaiuin. h.mever. 
Ihe ■.m.,iilderiiiíí tires of nationalism whJH, i,a,l jhtii P.pir.M-.l m isl.^ 
tanned hy the ridili- wind of dem..cracv. Imr^t int., ll.niu- m lSl,s \\ ,tl, 
the reMir^-ence of the Mii.ject nati,.nahtie. ar.,.e airain,, Lire.-.trr nnliiv 
the t«i„ principies oí p.,p„|ar ...verei-nty an.l ... nai,..nal Mlf-.Mennniat). ,n. 
ihe two placo where the d,,ctrine assumed unp.,rtaiKe wetv in ihr li.di.m 

I he treaty of KM of jamiar> 1-4. 1SI4. I.j «hid. I i.nn.arlv ..-k-l \„r»a^ t.. -s«,,!,.,, 
"..^ r,|,t,-l,att.l hy the N„r,i- on the Rro.ui.l that, while the iJanish Kin« mii-tu ren.mnce 

1- r! i„ the cmwn. it was contrary to intcrnatinnal la« t., .|i,,,.,s,. of an 
...t.n- kn,Bdo,n without the conn.i« of it, people. The Xorsr thereupon alttMupte.l arnu-H 
r. Ms,a„. , . «hid, was «, far M.ccssful that the union «as l>a*nl not .„, the ireatv l,„t on 

■ \ 1 -t I mon nf 18b. which «leclari-.l Norwav to Ih- a free, in.lep.-n.lmt. an.l in.livisil.Ie 


•I.l-.IUS( ITKS 

])ri)l)lciii atiil tlic (nic>li()n m' Sclilcswii;-! IcUii-in. In i:uli la-c il \\a> rcMînvd 
II' 1p\ a .-iilijfcl iKitioiialily iii ii> cltcrt i" win írccilcín írüni n-liiciani nilrr.i 
l»v c-tahlisliint; Ijuiort- lûirnpc tlic ju^llcc ni it.> liaini. 

I In' HU'tliiiil iif fiiiindinji ihc nninn nt Italy un the \(iliintar\ wi-li "i i'ik- 

]icii])lc ni i-aili |iriri-nK'c \\lniii wa-^ i'N|irt'-.--cil m a ]M.]ii'!ar nmIc liy inanli ! 

■-u tifaci- thf nii'iliiid iulloucd in tlu- union ni i-aih 'li llu- unie prnxiiuc-, 
fiulinj; witii thaï of Ronu- in ISJO — !ii-i;an with ISIS. 11k- ihuici,' •>{ iln^ 
mclhnd \\a- diailitlos dni.- In ihc iari thaï llu ih' \\a- im ntÎKT way t" c^tah- 
li^h a title aj^ain-t tlie nj)¡iii>itinn ni ihe \annii> lan' '¡lean ((Hirl--, whieli iniild 
point tn the treaties and the ])nncij)!e ni le,L;iliniac\ m .-iipinirt ni the di-- 
¡«tsscssed lietty .-o\crei^ii> and a.t,MÍn.>l union. The e.eiit ])!"n\ed the wi^dnni 
ni the Italian .--tateMiien who hail ihn>eti thw inethnd to deieal the atleniiited 
arrani;enient> o i the i inly Alliaiiee, and the nii|)o>iiinn ni the nnrthern l'nwer>. 

The tir-t plelii^eite ua> held in l.nuihard}- under the ¡irnvi^mnal ^nvernnieiit 
tn deterniiiie wheiher nr lint lliere -liniild he iiiiillediale iiiiinii with Sardinia 
nr whether the deci>inn simuli 1 he delated. The vnte wa-. In nianhnnd ~iilïraL;e 
wiiii iin literacy i|uali(ieation. i'lehi^eite^ lollnvved in I'arnia. Mmlena and 
the eitie- ni the \ eiietiau inainlaml. In \ enice it^eli the \nte wa- hy an 
eleeted assenilily. The nielhod of xotinti i" 'he |ilel>iseite> wa^ the |iriniitivc 
olle of uritiiiii iIh' name and \nte in re^i^ler- m ihe ¡ire'-eiu'e ni electinii niii- 
eials. the eliief of whniii wa> the i)an>h ]irie-t. In the ea^e ni | .nmliardv there 
wen- enii^ei|iient aeciisatioUs ni fraud and intiniidatinii, larL;el\ reli^imi^, and, 
the reiiuhlietin- eli;irj;ed that the haste shown in holding ilie ¡)le!>i-eiie wa-. un- 
fair. 'Ihere is, linwever. nn serin as-ertimi iinw that the result dii| lint 
n |ire-eiit tile ¡n 'inilar w ill, 

I he law-- ni the Sardinian rarhaiiunt unilini; ihe-e States in the kiii^Mlnin 
^lale that "in \ iew of the pnjiular \nte nf tlu iiihaliit.uiN ni l.üiihardy" 
I Mmlena. ele. i "the prn\inee is declared In he an iiiu-^rai pari nf liu- Sar- 
dinian Kinj^doin." i lu ininiediate result- n¡ ilu- pUI'i^iite-- nl ISIS were 
^hnrldived and the nilinii -,n decreed fell with tlie re\er~e^ atleiulinu the I'led- 
niniile^e .11111- ihe idea ni ])npiilar cnn.-ullal mii a- a iiullmd nl atlainiiii; 
union wa^ lint dead, however; it niereh awailed a fa\nrahle i ippnrtunil \ In 
rea->ert itself, an nppnrtuiiit\ which came with the aid n\ Ir. nice in the war 
m lN,-'>, 

I he \ 1S4S 1,,,! i.iih >.iw the nielli, d ni ihe jilehi^cite re-nrted tn in li.ih, 
liiit alsn ad\ncated hy I'rus.M.-i ;ind tin- ( lermaiiic I 'mi federal ¡mi .i^ a niean> 
of settlini; the Selileswi}; «picstiou. The situation in Schleswi;^ in ISI.S u,i- 
dramatic I Kre two nationalist movement-, the I i,ini-h and the < icnn.m. e.ich 
reaciiiiiii out to >;atlier in al! t!ie people of cntmnnii orit^in, c.inu- min cnnilici 
In race the northern part of ,^chIe-wijL; was ailmitte<lly Pani-h. the -niitlu-ni 
p.iit admiltedU < iermtm. llnKtein wa- wholh (¡ermaii and wa- a nieiiilier 

ill>|i >\<\< Ai. >l MW \i<\ 


Ml ilu' lurmai,:.; i .,„ iolcr.iii, .n. ! i,,. Dam-h nati, .nali.t. ni Duiniark, ulio 
uiTv h..|:iii.L; I,. )n,-,,r,„,ralr ihr uh,, k- ,,t Sdik-MM-, ii ,:,,i \i..\.H-m al-,, „„,, 
the- kin,i;(l.,in. urn- ,.|,, l.\ ihv rcvnluti, man i.n,MM..iiai l;m\ nniiirM! .,t 
the .hicliu--, uhuh v,i,li,-,l I.,^,h ,1ik1,us 1,, inivi- the (.cnnaiiu- C .n,V,l,.raiion 
The i,r.,vi-.;..nal .l;, ,-. erniiir.ii, ni ii. lirsi „lanih-.t, ,, i,r,uni>r.i t,, ilu- iH.^pU- 
nl .\,.nluTii -rhk-ui- an ..,,,„, rtmmy i,, n-i^t.T rl„„a- l,rlu,rii the 
r,.iiioUTaii..n aii.l iVimiark. 1' i,,-,,,, the ai.i ,,; l'ru-.ia. h-urvrr, ih.< 
same j,'(,\ernn:enl ahn.. m nn!iie.!:aiely repndiaie,! ihr pr...,,;-,. I,„, üw |,..hi- 
ua! '.allie ,,í llie d..rtrnie ua~ al , .nre reo ..L;ni/e,l l,v the l 'rnsHan 1 , .rei-i, 
MiniMer. v,.n Armin, a^ ^n-n^uUv^^. ,i aerepu.l in Dei.niaik aii.l the lUMin,] 
r.m-ers a ha^i- uhieh u,.nM /^v„ /„.v,. o.xe t.. < unnaiu a \ah.l e!a;ni t.. ihe 
•;>-niian ].an ..f ihe .lucine^, a. well a^ ..llenn- a h. .pe thai the ,,e..p!e ,.i 
\..rili S.hle>ui- nii-hi v. .te a-ain-t separati, .ii ir,,,., the leM ..t the ,huhy. 
I Hl h-^ sno^e-ticn the I '. .iile.leratipii t..rniallv en.l..r-e.l the pn,p,,.a] t, r a v. .'le 
<.i Ihe penple nt \,.rih Srlile^wi-; aii<i Mnii-.-ii. the l'ni~-;an Mim. ter al l.m,- 
<l-n, nrye.l it .tP.ndv . .ii l...r.l l'alnier^P.,! a. ,,ne ..l the l,a-e. ..t me.l,ali..n. 
ralmerM,.!! aa'eplul the pn.p.-al ,.i a .li\iMnn, Init Ml,L;..;eMe.| thai the ime i.e 
.Irauii •• u;ih reteietiee !.. hiK.v' ii ..r a-eerlainal.le faet-," t,, uh, eh Ihin-en re- 
phe.l •• („.ntianv ran ii,.I ,i;i\e nj. ihe pniieiple .Urlare,] ,.., all ..aaM,.n,, that n,, 
M).aran.:iM.i an\ pan ni .^ehle^ui^ can e\ er he ih. .i^hi ,.i, niiie^- the ],..pula- 
"■ II in the n,.nhern .li-lruN them.eKe^ .Urlare, I.v an ..pen an.l niihiaM-.l manV 
ie>lati..ii ,;■ their intenti, .ii 1,. liial elïeet, that the\ u ill l,e separale,! 
the re^t ni the .huliNA ' I he I'rn^Man pr,.p,,s.] ua^ n..t aeeepte.l. h,,uever. 
an.l n.. lurtlur menti. .n ,.i the .¡.utnne i^- t,,iin,I until the i niiiean War pre- 
eipitate.l 'lt.~eil-^:,'ii ,ii ihe l'a~!ern < iiiesii,,ii. 

We II,. u !.. the p.ri..,| uhen the m.'ih,,.! .,i p.,pnlar .-. .iiMiltati, .n en- 
I.-r!iN-reaIe.lp,e-:i,r' Un m 1S55 t.. 1S-,I,., an-elva N.-ar¡u->e,i uitli,,iu en.U.r^emeiiI ..i the meli;,,,] \,, „utter uhat the alliln.le t..uar.U 
l."l'iilar M.U'rei.L.niv at ¡here ua> n.. ..iie ,,t the ,i;reat i'.-uer., i,..! ewii 
Ati-tria ,,r Uu^-M-a, uhieli ,h,l n..; pani.-ipate .hinn- lh..M- vear^ in -nuu- l,.rni 
"t appeal t.. !ial...iial ~el l-.ielerm.nali, ,n !,. ^tlle the numer. .u. i'lin.pean ter- 
ritorial .pienti, iIIn. 

''..nsi.leriii- li,.u .lelinhe ua> ihe ku^-ian , .pp. .m'ii. .„ t,, al! Hi^;,-e^ti. .n- ,.f 
l-l'iilar Mner<'i,i;iii\. ii ,. .tran:;.- t,. r,,„| Un^Ha ¡he (IrM r,.uer"'"î,, pr..p...e 
the meth,.,l i,,r s,,lvinu,^ the ..n,-i„.„ ,.i the Damil.ian IVin.ipalili.-, Her 
imrp,,.e v,a~ I,. eiiaMe llu- I 'rineipalu le- m „nite an.l -.. i., i,,nii a l.iiluark 
aiiaiiist 'i'lirkev an, I \ii>tria. Kn,,uint; that tlii^ ua^ al„, the ,leMn- ,.i the 
¡KM.pIe nt the tu., IVincipalitie.. in Mareh. |S.^5. . i..r!,hak, ,tf pr,.p,..e.l that 
"1 the meni.,rai„lnni .Iraun np at \„-nna I,. -,.rve a^ the prelinnnarv l.a-^ !.,r 

- li...,M„ ,o I-alnuTM,.,, J„„e 24. 1X48. lìritish ami ¡.reiten Su,U Pat.-r... v,.I 40 ,, l.Pl 
Unnimentï. /•Si.', p. 878. ' .i i-i. 




pi'.iii-, tluTf hf iiocrifd a claii>L- pniviiiiiii,' lor ciin>ultinii tlu- \\ì>1il> <>i ilic 
Oamiliiaii i'riiicipalitio tlicniscKes a> ti> llieir icDr^aiiization. .\a])M|(.(in was 
lint iiiilv ia\iiral)!f tn tin- iiiiidii a- in lino wilh iiis nwii puucy, hut. lia\iiij; 
niaik' ]iii]iiilar ajipcal tlic liasi- ui" his own thri.'iic, ua> <li>puM'<l in laxur the 
iiitrnihutinii (if the prim-i|)If as a linropcan iii>ti)iii. Tlic I'luysiati propn.^al 
\\a> a<I(ipii-<l, ami in tlii- oii^niny; I 'nni;rf>-> <il I'aris tlie (!ctail> ni ihi> plan 
wen- I'lahnratcii hy the 1'rfin.h ])k'nipi>tcntiary. l!i)nn|iicney, were a^^reed !> 
h\- I lartnilnii, ( 'nule v. C'avnnr, i'.rnnnnw and llieir enlleajjues, hy the Aus- 
trian Represe!itative> and hy Aali I'aclia for Turkey, and were incnrpnraled 
in the 1 reaty ni I'aris which wa> >ii;neil March 30, \<<r(). The treaty pm- 
\ide 1 that the >eitleineiit nt the '|<ii'stj"n of nr^'anizatinii oí the rrincipalilies 
ni Mnlda\ia and \\ allaehia >Iinuld lie ,n"ri\ed at hy mean- nf an a-'-etnhly 
nr '■ di\an iid liai " elected in each priiicii)alily under the inint >ii]ier\ i>inn of 
the I'nrte and a lúimpean Cnninii>-inn. hi ilii;. manner. \>y the initiaiimi of 
l\u»ia and the support of I'raiice. and witliout a disseutiu.ti voice in the 
(oiii^'re— . internatinn;il >anction was fjiveii tn the inethnd nl tlirect cnn-ulta- 
tinii cniicernin^' ;i (|ue^linii nf internal nrder which, it was well kiinwn, wouUl 
in\nl\e priin.iriU the i|ue>iinti of uninii of the two Principalities. 

rile lii>inry of the deliheratiniis ><i ilie |-".urnj)ean Cnninii>sion and the 
forciiii; (if a second vote in .\lold;i\ia hy tile concerted action of some of it> 
nu'inhers is of excee<lini:f interest. Lack of harnioiiy due to tile contlictin.i; 
]iolicie-> of the various Muropean courts towards the (|Ueslion of union some- 
what hampered it- etticiency. yet in the end the ui>rk was well dioie and the 
pnl>iilar will as de.'irly a-certaineil as was po>sil)le in view of the limited 
suffrage ;md the intricate method of in<lirect election which };a\e little indi- 
calinii of the will of any hut the landed proprielor>. !^o >tronj;, however, wa> 
the national feeling of the two I'rincip.iliiie- that there a|ii>ear- to ha\e heen 
tin disatt'cction rej^ardint; the re-ult 

'Vlie deil.iration for nnion made li\ the "divan-" was at first <li-re,i;;ir(lcd 
hy the loiif^ress at I'aris, the diiilntnatic .situ.iiion h.'ivinj; cliaiii;ed. and a very 
«jualilied union was accorded. Tiii- arran.i;en;-in was defeated In the strate- 
^eni of the two " divans " vvliich proceeded to elect one ami the s.ime man a- 
Ijnsiindar nr ruler in hotli Frincip.nlities, The I'nwer- tlierenimii f^ranted 
a tempnrarv uninii for the lifetime of the new Ih-pmlar. Ku--i;i had heen 
instilled ill her fiTe-i^ht. \hlinn.t,di the losing I'nwer in the (_'rinie:in War. 
she was eiiahled thmiv^h apjieal to the doctrine of -elf-detcrnnnatinii to out- 
wit not only Turkey and \u-tria, hut ( ¡rcat Ürit.iin .as well, an outcome I'mht- 
le-s aided hv the ."^epoy Kehelliou .and the I'.riti-h LiTcral-, 

The nnion of the rnncipalitie- wa> effected, fi t practiial p'.irpose-, in IS.-''. 
In that same year the method of ]io]inlar apjieal in (|ue-tion- of sovereiiiiitv 
was airain re-nrtcd to in lialv. The first suRSícstion of the nieiliod came 

lilSn 'KK Al. SlWiM \R\- j3 

troîM \ai„.lc<,n. TIk- |-.M,iRr,,r, \um.di a i„rh„n„n, m In, uas heir 
l"'tli m the rcvnluti.mary pnnnples „i l.S^S ami t... the Xapoleuiiic k-e,„l 
■aln.h. -nartn.lly lal,ri>ate.l ai St Helena, ha.l I, v now cn,ni,u-e,l the „enh.-w 
that il.e nude had held naii.,iiahty m ..j.ecial venerati,.... .spurre.l ,,„ ],, this 
..leai.Mn a, uell a> l.> the hÌM„n. hVench antaj,'oni.>,n t.. .\u> n,ntr..l „f 
ihe Italian lVnn„nIa. .\ai,..le..n in IS.^' h.ul -^„m- u, the aiM ,.i ilie |,al,„, 

l!y the I'reJiniinarie, <.f \-iliai-ranea. M^ned jniv 1!, IS.^'i, Uie ^,.,r v,,th 
\..>tna came t,. an .nnin.eiy end uiti; the iree<Ion. ni l.,„nl,ardv a. the ..nlv 
irnit ni the strii'nde. I: 


'''■'■l"i-"''irn'> An>tria eede<l l.,,iiil,ar<lv ti. 
I- ranee uith the liiat it he handed over to Sardinia .\-,po 
k-on endeavored t.. unte inn. the aj,Meen,ent D.e phrase " aceoniin^ to the 
votos o , ,1,, population.-' hVanei. Joseph, with eharacteri.stie hdelitv to 
the Hap^hnrii theory of the .^late an.l. with the ,ui.tle instinct of a .¡e.potic 
sovere.trn. inljy nnderstandin- the sii.,„iaance of the phra,e, refused savin- 
that •• he was unahle to attach any .n,porlance lo the u ill of the pcple -'and 
.Napoleon consented t«. renonnce the jiroposed fumnila - 

Xapoleon's .levotion to Italian unity ha.l l,een weakene.l hv fear of ,„„„,- 
s.t.on at ho,„e. not onlv fmtn the clerical, l.nt tn.n, tho.e nph,,l.ln,./ the 
tn.d,t.o,ial 1-rench p..licy <.f ,, ueak t „•^n,•^,^ and a weak It.dv The^'re- 
I'm.nane, ol \niafranca liherated I.ntnhanK, l,n, the I'nn,. r.r h .1 en 
sented to ahand,,n the other peoples once ,n,„v ,„ ,l,,,r ahen dnke. 
thon,, wnhon, pn.idn,, t'or the method of forcin;, ,ne>r renn, „„ ,he,r 
.mwtllm^ snhject. 'Ihe ItaHa,,. .ere detenntned to thuar, ,!„• pr,„,-„.n, 
Ol \ -11a. ranca. \ap,,le..„ .„pp,,,-, having ].,•„ 1,., ,„ „urn, th. Mrnt-h 
tahn,.., now came foruanl a- their , hainp,,.,, \\ m, .he M,pp„rt ,,: I'ahiu,-.- 
U'un. iVnne Mim^ler and Rn^.-H a. |.-,„a.i,n >ecre,arv, the I, aha,,, „f the 
'I'U'lHc, and ot R„ma,n,a made a .v,„„l atletnpi ,„„w ihe re, nrnn- 
principle o, le.nttmacy and „, ,enle the Italian ,p,e,,„.„ hv popular c,„„nl,a- 
t...n. thi. time ihron.l, a-..n,i,l,e- e-p-ciallv elecud and hv a Ii„,i,e,i fran- 
chise. Kn,.ell, Mcin,,- in ,l,e ,netl„,d ,he onlv hope of a -nlntion of the pn.h- 
Icn, ulnch wa, threatening ,he peace of Knrope. in>ÌMed o,, no ,1,..,. ',, ..,■ 
H. hetore ,he,r nnl,ia..d .pini,,,, 1,„, ,„,„ .i,,,„ -,, „„^ ,^, „^^^, 
the response o, the Towers varied. Austria replied that ulule l-n.dand looked 
t" l-in.kit.o.i. \u.,ria I„.,k..d ,„ .overn.nent.s a.ul could no, recoi,„i,e in 
cstahh-hed monarchies ,]„. principle of p„pular eleclions.^^ a disapproval in 

lattor ...t.Tprftat.nn ¡s tl,c n„c «•ncrallv «ivrn 

.,/,■ \';''^l"''"'^'''''' ■'•■' '■¡^•'rmmento. vol. I. p. cxxxvi : (;„i,I,, ,-„.;.., , , „,, . 



l'i l'.l',!--! lii-.S 

wlinh I'm-Ma MiKcrtix i iiiicurrcd. ' Xapniroii. Ikiw c\ it. niiaMc tu dfiu iImî 
Ione ill ,1 tiiK- lia-r.l un piijiiilar \ . iU-, rli..s t. . Imlii tin- iiR-thdil and ciriniiii- 
-laric. - ..i ;lh ,i.ti,- iii(lc_iÌM\ ( ami ti. •■ii that ar,i;r.iiK-iit hi- c nitiiiucd 
"l'l"'-'"'"i I" a Milli II I.I iiuii ;hi> M|)pM-iiii.ii, K;i>-fll ¡in i]» iNi-d tn (.aviiiir 
tliai iTH-h a-niiiili... in. dciU'il. Xapulrnii, Iirturc this nniiimied 
ap[iral 111 ilic priiK-i]>k' mi win. 'i hi- ..wi, thrniir rc-tnl, \\a> inrccd tu a.iírce, 
hm unii lin- -npnlain m iliat tlu- n-u- -limiM I-' ],\ ¡ik-ln-ntt-. T., tili- Ca' 
ami ilu' (■i,\cTiiMr- ni I ii-(aii> am! I nulla ca-iiiv a--cnu-il, a- •iiakiii- tiie 
rt-iih 111. ifi' iiir.iii'c-ì ,,ii.l Uii-mII a-r.r.l mi ilu- -rmiml liiat it uà- a 
iHU-nmi HT tarli .-miiiirN in la-iila!.' mr u-,lì, l 'Iclu-ciU'- u ctc acnnl- 
in.!,'l\ takri ,11 !n-.aii\ ami i'iiiilia I lu- iiiipi Ttamc aita'-lu-il l.x CaMuirto 
tlu- iil(-hi-.-,l<-- ami hi- rmir.iiiiu,- in tlu- iiutliml iiia\ li<- :,'aliu-nil irmn a ii-Ilcr 
wt-nti-n hv limi .,ii .lu- ,1,,\ ,,i tlu- v.iHiil;: •' li, a- 1 ii.ipr. tin- !a-t pr,.,ii is 
• Urisui-.- lu- uniti-, ■■ u,- -hail iiaw u ntt, ii a iiiarM-!i,n- pa-r m tlu- lii-t,,rv 
"1 lial>, i'ni-ia ;,iii| i<„--,;,. „lui,.. ,ii-p„t,i,o ,iu- ,iir„l„al \aliu- m iinivn--al 
-ultra.;.-, .an imi ,.a-i a .Imilii upmi ilu- iinn,,-,,.,. ,,,h„. ,,,• ,1,^. fact tin- dav ;u- 
(•'■mpii-hrd Ila- -Ink.-, -lu- an hdnl-a-, ili, binimi .Ink,-, uill he immd huru-d 
'•'"''■"^ •'"■ I"''' "• ''•'11"'~ 'Iq-.-n.-l ,11 II,,- ,-l,.,-i,Tal uni- ni riiMaiiv aiul 
Iniiha. - 1 n.m tin- ii„u- m, «,- tiu- ,,K-h, ,-,\ ;iu'li..,l ili,- ,-,„■- 
iurs,,,iu- ,,, In- ,„.|i,-v, an.l tlu- pK-h,-,iu- m ,-i,-,ix and \apk-., liiihna aiid 
tlu- M,, n.ll.iu.-,! -uiì;In and .k-,i-,v.iv Ca-.nur'- .hm.,- m iiu-th.,,1 
■'■'^ '"■'" ,l>'-''''^''l Tlu- p..hi,.,d Hu-rtn,-iu- n! a iiiK- ha-.d m, pnpnlar 
•■'■'11. :.nd li. -iip.-rmntv ..,,r ain l,a-,-.i .-n tr.-atv n^hi- , ,r niluTitaiia-. ,-aii 
ni-\ii- h, iimn- ,-l,,irl\ -li.,.\n than in tlu- ,-,i-,- .,i liah 

^""'^ ""■' '"""■ '" ''"■ l'Ili"-. lU- „i,„h -11 -iili-,-.|ii,-ni ,|,-,-n-imis ,,| the 
tiu-thnd hav.- Ik-.-ii iiiaiU- ¡li,- in„,li-i,,n,- nf ,!- ^ahu- .\ap. lU. m had i-xai-tnl 
thea-si.m ,.i Savnv and .\u-,- a- paMiu-iit i.,,- in- ao;nu--,-i-tu-.- m tlu- aiiiu-xa- 
II"" III in-ony and l-miilia 1 iiaMo in rmn-.- .Vapnl-. ,i,\ ,l,-n,aiid, ( avmir 
ui-lK-d tn prntn-t hini-.-ll a.t.,!, ]n uiiiin^: mi,, ,1,,- inat^ a i lan-.- 
I.nn-ulm.u tnr .-nn-iillatimi m ,1„- ,n|,,,hM.ini -, (hi tin- h.,. i„-,-k,1 ,„ -,,„.■ 
-t du- n-hu-iann- m XapnK-mi uh,, uà- I,,-, , -imn^r ,,„,| ,„ ,„. ,„|,|„„., ,,, ,,,^. 

''"■'''■■'I "" •■"■'■'""" '"■ 'li- l--"! nnpn--„,„ „,a,|, , ,„ ,|u- \-,,rtluri, l",,u.-r- hv 
tlu- f\ciit> m Italy,' 

«The nritiO. rrprcrnutìve at the Prn„ia., („„n »,-„„. ,l,at Ha,,,,, S,l,l.,„„, a,l„„ii.,| 
!!rì,.! ,'|.'''.'-'.'-'''-V'^'T".!,' ''"'■!'?' ":''"«"'".'" ^>"'r--»l l'"l.v l'tit "makr. no conrcalniont 

.t 1,1. .I.>.ii.,.r..val ..Í ti.,- |.rin.-i|.lc ..f ap|,..Hlin« to the iH.iflv „f tl„ l,ai,a„ ,i„..i,i,,, 
m.l I m-,v ,, il II,.., IV„-,ia «i...|,| ,ti,a,.,.r.,v e .,ill more -f ,hc rm.r.r al...„f t,. Ih- p„r,„r,rif" 

t HTM I -„,! .„, :,„.,,-,! -. „r ■ ;,>„„,. l'artitmtHtary Pafers. .\fTa.r, „f haU- |.V,,V,|. 

•Hociimcnt«, />,iì/. |i, $>i. 

; ■ ■'■■,■■' ' ■ •'■■ • i '•" ■'" uiitiiíle »f aCMiii-sccncf m ihr Savov «■>si<in «n 

.OM,!,,,,.,, ,.„,. «l,au.v.r fichumtt ,li.t. l-raiK. n,„«, „.„ t„,e hrr .-h,-, „„ > p,,.,,i,,i„. 

nn y^l^ '"■ '■ '■''■' "'"' ^'""'^ "^ '"'"■"""• ^■"'' -• '• -•" '"•■""'« "-" ""ivi". 

pp, 399 401, 

IHM' >i<i( \i. ^L•.\l.M,\K^• 


li "Hul.l l„. a o,nra.!;o,tis [ht-.,,,, uh,, u,,„l,l \cmiirr m a-^-crt. o.u^uU^nu- 
ilw rq,i,iat.Mii ,,, ,lu->f pichicote., ilmt thcv ucrc lair; an-l ,t u,,„M 1k' a 
^'V.InlMM. iKTM., uh,, ,,...1,1 aovpi ,hc ma^- ,,t rq.ratol a>..rti.,ns „„Min- 
l-nricl l,y la.l^. u„h,,„t .,„,„ M-q,,,,,.,,,. 1 h. pnmarv .tht , .f latrr h,.- 
:; nan- ha. !,cv„ i,, o.,!.,., ,hc tu,, pk.l„M-,tc. a.„l t,, trvat ihrn. a. ,,„o 
>.antv a. ar. ihc .peniK . har^c. .,f anv ^ahK• aj;a,n.t th. ^,,„. ,,f X,,, ,,,,,- 
...UM he o.n.KkTol rar n.,.rr u.„ht> ,han th,,.. n-^ani,,,^- ,1,, v,,,.- ,„ sav,,; 
-Ii..-h ua.a,ln,.tu.,lly lr.„,h .„ rar,. ,„ !a„^;,a„ an,I. at th, t,„„. ,„ p,:h,.,.;, 
7"'"";"' '' - ""• 'Hv,-ar., :.,a,„,u,u .„r ,h, v„t, ^^ ,n, -ra! pr,.-.,., , „- 
'';■•"""-■> ""■'■' -l-l'-'"-a„„„a,„.„. pr,.,, „„tt,:ha^, l.„n,,r,„„; 

"V'"'"! "^■'"- '" '"'^ ''■'' """^■'' •" ^-"^ '■••«"'Il '" '-l".r, a ,-,ar 
;" ;'"■ l;';-l-"'""^""'«' ■■• '!"• l-^l-an ,l,„„„t ,„ ,1,,. sar,l„na„ n„,nar, n uhu-h 
I'-'l -.l,l,„lv l„o,„„a.. Itaha,, k,n„l,„„. I,, ,)„. „ar ua- a,|,l,.l ^l.-hk, 
'" '';«■ ■""-'■'^•n'-a! att.t.t.l, ,,. (a^,,.,r a,„l ,h, |,al,a,i hh,raN uh,, ha,| ,a„- 
■'"vl 'lu- >ar,l„na„ parl,an„„t ,., th, r,„„t ,1,„„„„ l.,,nh,r tl,,- ,„„11,- 
"■'" '"■'"'' "'"■'■^ '" '">n"Hn-,al ,l,x ,1, ,p„u„t. ,,,„r v,ar. -.1,.,,,,.,- ^„l„a^^ 
-r-u-,, a,„l ,1„ r,„„,w,l ,,t ,.,.„„„ harr„r., n,„-, haw 1„,„ ,.,,„,„ „,„,,, 
l.^>r.,p,a„ appr,lu.„.„,„ , .f .Vap,.l,,,n uh,, thn. r,^,a,„„| ,h, s,,,- ,,,-,. 
"!'«■ i--'al .„1,,:^ ,„ (,anhal,l, uh,, .„wr „,r^av, th. I,,.. ,„ V,„ hl^ 
I;"-"'!'!--. a-„l ,h, ,h-r,:-ar.l ,,. Su,.. ,la,„,. t„ ,h, „„Ural, ..„i p,,n,,„', ,;, 
>av,.. u,r, ,,r,,l,al,h tl„ ,a„., „f th, ,xají„rat„¡ ,-har„., a,„l th, ,har-M.. 
^^.■r, ,.r,atlx a„l,,l l,v th, a,„„.,„^ h„t ,>,v,,l,,„. al!a,k. ,,t Lauta.,,, < .hpha„t 
-I.., „.!,,u„l ,„, pr,,pa^a,„la a,„l .xh, .r,a-i, „, all th, .-, „„l,tn„at„ „, ,1,.,. ,,, 
-ra,,,! an,| o„nipt„,„ AI,h„„.h th,r, ,. n„ ,1,,„1„ ,i,at ,h, h,a,l ,,t,l„a!. .,.„1 
'lH-,r p. ,.„„.„ t,, „rp. „„„„,. .,„,„ -.-q,,,, ,.„ r,,t,.a,,;:a,^ tl„ ,,th,r p,,„„. ,,, ,r,i,- 
'"'" -'■;•'"' '"'^'"'•■'' ''^ "'•■ '•'•' 'I'-' "• i"t>' ... a„ „p,„,„ ,1a,,.,. ,„ ,,„. 
"■'"^ th,r, app,;,r. 1., ha^, I,.,,, ,,„K a ,„^1,^,1,1, „„a;rat„,„: that ,„ lS7l. 
-iH., ,1„ tu,, „r,,„,r„- „„.ht :m..- .at,K r,v,.lt.-,| tr,,n, hra,,.,. ,h,v u.r,' 
■"• "-■ '•■..ilrarv. ,1,-,,,„,1 „, ,l„,r !,,valt^ : ati,| that a. lar a. .a„ I,.- ,|.-. . .., „„l' 
llitr, ha. i„.t 1„,„ a„ ,rr.,l,,it,.t part\ „I Sav,,\ ItaK ,,r\i,a. 

\I.I-n,h,h, ^:„^,r„„„,„. ,,t \„-tr,a, k„:.,a, a,„l l'n,..,a u,r, all ,1,.,, 
" '■'• "''■"■^'■'V" ""• "■■'''"" ""'^•!-..l„„, uh„h ha,| ,„., |„,„ ,r,.,,,i ,hr„„,h 
yl;^^.r,,,,,.,,l,at,,.,,a,,,,.,r..a, l,r,ta,„ua.,-p,.al,M,,,.,,,,,,,,^ 

Z^:;:iZ-^'''^''''-'''^-''''' ^^ -nMphua. .„„n„lv,.tal,h.h,.,| 

^ >^'^ .1.... . «a> a,.a,„ and ,.„. ,„„r, ,i,„n,„K ur„t,„ ,„t,. an i,„,r„a- 

•-I I-" .. np a. ,„ara„,„r. ,., tl„. 1„„ M,„„,, ,„.,„„„„ I^; 

-Pm..l.,„ V„„M ,.,SM I.M,,l„a,,,n„.„„,.,,„„„„r,„..,,',' r,; , 
.Ç.W-,., nu- ex,,re»,,| ,„„„,„,„,„ ,.,,,, ,;,„,..„ „. ,„;,^^ — ; 

::;,'"/'"^"''"':'l ■•"--'"''^ -• '•'•" -.. .; . rt 

■' —-..„t ,h. i:r:„-h p,„„,,„,a„ ,,,.,„ „„,,^^,,,._ 

i'i.i;i:i.^t II !•:: 


cially fk-nr.j .,1. -lie .|nrMiMii. \,,ii-,j i;i¡.uiiii!, ,tl•^ly i.,r iiiiimh. :m,! tlic ,k-,:rr 
was M.k'ii.iily ;;raiiii-.| m ,,ii. iilitr tna!> lnH\rrii ilic .aim- i'.,urr. mi, X,,\cm- 
ber 14. an,! m a inai\ \mi1i (.iccic a^ ^..^i-naiMiy ,,n March _"». 1S(.4. hi 
all thi-M, wvaiu- ilir v.-i,' ,.i Ihr !-ia;i,!- i~ .;air,l a- ilic priniai-, .^,ipht„,„ ni 
tiu' al.rc^ati.,ii ,,i ¡he \ unna anaii-rüicnt an.l i.n m .„i ur.h (.^e^e. I1m\v- 
tvcr ^R-atiy tlu- ,k-.irr i , lialaiua- ilu- -p.uin- Mav ^iivn-th Im tlu- i,Mnh, or 
tn reuanl the („ark. inr 'iuar rv-ani > nf a .,,^crui;n niav have coii- 
tnl.ntc.l I.I this art, until thru nn¡,aralkk-.l in li..i.,rv. the chnia- ni nirtlM,] 
1- uii.k.iil.toll;- ,hir In tin- iM.T.pi,.,,, ni It, \ahir i,y 'the I'.ntwli ( ainiiei aii.l 
i-|Kriall\ 1a,l |nh,i U.,>„-11 

Ilu- ••HMM inu-reMmu .ntmialmnal .li^ni^-in,, ni ,hr ine,h,„l n, the plehi- 
ate. aihl the nur nm,, M;;niluant tn-.jay. j. that l.v the ei-ht l'n-v,r~ ^aihere.i 

'" '''^' ' ^•''^"" "' '■'""'"" ""■^'■li '"''I Mi the .,,r,n^ n, ls.,4 with tlu- n|„eei 

"t ennvertin.L.' ihe len,|.n,ar> ,,ni, m ImMinne. hetueei, 1 lentnark a-,,' 
"''«■ '-nnainr l'n«er. min a in-nnaiu-nt inaa- The pmm at v,a> a-am 
the -i.^poMtinn ,„ the , 1, ulne, n, Sehle^.M^r .,,„! llnNteni. a inatier uln.h'ìia^ 
Mii.,.„.edly keen -ellk-M. alier 1N4S. k, ,;„,.:„ „vatu-, re^anhiii^ the Mie.-e-M. 
'" ""■ ''"^■'"'- "^""-'H. an,l the nentrak ,leMre,l that the^e prnviMnn, k. 
'■'■^'■"■■' '■'■"^^'•'- "'^' ' ""le.leraiini, an.l AtiMna were ,leter,n.„e,l a-^ani^t 
:' I'eiveum- alter a len-thx an,l inni, ,l,,en,M,,n that re>t, .rati, ,ii ,.i the 
t>•eaI.^ ,,r,,M,„,n- ua. h,,,,ele.., lari Kn-^ell. a, -,., .keM.iaii t,.r the tientra' 

povver.. pr..,,Mse.l ¡hat re,,, mm ke nia,le ,,l tke nati,,nal apurât,,,,,, ,,, the 

tv. raee> ,n .s,hk-.u,. |,v a ,liM-,.n ,,i the ,kuhv al,,n^ a ii nner uhuh he 
<n-lK-ate.k 11.. titrther di.p,,„ti..n ,,i ilu- .„nhern part ,,r ,.i ll,,k.e,n t,, ke 
'"■"'' '^ "''■"" ■'''■ '""-I" "I "i< MihakitaiiN -Mulv e,.nM,!te,l- I,, -iK-h a 
-lio~..." Ik-nniark aiul tlu- ( ..-nnain, k,,uer- a,ree,l n, prineiple. knt e,,nl,l 
rcae. n,,a„-e,.„,ent „n li,.. hue ,„ .leinaia alu ,n. ea. h p,.,p,„i,„ a hne u In. h 
VV..UI,! inekuk nianv ,„ ,lu- ahen ta.e. the .„:n,an ,k 1. ,ate. elainn,,.^ the 

^•'"' ' ""■""^^'l 'I'^lnet an,l ih,- IVin-l, ,¡.l,,ate, elaiinnm ikat an,l e.en 


Tlu- .;en„a,,ie„e>. h.,v^e^er, „iM-te.i ,,„ an 4e^ el, ,pinen, 
"; •';•■;-■-"'•■'' I.r..p....l, I. ha.l k..en ,h,. .;nl„h pr„p„„„nn that ,he.„te 
>h..i.l.! W taken ..niv ,n ti,.,M- ,|„tnets t.. he separate,! ,>,„„ the 1 .anwh er„w„ 
nanu-ly. m ll.,K,..,„ .-„„l the M.nfheni .livtriefs .,f SdileswiK. ..i nr.ler .., a^eer' 
»=">"l>'''r vv.>l. as t.. their t,„„re ntler !;,-,narek n.nv ro...r,e,l „, a „Ian 
...•.«„tally pn.pnvcl ,.. I,i,„ Uv .\ap.,Ie.M. ' a.t.l ins,r„et.-,l -lu- I'm,-,,,. „L ... insiM ,l,.t .he v„.e he .aket, aK,. „, ,he pa,, , i Sehiesw," t.. ke 
srparatcl .r.m, the r,-., „f ,1,, ,,„,„,, -.,,„„,,„, ,,^ „,^. ,„„^...,.;, „_ ^^ 

' I '• inr»-l. vi'll S\l • 

"""" ' = '"'-'-''«•■:■:- '"-•-,„ I.M„. .,.,....„ IhM„..,a .H..I l.n.„v„,lellue 

M Mim»UT, on (hit »i.l.-.rt 

in>|( iKI( \|. >t .MM XKS' 


^> r. ,1,,.] l.,ra»n,^ ,.„„,. ■>.„, IVn,..nrit. at .h. nn-vr „f h, va-nmcu,' 

;;•""■'■""::"'"' "- !•'- - -^u. „. x^muT,, schu.:,, ... ; , 

;--, t. I)çn„urk a. n .,.UT.d an ,,,,p,,nnn,,w,, tlK- ,K-.p!c n, ^,:u. a., un-, 
'"-• -'■" ■•'•I--, -r ua. „ ,,lcaMn, .n the „cnural l'„u.r. ,„ v.l,,,,; ,... 
i'"^"'^"r;"" "-"--!■ ~lu ua. an ....„„a, .„ „,„ „„j;;!; 

l-"-';y-<l'^!.' I '-'l-A'-T..'... Inn .„,,.,,., a, „ 1,,',;,,, 
;■'■■'- ;'■''"'■' ■'•-•''<' •'■•!- <i-.ncl huund.d ,.MluM..MlUn ,lK. IHK. ,,r:,,i;.,l 

:'-V'"7'''\""'"""'^ "'■''> 'iK- Inu. „„.U..1 „n 1. l..n„,ark. ,lu .,„c 

■•; '■>■ '^'1-- !■> o.n.nnn.. nn,Kr ,1,. .,^... ,„ ,i,| ,,. ■„, „„. , , , ^ 

Mippwr! ,,t tlR. .U-k-at,-^ ,„■ ,|u. (u-i-niainr ( ,.,Kr;, 

1^' in at nncf tíaincd ihr s 

,,,:,," '''■,'"""■''' "■''''^■^^■"'■'''^'■- '■■-"'''''-• I-''-'-i-"nu-n,lva,a,n., 
: ■ ;'fV? ■^'^'''^•''^'-■•-'M-^an.a,,,u..,,.n h ,h. .h,,!,.:.,.. 

'- ■'--->p''u-,.rnu,,,,l,,,r.,:,lau. ,hc ,.,,h.^ ,„ ,h,. In,- 
P'-'- .-r. u„.adn„t,h.a,,,K.aluh,dMh.,,l..n,,„,u.nnaru..,„ IVn,„a„,,.. 

;:;;' I'' '-'f ;•••'''' ■■'■I'f •''-■■• >'■•>•--'. -".iK.nn.r,,„ iL. 

V;:'""""'""p'"— - ' — 1,l.., ,1,..„.nan,|, .h. ,.,■,.. d 
■';'''■'--'-''-■". -l-.dMh. oauVrcn.. a,l.,nnu.d and ,h. ua,^ 

•n re!!!- 

iiu' ^tau.n,,,, ,- nude- that ih. < -.„uVmu <• ,.f l,,„d, 

' ■" -lK.a,ln,n .n„nn„,,n,M., ,h.d.u..n„ |,wh. .^, ,,i..n,,,,,u.n.,a,. 

• -vn.„nd,a,.dan. a,,,.al,„a.,„...and NuMna rHn.-d a,,:,...!. „! 
;U I ■■.... w... ...,,„ ,„ „H. i,a>... -lu. ,,l.n,,„„.n.,aru.. ,d IVnnMrl 

■r 1.: nn. l-ra... >..dnK iVu.Ma and ,h.. ^.nnanu. , ,,nf..,.,.an.,,, all 
|.q..o. he. , ,.-u,n,J. ,.■ a ,.W,,.-,t.. an.l that. a!,h,.H, ,|.^ 
-'^••'".1. ..huTt.-.n hv l.u.nurk ,,nd th. „..„traK „. ,h,. I-,-,,- ,an pr,.,„ 

•Co.f„rnn.„f I, „„,,„, ,,,.,„„, ^„ ,„ ,,,,„„,,,„^ ,,, 

lrot.,r..| N.. 11 I i,,cumcni .;■„.„. ,, gjH 

I - 


I'l.l-.MIM iTI-.S 

takiiii; ;t \ I'H- HI the wlmlc i^t' X'nrllKTii Sclik'^uij;. the l-'rcnch xilutiiai ut 
taking; a ^^tc in tin- iii-|.ntt'il di-tnct ami .IravMii.i; a frontier line in accnnl- 
anrr with it nui with the uni|tialitieil aiiiini\al ni the rei>reNeiitati> es m' all 
<ii the I'dwer-- e\ie|it 1 )eninark. kn>-ia and Austria. 

Ill ISdii iJK' l'i.\\t-r^ Wire (Hice innre met at l'aria to iliseiis> the iine^iion 
ot tin I lannlnan I 'rincipalities. I'niiie ( ou/a, \\liip.--e election in 1S57 ha<l 
> nrcil the union oí Moli|a\ia and W allrudiia, had heen de|)o>ed li\ hi- own 
sulijiet-. 1 he \ar,itir\ in the critiee oi llo-[io(iar oiiee niore r.ii-ed the iine-- 
tion oi union. 1 iirke\ and Aii-tna were -till oppo-ed to it atid Ku-.--ia now 
.-hared their attitude, I he \n-tri,in and kn->ian ])lenipotentiaries, however, 
were hotli caretiil h< lia~e their ar<.;nt;ients on the -npposed de-ire of the 
-Moklavian- for --eparatioii. Moih I'.ruiiiiow for Kii^-ia and Metternicli for 
.\nMtia ni-i-t(il that the pei'ple of Moldavia -lionld he ahle to -tate their 
widi(- under -I'.re ^^narantee- of liln_-rt\ and mdepeiidenee.' (owlev. the 
ilnií-li representative, -ani that hi- i,rov ernnient no precíjiieeiv ed opinion 
either loi or aL;aiii-t nnioii. no intention of iinpo-mj^r on the population an 
ari,iiiL;.:!ieiit rei)nL;nani to tlieiii and left it to the wi-h of the population-. 
Il the peoplr. le-allv eon-iilted. pronoiiiKed 'or the niainten.mce of union, the 
llnti-h ^I'Vrrnnieni vv..iild not oppo-e it ain. >vonld. in f.ut. -npjiort it with 
the l'orli In llii- 1 'r!i--¡,i a^rn.l I raine ni-i-ted ¡hat hevond (pie-tion the 
lieo|,Ic (,i the 1 'riiuipahlie- were -till in f.iv or of union: if further informa- 
tion wa- ile-ired the joint ,i--einhly .i! I'liu liare-t eoiild lie iiiterroi^ated. Ihi'- 
did not ple,i-e either the \u-lriaii or l\ii--ian ilele^.ite-, who advocated a 
^ o!r 1,\ -i|,ite .i--eniMie- ill eaiii ! 'riin ipalit V in order to ohv iate the dan y er 
Ol pre--iire on ilie ileirujate- 1 he ipie-tion of a new eleetion and 
Ol hint or -1 p. irate a--emlili<- wa- reterrecl liaek to the home l;ov eminent-. 
I he leplv o! the l\ ,l;ov eminent in the di-]iatih read hv llriimiow i- in- 
tere-tini: I lie l\n--ian l;ov iTiiiiKiit rejiln-d that the ehii f re<pii-ite for .i 
de. i -ion w ,1- liL;hi " 1 In- hi.; lit." the di-)i.Urli. a- iea<l h v r.nniiiow . " I ,ni 
lie ohtaiiud oiilv through a lu-w re-ort to ilu' vote of the two I 'rinei|i:ilitie-, 
-nrroiiuded Kv all the L,'narantee- vvhi.ii eoiiKl ,i--iire it- -ineiTitv " The 
I'nn- i|ialitie- had. liowe\er. not waiteil the i'ovver- to detemnile the 
(|ne-tioii ..f an a-iniMv In the inteival the piovi-ional j^o\ crnnient of the 
I'rnuip.ililie- hail i.ilNeii the m.itter into n- own hand-, had ili--oKeil the 
A-isenililv and riiivoked .i new one \;^,iin-t tin- .I'tmn the ( onf<-reiuc 
-tri iil;Iv |irote-teil, h:l iiltun.itelv .dlowed tin- vote t, ,r union > a-t li\ the 
a-sitiiMv -o fleeted and al-o t^r.nited the wi-li lor .i torei'^n |innce. a de-ire 

' Milli-nmli lUtlartil .Sim >;>>i!vi riir:i:fiit I'l ^n- ¡¡.iii» tmi- ii'< i a- i|iif li* i iipnLiniins 
Miililavrs IIUÍ--IM1I rincltrc Iriirs virus sons crrtaiiics garanties de litierti- et iii'ii-iKiidt-ncc." 
liilid-rnur iif l'aris. ISdii. l'rntniul No. J, M. irteli-. A A', i,'. voi IS p ]7^ 

HISroKK Al. SIMM \RV p, 

ulmh had he.n ..fto.i in the I ■r.nnpalities and \.hich had tiinHv 
btTi. put to a .hrcci vote u, the pcple hy the provisional K'.ucrnment 

Ih.s -a,„e year „, 1N«,(, .aw a >ccn„d treaty „f ce.^nn cn,„a,n„,^ a stipu- 
I.-'t.on tnr a plel„.nte. The Treaty ,„ l 'ra^ue, M,M,e.l ..„ Au^.i-t _M KS66 
H-rnnnated the uar between I'rnss.a and Au>,r,a over the >p,.,U wh,d, thev 
.... .e.xed ,n,,u I Vntnark ,n 1S.4. Art.ele X' .ontant. the >t,puiat,o„ that 
1 n^.a .hall mo.rporate the only o„ eond,t,o„ that the popttlafon. 
-M Xorthern Sehle..,, .hall he ceded to I »en.nark „ I.v a tree' vote thev 
^"'"^■^^ "•;■'' ''\ ^^"'■' ^ -"-nporary oh.erver. and later a^ree ,n 

- .m, the elan>e to the nt.h.ence of Xapoleo,,, . „o ,,,,, ,,,,, ,. ,¿,^^^^,^ 
U e^her or no, th,s ,. the .aet. ,t ,. ol.,o„s that the .u,,e.tio„ a. to Xorth- 

rn .s,i,l..u,, ua. tar ,n„n novel and had aopnred tt. or,,.nal pre.,„e tron, 

rn.Ma, ' -enta.e, o.euT. d„l not prev en. 1 Vn..a ,f , „„ at onee nneondi- 
-lly annes.n, the dnclnes ., .,; , ,,„„,,, , , „,; ,,..,.,^^. ^,,,^. 

Hon. had heen l,e-nn uuh lienmark, 

.. .Nl e.u„. .„, in,,,,,,,,, _,, „,,, ,,^, ,,_.^,, ,,^,^,,.^^^._, ,^^,_,^^^^ „„ V,,,.^,,.,„ 
-uer hon.e that n, his op,,,,,,,, a people unw,liin;;|v annexed ou,ld not h. an 
'■-'-. - and .hat the ..ov^mn-en. eonld not re.n.e to redeen, the 
P-l,e mad.. ,n that treaty.' The ueldn., o, M,.,„arek to fro„, the 
n d,.a,^- partv tnark. the n.aturn,. o. ano.her ph.lo.phv - the nej^afve of 

- n pop,,,,, .overe„ntv-,he tnatunn,. ,n faet, of a ph,l ,v wind, 

'•"' '"■" 'r^''".'""^ '-'-'-^ "'^' '^••" ■ • -'-e a ne. na„o„ ua. l,en,,/ereeted 

— ..n the pnnople not ot con.ent, as ,n Italv, 1,,,, of .■„„,„,.,. The na- 
•>'-.l d,.n,oerat,e tuouMnent o, IMS hav.n. fa.le.l ,n . .ertnanv, thank, to the 

"■''•-.I plnlo.ophv had l,oeon,e ena.nore.l of another ,neth,.d. the n.etho.l of 

t"; 7'';"", '■^'':'''''™'''''"'''-"--..-no, „aK..,,„,„hadl.en 

>y'-i -|1.T .he .p,r,t o, 1S4N. , .ennan nnuv represented a eo,,,,,.. „„,.... 

•■'•nt. In her annexation o, Hanover and lle..e,n 1S,„, I ■n,..,a had .hou n 

■> re^;.rd to .he pop„lar w,ll, 1„ |So7 .he anneved Sehle.w,^ in ,p,te of the 

'';-;'''--;";• — .V \f..r is.; a„d epee.allv'ls;,, anv 

"P,-rt o, „at,o„al .el.-de.ernnna- . „, ,-o„.„tn,ed an n„l„Mnen. of ,he uhole 

..•nna., p,„„.a, „n,et„rea. uei, a. of . .er.nan aet,o„ „. Sehle.w,, a 

''"' "''"'• •■«■'•man ur,ter. uere not .low to .h'.eern. 

' ''"'I l.lli. rliiiK, /'jr/,1,;,- ,/.., V/,-j: !■■ in l>-.,o C ,1. I ,, 

...ï" " , ,; "; :i 7;''; 7"":"; ■■' "'i;'—" ■ '■•"•■"■ ■■ •«. i" .*.. -n 

:r" """' ' ' '" "• •"' ." :;:;:;;,"...".,",:;"',:■;::; t 



I'l.ij'.iM 1 11-; 

! he >nl)-i.'iniii¡ lii~t"r\ ni tiu- linciniie l)(.-i(iini.->, aiiiT \Sl_i7. primarily nnc 
di cliMii^-ÌMii railu-r tiian mi' |irai-iict.-. 1 liun.- arc. h> In.- -lire, a lew -cattcr- 
iiii; t\,iiii]ilc-~ "i a re-'Ti tn -el i-tlcternuiiatii iii alter the Treaty nf i'ra,L,'iie. 
I )eiini.irk. while -III! Iminiiil ni arrixiiii; .it an atireemein with rrii--i;i. iii- 
>i.ste(i nil a ]ik1ìÌ-v ilar\ elaii-e in the treal\ di re--iiin di the i-laiiil> ni .^t. 
'^lldIlIa^ aii'l ."^t. Jiiliii n> tile I iiiteil .^l.ite-, aii'l the jileln-tite \\a- arlii;iil\ held 
ill Jaii;iar\. ISiiS. I lu- Italian í;m\ cniiiieiit in-i-teil nii a jilelii-eite lieini; lieM 
in \Ciietia 111 lN(id. .'iiiil ill Kmiiic in \X7<K hei.ire the .iiineNatidil ni tlie-e 
j)rd\iiuc- til llie kinijili iiii. I he tre,it\ di ee--idii -ij^ned li\ hraiue .and Swe- 
den III lsr7 ]irii\iiled inr a plelc-eMe in the i-laiid ni ,^t. i iartlu ildinew . A 
elai)-e -ti|iulatii)^ inv a jilelii-eite \',;i- iiu i irpi iraled in the I \' ni AiU'nii 
111 issi, I'.ii! alilinii-h ,ill ni ilu-i- ]ilelii-eite-. exeept ni the Treat}- di 
AiK-iii!, were duly e.-irru-d niii, nc, i itliele-- the e\iiic-,-d di-reL;;iril ni i llllii,^•ltidn 
under the dt i'r.ii^iie -hnwn 1j\ i'rn--i;i w .i- ;i hlnw to the ]ire--li;:;e di 
the prineiple. ,i Mnw the greater hei ,-iii-e ni tin- L;rdWth di <ierni,-m\- .'i- a 
wnrld I'nwer. and heear.-e nf the ^mw m;,'^ m-tnin ni -tiidelll- ni lii-tnr\ ;ind ]iliiln-i ijiliv tn -i(i. iii-iniitinii ill lieriiiail nni\er-itie- The philn- 
sdphie .-ii-L;tiiiRiit- liiere ]irnpi .iinded were tun \ alu.ihli- a- --iippnrt inr the 
iilipen,ih-tu' .iiitl aiiti -ileiiidcralii de-in-- di indiv idiiaN .-iiid ;.;rdiips in dtlier 
ediiiilrie- iidt tn j^ani eaL;er eri-ihiKe. 

In atleinpl- .'it -etti«, iin-nl ni i|iie-tinii- ni -i a (;re\i;nl\ ami liniiiidarie- hy 
The !;, ni <:u] ."--iei.iiin in l.^-^/'S and the ( nimre-- ni lleihii m 1n7N the 
dni-iniK- and niethnd were Imtii ÌL;iinred. The l.i-t ^-a■^e n\ siu-ce>slul .ipjieal 
Id tin- diHiriiie heinre the ni 1'*'.4 \\,i- th.-n ni (.'rete, xshich. aiter cnn- 
••taiit di-reL;.-iid h\ tlu- I'nwer- nf n-. repiated \ nte inr iininn with ( ireeoe. 
(i.-i--<d li\ eaih -iu'i-(--i\e eleclMe .[--enihly. .it la-t, in I'M J. wnn their liii:il 
tnn-enl In the ending ni a -iliialinii L;rnwii iinteii.dile tlirmmh eniitiiuied di-- 
riint(-nl and made arnie lhrniit;li ihe thre.ileiud Im-tilitie- hetweeil ' irei-ee and 
iitikev, Ihe dm trine had, hnv\i-\er. lueii .ihaiidniied li\ ^tate^iiieii .'is heinj; 
iiunii-i-tent w nil the jinlirs ni I'nWLr, I iipldiiiaev- had returned to 
the metili ■iì~ i it tili- > i iii^re-- ni \ iriina, < hue nn ire, .'is alter \ leiina. the <!dc- 
trine w.i- tn lind it- -iijipnrt irniii the penjile wlin-,c ;i-pir.itinn- h;id 
heeii ihw.irted and irniii pnlilual -indent- mtere-ted in perieetmj; tudis -itited 
tn .iihie\e tile -i.iliilii\ wliiih h;id heeniiu- iiinre ihaii e\er e-seiitial U> tlie 
ilehi-.ite nl tlir eniilplex nr^.lin/.itlnii ni -miete. 

I lu- ]H-rind li dl -en ---nil n\ tlu- pn-iimn ni the dnctrme ni -elf -déterminât inn 
in iniern.itini,.-.; l.iw Iiii.;iin with tlu- \ear- inllnw inç^r l.Vdh l.ilieral tlmn^dit 
m l-.timpi- wa- in-i-ieni tli.ii ilu- )-'edi;e ni ilu- Tre.i!\ ni I'raj,'iie he inlTilled. 
in niii- lit the lir-t i>-iK--. ni the newK in-iitiuc-d A'e, /(,■ ,/,- dfi'it iiitrnuitii'iiiil 
at r.r-i--il-, the editnr. K'nhn- l,iei|nein\ n-, made .i -hi .rl hut elnipient .ilt.uls 

ilis i( )ki( \i. sr.MM \R^■ 


■■n !lK- I'r.N-ian ta<!„rc an.l „iH^tol ,», l„,tl, tlu- Icyal an,l natural ri;,.],! ni 
lìir [jtM|iI(.. ,,1 Srlilf^w jL^' 

T- -i.mral iho„i;I,t tlu-rr uas „,, ,|,¡e.ti.,„ ,,í I'ru^Ma's ,,hl,t;;,t,nn •„„! 
'Ix' .I.Tirni. v,,,v,l,l m all pr, ,l,a!,iln v hax,- rca.M.-u.l Um^Ii ha,l it „. „ I,,,.,, 
latallv ucakcm-d l.v tl„. niiivt-r^al o,n\ic-li,,„ that tlu- „„„al mi, It I, „■ ilu- 
var .,1 isrii lav uitli Iraiur. I„ tin- n,„„„,n ,,i ,1k- ,lax, l-Vamv. I'nr ,,;,r- 
I"-r, .., .,m,|,u.t. l,a,l .n:rr..l ,.„ ;,„ „,i ii,s,,|„.,l u;,^ ,,,■ ,,,^.„,^. .,.^.,,,^^, ,, 
,Utnk-k-s~ l'ru"ia. Siich, thank, t,, tlu- „„ivc-r^al ,l,Mm~t ,,1 .\a,„Jcn,i III' 
"a. the ...ÌKT .iu.k;,iinu n, „n,i,-a]s at iIk- titiK-, a uvl'^uu-m „ot t,. !„- anu-„.k-(l' 
""•'' '!'^' l'"l'l'>ati-n -1 th,- trnr .Mry n,' thr Ij,,. .li.palch, Tn ,]„- r-hto-Ms 
a,ur.,- ,,. ,„a,.y ,,^ ,],.., l,!,.,-;.], „ appcarol t,, Iv nu-r. ,„,„a- that ^Vaiuv 
^h^aiM hn-rll M-ttrr th.^r pa,„. nt >■,„ ,nr.t uh,.-h ^hc luul „u-anl tu „nl,Vt 
In t'„. „vatN ''v.uv^ Al^a.c a,„I I.MTai.K- t.. (;,nnaru i]„- .lan~.- ^vu- t-> r.~,- 
.K-,..:- .., tlK- rr.V-,] i,-rri,.,nc. a„ Mp,„,„ ..f ,-,.tai„i,i- Fraidi c,t,/^M,hlp^ ,„ om- 
'Ini-n M, „lakni,^ their h,.,,,,- ,„ r,-ana-, ua. th..,mht -..inct-iit oaïa-ss,,,,, ,,, the 
riL'hr- nt tlu- miiahitatii..^ I^^.|;■.■,ll^ „., „ Jm a ;Vu -Imrt ;„.-,.,:,, I,..,nrc 
I'.-Hl «rate, that ilu- p.npk- ni Schk-Mvi.o ha,l the r.^ht ,i,Iu-,-.-,„ ,„ all nu-n 
»"t tn he- hartrn.l ahnnt hk.- In-a-t.. tmu- ,k-lV,uloI tlu' ri^ht ni the v ,Vtnr 
I- -xtnrt terrnnnal o-^Mn,, a. a r-rm, frwrrr litu,.,nt,,. aiul ,„ ,hi. he re- 
tieete.l the v,eu n, n,a„v « hn^e,t,ne„t ha.l utter!-, hluule.l them In the 
'■'^'';: '" ""■ ^"'>'''"a"N lhe,i,.e!ve~ ^ NVt a. puhhe np„„nu, .„II ,-n„,k-,u„^ 
hi.l: 1- ranee, re.uanu-d ,t. halauee Mtffieientlv „, re-ard -he pmieMs ni" the 
'":"''''■,'" "'^•^•.■"■I'Hre,! prnvutee.' there fnllnue.l a nave nf .nn-k„„atin„ 
"1 M,eh an nitnn^nient nf a penpU-', r,^,],, ,,, ,,, ,,,„.„„,,1 T],, .l,,„a„,|,l l,v >,:u,ner u, h;. a.klre-. in I'.nsfnn in Oetnher, ISJfV na. >n .,n,u^^ 

A'.:/..' .A- ,/...,/ ml.-r,uil,.„u,l ,t ¡.-.„slalun, ,.;„r.n:;: Nnl. J dsrin „ ;s 
- \n,.l.- . „f ,l,e Trea.v ,.f Krankf-rt, >i,n„.,l May 10. 1S71, a, .-„Ilôw. • "les 

•■ m,„.l „n,o,„.rwTlan,u,n„,-,l„e ira.Kai.,-. ,n„irn,u ,„.na„ I-,„,„I,„. IS"/ . ' 

..... ,mc ,ln a,a„„„ „nalal,!.- fa,,.- a la,„„ri,. c„„„„.,e„... ,U- ,. faci,,- ,■ „„ -i ' r 

■!w...aK- e„ l-rano. ,t ,,.• .> tK.r. ..... „„.- e.- ,lr„i, „„i.. .,,.. ,„,,. ,„, ,, ,„ I , 

.[..les dr ( I.r.|. A',-,,,.-,/ ,/,-. I, .„I. s .Ir i„ Iran,,-. ^..\ lu. ,, ^7^ '■" ' 

^/wTH,- ,/,- droü mtrn,üt,.n,.,! .-, /r,,,,/.,/,-,,,, ,■,.m^„•.^■, 1S7(I. vn! J. ,, ,,-),, .„„1 IK71, v 

I. .'. 

'trtiiiit.'tk... . . ' i"i'ipt> »fiiin-r N.I Vili] - 

'..... n..l.,.M.n. ..//.,„„• / „rnuu.: l'as,. /V,-.,-,,,. „„,/ /.„,„ ,. ,, w 

'Cliarlfs Sumntr, "Iii.el l„t«r,„ 1 V:,.,. ,,. ,:..., 

-il iidf. 

22 \'i.\A\\>( ITl'.S 

:is III I .■ni>(,' l'raiiii> I.rIht, liy lnrlli a I'rii>-iaii. ami liy tiatintiality ,,!i Amer- 
ican, tu ]iiili!i-li 111 1S71 an c.-^av uii the \aliic ni ])lcl)i>citc> in international 
law. att, u kill;; JMitli tile iiriiiii|ile it-^ell .ind the ea^es wilere it had Iieeil in- 
viiIsimI.' I.ielier- att.nk, ediiiiii^f, .qipareiitl} . trutii a neutral source and 
frulli ,1 writer ui eiiliiuiRe. unduiililedix had tremendi ili> tlteet in the con- 
llu't lielweeii the two jiriiu i|ile-. Ili> inani tlie>ei. that the ])lebi.scite \\a> 
wruji;; in tlie(]r\ a^ --tiliieetiiiL; the niiiiunty In the rule i>l a ^im|ile majurite, 
,iiid that III i^ractiee it lieen i.^i-d uiilv alter a Uiit üCíiDitpli. are re|>eateil 
and .iniiililied li\ all the ^u!i^ei|tieiit writer-- wliu (ippn^e the duetriiie. lie 
sileiieed American ]iriite^t li\ |)i lilitiiiL; niit that the methud had nut Keen in- 
voked in aiu of the aiine\atiuii> ui I'exa^, Murid.i. l.uui^iaiia ur ( 'ah furnia, 
and he ended with a wariiini; the American^ had he^t C(Jiicentrate uii 
the .Muiirue llucirine ;nid lea^e I' at'lair^ aluiK\ 

llui'i'UT |iuwiiliil tili- ar,i;nineiit ma\ ha\e heen with \inerican->. I'relich 
]irut(-t-~ cmikl iiut 111' >u ea~il\ Nileiiceil. In |i,iiii|ililet-. juurnaK and lre;iti>es 
the l-reiiih writer- -taieil the I'ri'iich ci-e. I he duciviiie uf self-determina- 
tiuii, tlie\ !ii-i-led. w;i> (.lie e-t;ilili-lied, liy natural rii^ht and intern;UiuiiaI 
u-aL;e. .and tliuii^h m uriüiii a l-Veiich ductriiie. i; lieeii adu]itt'd li\ the 
wliule ui lairupe. The ( lerinan- ,in-wered with an ainplilieatiun t\i Lieher's 
arL;unieiit- I he --u-c.illed iirinciiile wa-. tlie\ -aid. w rmi^'' in theurv and 
\.iliieles- 111 iir.ictice. it cuntradicted tlu' iluctrine of the uri;aiiic nature of 
the .'■^late. it wunld |ierni!t ul -ece^-iun .and M would hamiier a St.ate in uhtain- 
111^' peace li\ ileiiyini; tile nnht of ce-->iun. I'uintiii.t; with uiie accord to the 
]ilelii-cite ul .'--avuy and Xue ;i- iiidicatice uf the evil> attendant on the 
nieili(-il, ihey all -iipiiurted the ducirine uf the individual uptiun tu emij^rate. 
a ductrine n\ winch wide ii-e had .ilreadx lieeii made, a-^ ] .ind 
a -nllicieiit recui;iiitiuii of the nuht- k<\ the nihaliitant-, 

llu- Ireiich \iei\ i- ;id\anced li\ Muntine in \X71. li\ ( *tt in 1,'^~4. I)\ de la 
I iiu punnu re in l,'^7(i, hy ('.iliun.i; in h'-lSl, \,\ \iy\y.m in L'^^.'^^J. hv RuiMrd ile 
\.'a\A in lS''ii, l.\ llnmweh in 1,^'L', .nul lu \iidinet m iX'if).- In l,'-;77 the 

' " I '(■ 1,1 ^al^■nr ill- pi, I'l-' iti - ,!,ii;- li 'Irmt iiitrrii.iti," I\',: u,- li,- dy i' int.-rtuUi^iuil 
<•/ iVi/i.t/il/iiiii uiiii/'iiri-,-. 1,-<71. i,,| ,î, 1' l.i'i. r, piintul in IjìhIinIi in hi- , ,.!l,-cli-,l \v,irk- l.iulnf 
«as l.oni in liirtin .m \hirih IS, jSiHl 

■I., \ ill M.Miilii,-. ■ 1 1- iltni; ,!,■ ,,,ni|M,te.' h',-:u,- ,/,• ,lr,>il iiilriiuUi. ii,¡¡ ,-l /.■./i,f/i¡fi.iii 
ii'/d/iiici .', 1S71. \,,\ .!. |, .-;>! . M, \. (in\ ,,liir 11 ,,t I 1 Klilnr. I>r,>it i/.-.t ,;, n.t iii'J.ri:,- 
di t'l'tir,'!', p M>i>. 

" I II- lilis murs, ull s'i>t mis à i-ons;ili.T iliriiunu-iit Ii-áiil- ils prm inci s uiiitrainti s 
par íi's Iraitvs cm It-s Inis ilr la Kiicrrc à cliamiiT ile il'inin.itiun, ( )n pfit ilin-. i ii ipiiliiiir 
sorte. «|ue, »i Ic |i|lls fnrt cnmpiiert rtuun- ilrs t, rnt^in -, il m oi.nipiprl pin- Av smet, " ,i,- 
Iti (iiicniiiHiVir Mil 1. p 4.î_' 

Julo C!alp"iial. /'i-í aimiM'i,iii,( (íi' íi-rn'/,'ii,-, p, 1."'. " I nr ii,iii,.ii pint Imii ri-nmu-ir .i s,jii 
ilruii ill' ■ÍI1IU raiiietr sur til Icrritnirc. rmiipn- li lirn ipn I'Miiit aii\ ji. 'iiiihitnins lic- pa\s 
léili >. mai.s il lui i -t inip,i>-il,|,- ,1c K-, ii ^;.i).;i'r nmi, l'ilat annexait, par Ir siili itTot ile sa 
Vi.lulltr " 

iii>l( ikil Al, M .MM.\K^• 


French Minister ,,í F,,rii,t;n Atïair. in lus a.Klres-, to the fhamhcr rejinrding 
tile treaty nf cession oi St. i;artii..inniew had >ai(i. " TJu- stipulation of a pleh- 
iMite, nisi-!e<l ,,n liy Sweden, uas to,, niiieh in accord uith the M'iititnenis and 
V, ith the rules oi our imlilic ¡aw of |-rance. for aii\ ohjection to he made to it." ' 
I'o-ilily the i)Iehi>cite held in St. líarllu.lomew and aNo the cnnsuhni- of 
the chiel.- oi lahiti re-arduii; the treaty of cession oi the island to l-'rance 
m l.SNO^ lia- some relation to the Irench de.ire to e-iahli-h the .loctrine 
a.i^'aiiist tin (ierinan claim t.> hVeiich territory, and i,, in thi> way, similar 
to the Dani.di atlein])t m the West Indies. 

I he case a-anNt plehi>cites ua> ar^iied '.ith fervor l,y 1 lolt/eiidorl'f, ami, 
th..iii;h less warmly, 1,\ I'duntschh, l.y I ,etfVken m a note to lleffti'r, hv 
Stoerk and hy an, radelletti.^ There appears to luue heen no .le'via- 

I rn.-t k,,..i„. 0„V.(/-. ,-,//,■„,„• „.;/,„„,- [. 2'>. '■ .S, ,|,, ,1.^,,^.^ .\\.,K,;,t s ..r r, iromuTr^ 

;'.■"-"'*'■' ''■ i'''';ili""> .l.spiUccv Kllf, „„t !:,.n k- dr„u ,r,i^n,r nn av,s ,, I,, .„„.t,,,,,' 

\..,1,, ,,,:, fera soiirir k-.s -raiisccn. hints ,k- la p..l,t„,„i., ...s niialliMrs q,,, ,,-,-„,,1 l.-ur mv 
■> ->■ tr..i„,„r ct M'H. .h. h;un ,k- l.urs itukiihs ,i,,„ r.rurs, |,miMcnt vu ,mIk. „ntr. t.rn-,- 
tiruv ( nn.siilt.T les populations, f, done' gucllc nan.t,-. V.nla Lien a-s chctiws Mros 
l>...i,a,-.s .,„, pr,tn„l,nt rcniplac.r la .l,|,lon,at,c ct la K">rr,- par ,ks „„,wns ,rnn/s,n,- 
I'l'-- ■■•lannn, .\„..„|m.s. „ laissons pas.-r k r.-,,,. .k.' ,ra„„.M„lu,ts 
.sa.l.nns s.l„r k d.-lan, des forts, l'eut .trr, apres kien de. tatonuonients iufruetucUK' 
i.oendrato:, a nos n,ode-tes sol„„nns en,pin,|,,es." The s.dunon of a plel.iscite ul 
Vs,;,e lorrain, was ,.rKoi as late as Ivi,! |,^ j X„v,kov n, /■.//.„„-/..,.„„„• „'„,„,/, „ 

K'l.ard KouanI de ( ard, /;„„/,.. ,,, ,/,..„ „„,.,,„„„„„/,. J. !!.,„„,,.,, y , ,,, .,/;,_,„^,,, 
J..v,„-,-/.,-rr,„„.-, l-.UKene .Xndin.t. ■■ I.a presor.ptiou a ouisiine." A', r,„ ,;, „ ,-„/, ,,, ,/,,,„, 

■■•'..n ,|e„:and. . ,a„ irop eoniorn.. a uoire propre seiunnent ,, a, v r, .les d, ,.,tre 

: V :, '";':; ''Z"T ■ '"""": '"'^ ■■'-j-""-- "— -Slaleinen, oi .lu. Reasons 
■•■r .s,.,,„r, o, Ihe [,ill ,\pprovinu the Treat> of .^,. I'.arlhol. ineu .■• 1 loeun.ents ^,„ p VSi» 
- ' '•■ ( /. ',/. ^''I 1-'. pp. 571, 572 and 1,24. / ■ i 

F. von Hoi, nidorff. " I.e pnneipe des nationalités et la litt, r.„„re ualienne du ,|ro,t des 
i.'| 'K A,. H,- ,/,■ ,/,-,,,( ,iilniuil:..,„il ,-t !.■■ iisl,iii,,n ,,o.if,i.,,- v.,I ' l,S7i| ,, <i> 
I" IN"", lilunt-ehl, i„ /.,■ .Ir,,., ,„: .n:.,t,..„.,l , .nUfir. sS^ JXf, ,-,„,1 J,SK ha.l ur,tt,n" 
Ka reeonnaissaïue d, la ees-ion par les popnlat.oiis ne pe.t pas être pa „. .de,,,-,, e, 

;ZZ''t '"n ^ '■' "' " ''" '"" ''"'^" ■'- '""'- " ^^"'~ ^"'"•"- ■ ■'■•'" ■"' - '~' 

■','," 'n ; ^" ""',■ "■"""■ '■"•"•"•"'■■ -^•■""'■- '!•■ '■"••>< " l--» resistanee de la popnl.-.,,,,,, 

rei.d „npos^thk la pris,. ,|e , essioi, pa,i,i,,uc .lu pavs , . . f,„, re,-on„aissaMe. „'es, p.a" 

necessaire pour s„„i„ettre le no,uea„ territoire et y organiser !,■ p,,..u.,ir, ,„ais eli,, est „Ms. 
m-iisahle pour eouterer la satieti,,,, d„ -Iroit an noiuel „r.lre ,1e ehos, s Ule .rt \ . .nsf„er 
'm la »ouudk situat,ou est nOeessaire et s,..l,Ie. , V,t-.à-dire .piVlle e„ |,.,i,„„e ■• |n 1H7,/ 

!c"X ■'""'^'■'"'.^'^«7' "-'.-'"'""^^l. .IK' express approval ,„ the inhah„a,Us ..,: 
.k,.ral,|e. a reeo^-nition of necessity, manifested hv passée ol,e,|ie,i., an,l ahs„.„t,ou fr,.u 
r.s,stam-e a«aiiis, the tie« .„vernnu-nt was s.iV.eieut ,/,„., ,„,.,/,.„,. - .¡l.-r,,-.!,, ,l.r -r, 
^.-^•.- ,./,„„,.„. M ..,1. m-,.. p, ,s,, H„.d hy lòisiiiato. p, I.V.. n,„e, „„d the a ; , is «e 

was added ,o ,i,s ed„i..„ of the /V.,f, „...„.„f „,,„,,,,: „, „„ ,.„,„,,„; ,, "i;;," ^^^ 

anoluT p,.ssa«e o, ninn.s.hlis wntte,, i„ 1,S7.;, „i «h„h r.l,i„,-.hi, sa.' ,ha, |„.„ 

(.roniis ru,„r,s that, when a par, „f the ,err,torv u,us, ,,e ua,e,|. „„t „iil i. 

.M.I.r..v,al o the hu, also tha, ,„ the inhahuants „f ,h, ,,or, f t, rn,„rv m .pnM,, u 

and r,>;litlv.' ,-,,nini,nis Hl„„i„l,,,- ,, .- ,. ,. , ,. , . .- ' "' 

■■■■'■'•■ ,:cca;:ie It U a i(Uesiioii of 


I'l.i i;i~-( mi:: 

timi ill thr auiuiili- 1.Í -iiiipcirt ni ])M| apin-al li\ thu >l;ilc>nK'n.' nr the 
pnlitual wnlrr^ fi I'raiur until 1N''4 w lu-ii -niiimrt came lu the < leriiian \ iew 
in>in niu l'i i!ir i!i!c Í lietnii writer- mi . ' -iiatiniial law, i'.diiliK. and, later, 
ir.'iii 1 ir-jKiiMui,-' I lu -e n]i|i.'~ril the .puiriue nl natiinia! -el i' ileteniliiia- 
ticiii a- ei'iitrarv t.i tne rii^hl ni the lu.ily |iiihlie ii\tT aii\ ni its |iart>. ;is 
heiliii il;iiiL;ermi- in tlie >tati- h\ iiii]il\ itiLT the ri^lit n\ -eee->ÌMii. ami a- en- 
tni-DiiL; til tin- il,(ii;^er- "Í iiiii\er-al -üti'rai^f a qiie-tidn at't'eriin^ future i,'en- 
i-ralH'ii-. ( It' tile I'lher I rciirli w r;te;-- I'ra'lier - h i "lere ■ :tieinÍMir llie il .étrille 
a- lia\iiiL: lec-ii -]ieii,alK iiiaik- ii-e ni m \\\<- -eroml h ili ni llu- iiiiieteeiitli een- 
i!ir\, 1 rulli :i unte in hi- iraii-laiMii ni h'i,/c'- \i".i:;-,iii lìr.'it iii!rni,i!i.iiui' ' 
all'I t'rniii ila- lart that he nieliKJe- iiulix iiliiai i'iitidii iiiuler the heail ni pnp;;- 
lar edil-ltll.itidii, hr iiia\ he iairK' -ani In deny the dnetriiie a:ie -latti- in 
iiiternatiniia' la'.\ . 1 '.niir^eni-, hnwe\i.T. -;i\ - the ilnctrine i- nlle wliieh 
h.i- mtreiuiied Iî^e!l m the Iviirnjieaii enii-citnee. ' 

ilnir intir. ]iii!iii.-al isi-li-iicc, .-inil it i-^ imt ]iu--ili1i' t'iat tlu> iMii lio siiflu-iiTtly rr¡irc^('ntoiI 
li\ 1: ' li i;i-laliif ¡ii'WtT- l'i the u!i"li' .-tate at a tiir.i' «iiiii tin- taller aro .li-)i'i-r..l t.i Ik- 
niciiiljcr the roinniuiiity." AUijcmcmc Staatslehre , 5t1i eil. .'-nniKart, IHr,'^. pp 280-2S1 I ii-i- 
Tiati. piiiiit- "Ut llii- iiieiMisi-uiK y ami iiial<r^ t!u' i-..mim-nt. " l'.viili ntly the fail üÍ t!:c oi-^idi 
"t \l^al■,■ ami l.urraiiK- i-\trei~i'il an mtliu-iuT iii^iii tbo si'iiiitit'u- (ipinidiis ut tlir , miiient 
«rill r " 

In I .ilïrKin'- c.IiiÌmii "1 A. \\". 1 k lïtiT. /,,' ."imií iiitrr¡¡,u¡,>ii,il ,.',• i l.iirnf',-. p. 4.i><. muc 2 
i ^\]ì . !,i, lie >a>>, "le pl. l.i.-iite mis en sceii.' piní-iiurs nmi.- après ¡a pri-e «le possession 
'le la Saviiii- n'est i|n'niie -imple eniiiidie." — U> ulii' h Rniiav'l ile ê'aril makis tile coninient, 
"("est l.ï line altirniatioii pnriinent tramite," i^. ni p. ~.l 

|-'eli\ Stnerk, ('¡'li^'ii inti! l'Ii'hiscili- bct ¡■.rohciuiu¡, n und ííci'irtsicssioncm. re\iewcil in 
A'.T M.' i/r dr.<[t inlcnutt'unuìl <t Iniislatii^n t,niifar,c, \..l. l,î ( ISSI ., p.. Im,; (nml^ l'ailelletti. 
" I.'Al-aic et la Lorraine et le (ir iit iles i;en-," A'r; uc i!,- i/i'if ¡Hltruatiniiü! ,1 '.'•/i.t/i/fi.ui ( nii- 
;•.;>•,, isri. ^■.\ !, p -tii-l. 

' T';e tnll.iwmi; ipuitatioti Ir. in liiers il an a.l.'n s- t.. tile ií.c/'.í /,',:,■ í.(/iifi>' on March 18, 
ISi.r. 1- the sole example of Iren, h c.]ipo-.iii..n to ilie il. ..'trine before IS'M v.liieh the ' lirinan 
uriters have hem ahle to ].r. -enl " I.e prim ipi noineaii 'le eoiisentemenl iles popula- 
tions e-l nil |irin.'ipe di i'l.Oijiir, ir, .( s.-urrni ».•, ii.\-,.iN/r>-. ,■( .;,■(• ii'r.ii iiii ' -iiii .:ii'iii: /■.fn.i,".' 
ill' f'i'rturfuitii'ii ¡¡umilili r>n ;■,'!!! l'iif'f-ìi.juir ¡i:ir ihiti'tiy." l\\': ur ,/.' ilfrit iní.'riMíi'.Ji.i/ rt 
!■ ■ñ'lilh'H iM));/-,i>-, v. 1S"1. \ol. .5. p. 174. 

-"I'll pl.l.isi-iie lie pe'it eire ipie la raliP.alion rl'im f:\it il.'i.'i ri'-ali-.' el ac.'.nnpli . . . I.e 
-y-iiine de- |.li hiseiu s a.nil.iu .aux liahiiants d'im p.iy- 'Ks limits cprils n'ont et un pou- 
voir cpi'il- Ile -aiiraii ut eserier, . la 'J.irai tu r. elU et \ rai ...ntre l'ali, nation .•aprii'iciisp 
il'.nie porticni dil territoire et ile I'ltat r. -ide dans lis lilicrtes essentielles du réyiiTie 
repn sent.iîif, .la.i- la n. ci -Mie d'otiteiiir de- l liainhre- li'^i-latives. auxipu Ile- e-' .lelétiné 
roneurri nnnenl a\ee le pouvoir exeenlii l'exereiee de la sonveraiiieté, l'approl.ation de tont 
traité eomportaiit uni' alién.itioti (\<\ territoire de l'I'.tat." Henri l'oiilil-. .\/iiiiiit'/ i.',- i/'.n'/ 
inl,'r»iiii,\»al /•ii/./i,- (1st fd. I. §§ 567-571 

l\\ffniiì\,-l i.lrd ami 4lli eils . Paris, l'Kl? and KMOi. §.?<«. l'he ñrst editi. .n app. are.l in 
l''''-t II makes n.i mention of the doctrine of national self-detormination. 

" Pradier-Fodéré. Traite de Jr, ut intentatiinial fuhìie rii'-o/'i-.-ii et um.'i i. i7i>r. l'n'i'i, voi. 2. 
P ,>''4 -'Sv; 

'Pasquale l-'iore. .V'.iit'.'ii» ilr.'it !i',termi!i.<ì,iil /-ir'./iV .ìiii.'iiiK les '''l'.t 'íii.t ile la en'ilisatii'n 
vti'ilenie. vo!. _'. p d Translation hy Pradier-Fodéré. 

*"?.'• m--. ■! '•*'...'- ..'..:,;.. -I ..1 ,. î,-. ,!..!;..,:... .t... 1...,^....... ---'j'. ■.-■•r-::! frii;iîs f»'i 

ii!>n ikK Al, SIMM \i>:\- 

Oí uritcr> ..!i imcrnati..nal lau m ..tlu-r ciititrit',. ¡lic l-;iii,vl¡>li wntors, 
m ta-aiin- Ml cc^Mim, tor llic um. t part i-tmrc tlic .l.ictrinc ,.i ^cll-dctcrtiima- 
linii. lia" >tau- ck-!niiti-ly that it ha- im -tainlini; „i Lm : ( ippclu'iiii 
nuiiiH.ii- ,t. Inu (Iniil.t. ,1- pk-l,isc,ti-, Ulli r-,cr hr made a vac ni nitcTiìatin,,,-! 
l■l^^ ' rinlhninrr app.-ar. t,, l.^- kin.lly ,li-pn,^.,l v, ,1,^ ,1 .Innc m -dl'- 
<k-ttnH¡natmn hut prcUT> \,,tc i,> a>M-nil.Iy. a> m the h, MaiuN. t., a 
i'IrhiMiur ( ^.¡e.iiaii l'hillip>,,n -iM-. some accMiiu; ,.i the hi-mrv ,',t ih,- 
<l'"triiie. dwell-, ,,,1 Its disadvaiita.ire-. Ile elles imni l..,rd Sali-hiiry 
the a, unite l.iit niisleadiii- i-hrav- that -the pkhiscite is imt aiimn- the 
tra.hti-iis ,,1 this eninitry." • \ot,„o- ¡.y „,a,ih„,,d Mitfra-e i, ¡„deed n,,t 
am,.ii,- tlie traditimis ,,i ( ,reat i:riiain. ln,t the priiu :ple m' national self- 
determiiiatidu (.ues mmli .it ils preti-e t.i Knti-h statesiiieii^ 

Alth.aioh it ,s ai-ual.le that the historie attitude ,.f the Inited States in 
reiusHii; „, rec..,t;ni/e a new nation or ^.-overnnient until the Government hy a 
vote, ,1 i.os.siMe, .lenionstrate, that it has the -upport ,,t the maioritv, hear, 
.se.nie relatnm to the douriiie oi -el i-deterimnatioii, l.ieliei is ri-ht in as-ert- 

,..- -1 

!iat the I mted Mate- has never re.|u:ie(l a vo'e m ea-i 

>! ees,iiin. 

iK-,,tiati,.n Ol the treatv with Denmark in l,s.,7, eontainin- a stipulation for 
a plehisuie m the Danish Man,!.. ,a„ „,„ |,^. construed as an American 
revonmtion ot the prmeiple: it uas due to the insistence of Denmark and 
Seward^ was mo,, relu, -ant, for ,liploma;ic reasons, to all,,w the clause to 
re:i!ani.' .\|,.-i American authorities omit auv reiireiice to the suhiect of 
p-pular appeal on .|Uestion. of cession, William Deach I.a.M-ence m 1X68 
.^I-caks ,,, the principle as ,„u constantly -upported m recent tunes hy France, 

;-■ ■;. r--em ,l.,..,:,ir, ,le !a ^.,^,„„. ,ra,:,rni. I,, a„tant .p-e Ir -.n,,,,,,,,, .!■, n^.o-f ,1. •. 
I.OMM nu,s, ,Ie la ......khc. air,,,,.,,,..- I.,,„„ Bourg, „„, A. ,.,„,,, ,, ,, ]„„..,„^ 

...;. M Jló'i'j,/"!""'""""""" '"" ""■ ^ "■ '•— - "■■■-^'••■■•"- ":unu,:....u,l U:.. 

-■S,rKnl„rt ì'hV,ì'Vu,rr. C.nn,„.-ut.„,, s „,"■„, .h,!,r„aUo,uil,- ,..] ] ,, :;,^; 
■Coleman Ph,Ilii.,on. r.-n,„„„„. •„ .,/ /, .,, „„,/ y,,,,,,,, , ■ ¡,^.^[. ' ■. 

/. e /M»,.-,:i.,n. /',■'„,,,. ,;,! „n,s, ^,,1 ,U- ,, nil I'.insar.l, 

-T,, ,^,. M,..o-n.n nueic Ky lapan ,„ I..; ,ha, a „ld„s.i,c l.e lu-M ,„ iho Ma-vaiian 
' ."'Iv So,., a y ,vlu,n..,n as,eru-l ,lu- n„nr„|„-,e,v „Í appealing. fr,„„ .he a.,,.,,, „f ,|,, 
K.u.n„.e,„ ,„ ,„e „op:,,a„..,,. and ,ha, - i„ „nerna,i„nal c.,„,it> an,l „.a,,, ^.l : ,1 '„ ' 
't,.-„ ,. .,.,na,,:ol ,l„„n.h the eMal,::-!:..,! an,l ron,,,,..,! „.;,,,„„.,. : ,i „ ,. „„¡v 

l>n.„rt „ ,.,a, the ,,a, ean ,.p.aV-. " , ,M., Shcnuan, .S... of Stau-, ,„ ,.,. Tn !, ,. 

Japan,... Mnns,,.. .Xn„M ,4, IS«;, 1,,„. ,;,„.„„ „„,,,. /,^,..^, „^ /,.,..„..„:,„;/ ,;": 

n,. \n.,-r„-,.„ r,aw ( , „„„„\.i,„, at il,,- o.n.lnM.,n of ,he,\|, War statai in th.-lr 
imnioran, ii,n of '7 IS'w •!,,, •• i . , i ' " >' ar lai, d in !i„ir 

■--. r- -, pp. ltai-1,,7. l/„„.,. ,,,, , l, .-(,, • - ' •• 



\m a- ii"! In-iiiL,' lictiiiinly c-talili-lK-(l a^ a tmIc nf mlcrnatioiial law,' Wcc!- 
-(.■\ . liM«r\ir. .tin<- \ifu- a- ti' alifiiatuMi [ircciM'ly like tliose of (iroiius and 
I'lii'rii'lnrl' - 

< al\!i. tile (.huí SiiHih Aimricaii wriltT. niay lie iiiintcd l)y l)i)th sides in 
the o.iitni\er-\ . In INSn he delinitely states that it ha> become a r\ile ot' 
;niernati(>n,il lau that to render ers-mn \alid ,,ie con-eni ni the inhahitaiits 
I- re.|nned.' In 1^'"» tin- i- ninijilieil \n a reierence In oiitinii and plehi- 
ciie a- pn^ilile ac.enin]iainment^ c'' ee^-inn.' The i|ne-ti(>n i> lar imni ;i.-a- 
demir in Snnih Xinerica where the elii>'' '¡ue-tiun -till at i-sne is the earrying 
..lit Ml ¡lu- ],lrliH>iie ,!i]inlaie-! h\ tile treatv '>i \n<-i,ii m ISS,^ Xlejandni 
Ahare/. a ( hilean writer. rei)iidiate- the ■hutrine a^ n-eless m thenry and 
111 I'.ut, The I Iniean ea-e iiui'he- a rather inueiuDUs arj^nnient which 
diMiild he inenfoiied. Il appear- '.n he a- IciUmus. .\s every plebiscite 
whiih ha- e\cr beri! held .mi a i|ne-iiMn nf ce— kmi ha> re-nlted Inr the atiinna- 
li'.e. the -ligner- ni the tieal\ i 1 .Xnccn intended the clause stipnlatin.ii for a 
plebi-ilie :•< be tin ei|m\aleni (li a ce — inn, nr. in tlu' ('hilean phrase, a " >iinn- 
lated ce--ii'n." Ihr actnal iilebi-cite i- theretnre unnecessary, and if held 
It -hnulil be under -luh cdiditinns a- In in-ure a Mite I'lir ce-sinii to Chile 
and {•< -.i' "w (if 11" p(i--iliil!iy d' a M'te f. ir I'ernvian -overei^nity. ' 

The llal::in w 'iier- ,L;i\e an e\eii -trcnLier -ii]i]i.;rt to the priiiciiile than 
■•111 ihe I'reihh. a tact n^t -nrjin-in;,' when one con-ider- the history of Italy. 
I'Mre. tile (¡nei liaii.m writer .ill internatii dial la\s . in the lir-t editimi of his 

' W iiluiii; r.eacli I a\vI■^■nc^■. C "ii:i;;C'iii;i' r sur its ,¡,in,iils i!ii ¡ir.iit iiiltrntitiiiuil ,-l .uir 
/'''i..</i'iii' i/.' /■ruLr.'.v ¡l:i ilrost ilcs .i;<".t I'c ll.nry I! /iru/.iii. vnl, 1. p. wiii .\o ri t'l riMii'c to 
till- (liictriiie ¡s ÍiihikI in l.awriiioi. 1-t I'litnii m' Wlial' n "f l."^'..' 

-"A S'atc's tiTritiirial riyht i;i\es iin imwir !■' tlic riik'r to alienate a part of tlie tern'nr>- 
in tlie Mav (if liartir nr -ale a~ was ilmie in t'ei'la! tiiiu ■; In ntlier \\ciril<. tlie nulit i- a 
pelilii- c.r political ami imt a p. r-niial mu. \or in iii-Iiie e;iii llie St. ite íimIÍ aüi nate a imi- 
tiiili III its territory tlie emi-int oí it- inlialiilant- re-idini; n| lI:o -aine. and il in 
treatie- "f ee-'.ioti tlii- i- ilone .-.iter ioni|Me-t. it i- only tlie aeKîinwIeil'^m. nt of an nna\ oiilalilc 
faot." T. I). Woolsoy. IiiIi-.hIk: li.n, t' lit,- siii.iv ,.' /iK.-nij/i.-u,;/ /():>■ i Jml e.l i, 5 .-.'. 

■I " I >i-siiriiiai-. piinr niülre dilmitif- el \.ili'li- la ei -sion, le iran-lerl on I.i \iiile il'i;!, 
torntiiirc. il faut que Us lialiitants nu'-ine ilii pas- aiipele à eh.iiit;iT de nationalité y donnent 
Irnr imi-i ntenu-nt vxiirés un la.-ite." ( ',i/; .■ i ,!d i d. ISSU .s] i. i;_'J(i ("al\o in lii~ tir-t edition 
piilili-lu-il in l'ari- in ISlii* had -aid " Xei-e-ita-e lio\ para .pie la e. -ion. tra-ferenna. enau- 
naciiin. etc. île un terril Tin perteneoii nto à nn l'-tadn «.a valida, el eon-entiniente e-pn -o n 
taeilii (le las personas ipie lo lialiiten." l\-r,\i¡.' itilniit}, irmil ír.^'/i,! y t'r,ituf, vol. 1, S 1.^1. 

■•Calvn, /»r.ii/ iii/riiKi/iiiiiii/ i.-ih ed.i, S JiiP 

■ " l-'.l euniunto de eonsideracioncs hasta aipîi espne-ta-. d.nuii -ira di' manera pdinana ti 
ilcrt'chii île Chile tiara so.steiiiT ipic las iiroviiuias de Taena y \rua le han -ido eidida- |ior el 
paetii de .Ancón; ipif cl plehiscito i-ti|"d.ido .- de iîu ra foriniila. v i| le por r in-ii;:nente, 
i'iiiiio Iodos lo- efcctnado- ha-ta el dia, delie eeUî en eondieiones ipu' den nn re-idtado 
favorahle à la anexión." .Ministerio de Kelacione- h'.xteriorcs de ("liile. ( iiiiiiiií, hîMiii'« ,(J»i- 
l'iiiila.s cuire liis ( tim iili-riiis de ( /ii'/c y c/ l'itu y aluunos iiiiici cí/cmící .lo/'r,- /u iiicslirn de 
TiitiHi V .In.ii. W\? (.1 l'>l(l (Jnd éd. l'H-'i, p 174 , í ,c, ,;. Ihe writers on the l'ernvian side, 
ti^ i_.,,,,t ...._i t\";. ,_,, ,..,.. ...,. I.. ¿;! '., •\...- ;.. .:;.,-., .r,. I-...Î -..'.;!.!.•,. :i. i!.-;- . ..-.;;-.t; -.■ 

III^K »K'H Al, SIMM \!n' 


trf.-ili-c Mil lav. a- ii is. niake- an imiiiialHu'.r a-crtiMH that trraiic> ..f \n':icc cw- 
taiinii.t; claiiM- ..f territorial cc-inn. citluT ..Í a >latc >.r a iipivinrc. slimil.i imt 
!.(• vaiiil uiiliMU! the i.iii.ciit Ml tlu- part rclo.],' In lii. -co^ii,] ditimi, |i,,w- 
r^vr. i>ii!,I,.1h-.|. i^iiiliiaiulv .-nnn-Ii, aitrr 1^71. ulule oTaiiüi;- tul! vaine t.. 
an eNpre-inn ,,í the uill -f llie i.e,.|,le t, t the e. .nMUntu ti ,.f u hat he ealk 
•■ lei^iiiniale a,L;.L,Me,-atÌMn~ ■' he .[..e- nm h,.l,l a. ¡|,en-aMe the .-im^'iit ni tile 
^nhahitan;- f,.r the \aliilit\ -i' tn-aiies •.{ territonal eess,,,n, al;!'nii,L;h. he inani- 
lain-, ui!h,,nl siieh e.^n-ent, exi.n-. ,.r la- it. etïective [„...e-imi ut the ce.le.j 
iernt..r, ean n..t take place.- I if the ,,ther anth. ,rii:e., .Mainiam. Manrini, 
an=l I'ierann.iii ,-..11 ha^' the State > u nati.,naht\ an;l hjiIimM the riLjht ,.t" a na- 
ti-iialiix t.. i-..rni it^eli nif. a State. l-,,r all ee-H,,ns ,,i ternt..'rv Mannan, 
an.l !'ieraiit..n, a^^eri that n i^ ,,|- the ureateM ,n,p,.rtanee that the inhahitant. 
-liMuM heeuiiMi!!-! and .Imni,! i^i.e iheir n;aniteM and .nieere a.-ent;' Ino- 
liai.. Mate- detinitrlv that the nni.-i, ,,: the Italian kni-dnni is Imm-.I .mi ^ell- 
deterniniati. II le, plehiMUe-, Me n|Hi..l,l. tile jnrnlical MaliH ,,| ti, e .Inetnne 
■ ni'l delen, N ,t a-ain-l ;l,e '.arn.u- • itaek< m' ;,, ,,pp,,nentv 111- analvM. ni 
the ar^ninenis m Mpp,,Mti..n and in Mipp. .n ut the duetrine i- l,v tar the musi 
eu;.iprelienM\e ill tnaliiieiit ,.1 any wliieh ha- heeii attempted. 

lile ar-nnient- tur and a.i^ain-t the duetrine ,ii natiuna! -sell'-determmattun 
max he -nniniari/e,l a. I'ulluus, The uppuiient- ni the duefine a.uTec that 

■ •• U sec.m.l pn„c„,e ,,,K. ,,„.. . ,aM,..,„. .., ,,. .,„„„ ^ ,,, ,,,„„, ,,,, .^^ ^ ^ 

la cess,,,,, „,,„.. ,,an,e ,1'„„ ur,i„„r. „a„„nal „„ ,1„„. „.,.„„, ,,„i,, „,,,,„,„',„ 

a„.|,._.rv („,,. N u:.a,. ,lro,l UÜ nu,t,o„a! rubhr. , K, . ,| , Transl,..,e,l ,n Pra-licr- 
l-odiTiv Tans. Sr.'i \ ,, i ,, ,, i i,„ ,■ ., , ..., ,. , - ''•"'n",' 

/'<,/. i.,l e,!,, lr,,n-,at„ ,, !,y rharl,.. ,\„„.i„.., I'ar.s. l.SS.s. u,l J í^í MSI ,,, Ki.s;' 
iiu. s,.,„„,ar.. ,,, ,lu ueu. ,., \la,un ,, .Man.iani an,l l'„rant,-,„ ,s ,,,k,.„ ,>,„„ ,|„. .nl.I.. 

n , H 1.C ,,r,:,o,„. .-. . „:aw„al,,. s e, U ,„„ „al,,,,,,. „„ ,„;,„ ,,e. .e,.," a.^l iu^ù 

^u:;:;i¡; /'; :;:;-r.,::;::^:;, ■:":;;:,:' •;:/;::'■'>' V"- '"■";- ^" '-"■ -- 
;;-::;'.í:;;;"-" '^ '■"■ '"" ''" -■----■'- -.-%t.::^r,::i:'', ■rl,-':;:, "v^- 

..w-v... .«;.. „. .5; .., ..,,,. Pa„„a, n.; ,„„„„„ „ ,,,J,-2;::.;:;:r: : ';;:i: ::,;:;;' 

.v.,.-,,.«, ,n :,,,;,... ,.„ ,/ ¡i,.,„„ ,i:'t,v,„ ,. , ,, ■„:,■,•„, .-„.ri part 1 ,„tr, „I,.. t,„„ „ K ■ 

'."•>"■<•'>-■" «■nt..r-„„talrea,K „„■„,¡,„„.,1.1,0 du-, as in fav. ir (" ^ „„ K,,,,' i „ s, , 
..,-.„■.„ of AV.». . „„. nv....... „e„e Anü. .M.ona ,K45.\,„. ,, s v x!!; " ,^ ' tT'^ 

Kn^ia,, , : a cruidsn, of i, appears in ./...i.. ,,,. ,7.,.,.. .,. „..,„ „„:;:,:;;!; /^;,; 

ou ,.rn, fr.r,(ais. Paris. I.SXd. „. g., ^ „ , ¡. ,,,. M „,. Vr '' ; , '"""•■•■-'" 

'fr.mi the Russia,.,. P:.rU W«, '„,, , . ,. ^^'"'y'-Trm. ,ir ./.„„ „„,,.„„, ,,, 

I, ivMii.« t,, nil, i tiiat (lie 

•:y 'M.rr,a„ writers i„ ,he !i^, in fas.,r ,',i ,1». ,1, „trine are' 

lh,ise pi,l>Iishin}( liefnrc IWh'i, 


I'M r.i-t 1 1 i-;s 

ti) lr-i;ini;iti/r ,-i iitlf L^aiiir.! li\ (.■i.iunK'-t iht t_-\prc^> c.iii-t-iu •' the t\v,i col- 
trai tiii.i; |i .«er- and tlir lacii a-^iil ..Í ihc 'iiiialiitant- an- -.ulfu n-iit. .\<,Miii>t 
lln- iiu-!lv"l Mi' liif pK-lri.riir ¡luv a.!\anic ;.rL;!inK'nt- aita kiiii; Imtli tlvj \a!i.l- 
it\ I.I II, iiii'krl} 111^ iIhmi-, aii.l ilic r\|n-,luiu\ li IcaMiiL; ti> a \iiic 1)\ niii- 
ur-al ~';iiraL^c a i|tu-MÌ(iii ni -mli iiiij» irtanti- a> -m ivcrci^ntv. I licir tir-t 

•""-'"'"'"' '- 'll-: !'l<- ..f ■.i\rt\;L::i'\ I- ..¡lIHil- ¡111' (Inlliain III" nitiT- 

naii.iiial law ami i~ nf iiirrLl\ pnl'iical impi irtaiia\ n niccniiiio- ,,nly the two 
■^'•'""■^ '"^"l^i'l I 111- i»i-miiii ai.|nai> In n-nlt ir, mi a iailurr in aiiah/.- 
liif iln-<-. lililí a-iKC! ni a ir-inn ni -.n\ itci-iiIn . iiaiiifl\. aiifiiatmn. iraiiMiT 
■""' iii'>;:tatiM!i li 1, ii-'K- that !lu-c tll^^•c pba-r- ari' ni uiK'.|'ial intiTv-t 
'" ml' riialiniial lau, I lu- iirq phaM-, alu'iiatmn. n i: :a--pi iinliii- tn " (|IV^•,!- 
1II,^■ ni mil.'." is nl,\inii-I\ 1 inaiHT lar-clv ,:i . nii-tmiiiniial law, Imt a ¡iiativr 
«■(•riaiiiK nprii In n-oulalmn l.v iiiU-riialimial !au. a- it iir.nlvi'-. nalimial dclii. 
1 '!'"■ and, II ilniK- .Itiriii-, ipn-iii m - ..i iirnlr,i''i\ ami Iilnckailf. Tlir 
-ivi.nil ,M-r, ihat III iraii-hr. i!,arl\ imua-nis iiiuriialin.ia! law. ii.r it ha^ in 
'In unii ihr rrlaliniH ni tun Matr- al Ka-t ! hr tinnì Mai^c. that ni iiiu-i;ra- 
"""■ '" "' ■' iii:'--'''i ihata. ter. , nu, itiiihl; ihr iiiiiiimimI ..r iniiMiltitinnal law 
"t til, aimoMiiL; Male ami. a- il iir> uh r- a .|:u'M!nii n| mir. i niRcfinii- iiitiTtia- 
•'""•'' '•■'"^ 'il-" i il'- -iil'Hvt ni aii.iitv ni !,;K. 1,,,, Imi- .Hviipu-.l ih,' altnitinii 
ni unici--, mi iiiUTiiallniial lau, l-.r, ,i, ;- M.rll kimun. ,li v:>-imi ni ui'n- l,> 
om(|iii-M. .Ii-rnwr\. piTriiiiiimn, ... , iip,,i mi, ,,iì,1 irrat\ n,->npv ,, pl.i.i' m tin- 
trillisi'-, aii.l llir ,1..,;,:,,,,, l,,,,,. |„ n.iiknni ,111,1 ,lr\.-lnp,-i| .■,,irrl i^r. .-nipll- 
H'.il ami p. ihii. al > \im-inic- 

Ihf nppniuiii- lU'Nt asMTi tli;,i tlir ,l,,ririiu ' a pan ,.i a .--tate i.i\ 
rfsi>t a iT-isimi ,!,-mtiÌ 1,. il,,- ..Imlr Stai,- 1. u!iiil!\ -nh^iT-n,- m tlu- inu- 
'I.K-triiic ni snvcrri.uiiiv. ami th,ii il .Kicii-. it- ..uii,.il ni. ¡ci ■.<{ sociir- 
iiil: 111.- mi.' ni ili,, niainritv. miut it allnu- that uill i.. l,c iliu.,rt,Ml hv a 

>uili .1 n-Mili. ihrv ,av, i. hk, .,11, .um- .i U'ti.iiit in .kviMo ulu-llior h«> will 
1'" '■"'" '" '' - l'ii'il-i'l -r In .im.tluT- llu-v. .iKn pmnt .mt ;!i.,i ., „,(. ,,f 
-Hi .ui.-niiiiia:inn 1 11.4I1' u,ll nl„tnat p,.u.-. tur ti inii;!u h.appcti lh,,i miK l,v 
a iV-.inii o.nkl , ,1, :,.,atul .stai.- tu L'.tiaf pcau'. as it, ihr . ,,-r ..i l-ranrr m 
^X'ì. li II i-lil a!-,, .¡r' l!u- m jiiMuv hv pnu .•iit iti- ihr Mrlnnmi 
Slatf. tlu- virtiin ol ajjiirf-iv.- uar, irmii cninviin; thr iti,i iniii- .>i \i, ,,rv 
'llio<upi.nrt,T, aiisu.Tlh.ii Ihr putì. -Ill,,, ni ,,i -,„1, f,,,. ,,.,nin;; ,, u.,r -limili 
I.Ì- arranyol hv iti.icmtiiiu- ,.,■ paMiinit l,v ,.,1ut ni,.n,> in\..lMi,.. prnpnt 
l.»H<.nh, iMtt that .1 ,hn„l,l ,i,„ I,, „,,,lr In tura,,, m rhati^. '.t ~nv.-,v„ni> 
'■■'■y p,..p!,- Ihcv a<-.Tt, tiinn'm.rr, that ahhonjr), ;, mav vMtli rii;!i: 

'P«íi-«í,.,p, 144. quoto, ra-ill.:,!...,,.! An ,m ...,/,,,,,,/.,,.,„,.„„,„ ;, ,„, , „ ,„ 

fo tilt. I "n 1 • ■ ', , 1 ', 

»GiiTckcit, lì,tfi,< |i 4 K 

lll'-KiKiLAl. SIMMARN- 


sov.rc„n,v ..... ,hc part ..,l„„., „av,„, th. ,„ ,,,.,„.. ,', ^ 

;"IV'Tto. „r ,lK- ,l„c-,r,„c a,r.c, appear. ,„ 1.. ,,,,,,,1 „„ „, . ,„,.,,,„,;. 

wliKi i> x,i \ivi,iK {,.], l,v ,1, • liar c, I .ino>.|,,ii 

'■•■■■■■--'. -1- . L, , a.., .."^-^^^ 

!'■• ^Htm,an,,nai la.> an.l ,h„ , , " "-"' -^'-^"-i .^ alrra^l. rcr, ,,n„/..,i 

-^..1.-. .^:u:i":::r^^^^^^ 

' """ -■''■'-"•» ^^.■l:l.I l„. ,1,. , „„,,^,-,1 .„i.l 

"H- Mail pn.iivic.l - 

""■ "I'l-ncnl^- ,,l,„rl:,,n I,, the 

— '--1 nn,,..r ,i„a... lu,,,!, I irinT- h:'''"'' ,' '''''■ ''''' ■'"•'"- '' 

'•■'lH-l.rn„,rv„,l,. ,,„i,,|,„ ,,. ■ '; "'"' ^-•'""■'"a. t, . all. ,u ,)„■ fa,,- 

'"•"'■'■'•'""^•"•■l-nan,t„.„lK, „„,!,.. ,„,,„.,. '77' -"'-n..,,,. .,,.1, „ 

^' -— •■'■''';"^:^^;r;:;:i:;:;:/;;:;r:^ 

■ '•a.MI..,,,. , ,: , ,, „, 'l^r.|,,!„..,r,.,n,„ 

r: s-'"- -'-M'urT,. :r: ;:;::,."':;'"7; ^ ' ■ «- -'<■ ^ 

^>;"-s:"::;:-::!:í'-.í':;;';- -■'•■'•• ">''"::.í:;;rH\,:;: "::;:,?;•' 

■' h.Ult,ll.<. p .li 

' ■ H-Lrr was |„rliaM. the tìru «r,. . 

•'•r^ ^»o..„ ,..,.,:,M;,:^x::;':;':;:;'r''"' '''^ •" 

••"'■I'k tl„' Sav,,v ,.,ip !(,, 

= "'•-•. spcciaiinchlr, ,„rnc (lirciim. prr i 


'i.i:i!i^( 1 i";:s 

iIk' plfliiM ni- .1 tin- l'.iM H ilii\ lia\i- iiu-n'l\ lifiii an nimiTc-^ary ralili- 
,.•,,., ,i, ,,) ;i ,,;,/ ,h,.'iiip!i \~ '" m:- ,ir;:iiiiR'tii |-"n>iiiati] adii-, tlial il lia-> 
fvcii luTi- a Hinilual \alur li\ -Iimwiii- tliai tlif n^lit wa- imuinl \\\> with tlic 
t.inr ii-cii. lucan-c l.i ifrcc \\a- adilc«! i!n' will "í tlu- |i(_'.>iilc. ami tlial hy 
n-i.rt II. tlif ]iKlii-cilc ail ddiiKi. ili-pnU' .ir ri-iTii;iiiiati(Mi i^ n- 
iiiii\i''l aii'l tlu- Siau- 1^ l;iu'1i iliai formal inrulual iii'.i' ulmli i-- iii\ aliialilc. ' 
1 U- ]Minit- l'in iliai ilic luaiiual ( .liii'. lu m^ rai-i-cl arc lari;vl\ iIm^i- al\\a\s 
rai^iil a^aiiiM luiivii^al -mirai^r. aii'l thaï, wiili prMpi-r catv. < piipnriuiiitit.'^ 
ii.r iraml --liiMiM Kc i-i-iiilc'cl :ir_;!!i;ilik', 

II) a\iiiil ilu' -i\iTal ilaiiL;rr- iiuinn-ian il. ilic ( .|i]i' iiuni- ut' iht- diK-triiu- 
a-^fvt that tlu- ti'ilil^ ni ilu- ni.l] , nhial a:r -iittau-nth -aU'i^nariK'i! Ii\ the 
clditinir .'1 :iiil:i l'Iual crplii il Y" tliw 1 i',-.iii iiii an^\\(_T> al Ungili llial \\i<\\- 
(■\(r irlatucK L;iral ii:a\ lu- llit- u-r inaile dt nptidn il al\\a\~ nniaiiN '|iiilc 
iruial a> laijai'l- ilu- in.i-~ <'' tlie inlialniaiii--. l'ir tlu L;ii-at ina~~ m ii^ en- 
liiaix. i-\rn atttr ilir t\tri,-r di indu i<!',ial diiiidn and thi- clïcclivt' l'iiaii^'c 
di ildiiiuiU- li\ -dir.c. ninaiii. a- il \\a> lictdVi.' .\ldiaii\ ( r. lu sa\ that tlif 
ai't di ilic niaii wliii rniiaiii~ ihailui' -iidiild lie iiin ijircU'd a~ an act ni -])dii- 
laïK-dU^ -iihMn--idr, and di |iiii(riiii <■ i- di'u-n a - id irniu ilnw litllo in- 
du idiial d|iiidii ia\dr> llu' lili<rt\ di ilu- ]Kdplf. h,/ CdntiniU'^. i> ^liciwii oa^ilv 
li\ llir lait llial llu- iiid-i lilicral ircalii'-- m rc^aril lo the riL;ht ni d]itidn were 
lircii-rl\ llid-c dial -illKd llie parpiidn di l'cilanij- Ile nnL;ht lia\i' added 
thaï ihr d|iiidi! i!an-e ni lin- irralic- ni' !''ai;iu ami di' l'rankt'nrt won: far 
Ifdiii -iilliiirni 

llu- war lia^ fv-^uud llu- pi iiu'i|ilc di m I i-dt-h-rniinalidn iri'in iN ai'adcinir 
iciiK-iiu m 11 i-dHit - id the idTf airain w ithn.ii tlu' jirestigc of its past, for 
that ha- h<.-(-n Idi-j^diun will: llu- ]'a--niL; di iju' L;fiuTallni' i>i sialc--incn ului 
'.ii|>pdrtid 11 \dw. a- ilu-n. it i- inriu-d id a- . Idclrnu- pr-.ini-mi; a prar- 
liial -dlntidn idr llin-c dilli(-"itii'> whuli wcri' certainh- imt soKcil >iu-i-t'ssfuliv 
Id llu- f]ihcnu-ral i-Npi-rinu-nt- uiado in thi- ( '.inirri's-i- nt \'ii-iina and of 
I'liiin and in the Trcaiv di I- rank idit ( )iu- hear- lUi loniror that it i> a 
ddiirnu- whuh ddt-» lU'i fdiu-i-rn inu-riialidiial l.iw . I'dr it '.^rnvx- dhvicii- id 
llu- wdrld that t \(-r\iiiin,L; '\liuli idiuc-rn-. -dM-icii;iiu .-diu-crn- inurnalidnal 
'■'^\ I hi- '|ni--iid,i wlu-ihi-r di iidi ilu- ddiirinc df -^t-if-di-u-rnnnai'dii ha-, 
-tandiiit,' in mii-riialidiial law ha- m. ld<-il id ilu- .ni(--iidn di u- tiliu--- fur 
tlu- piirpd,,-, di diir i;(-ii.-ralidii Ihn- id da\ il iK-.diiu-- wcrlh wink' id ri-- 
-lai(- llu- na-dii- whirh haw- hciii i;iL:i-d lu r.tdl. .r«-. and whuh will iidw 

vi/ii (li-lla Ilia i-«ccii7Ìoiie, non |»i4«<iiiu i-vi.lfnti-mcnti- u.^Iirii nill.i .ill.i nni riuia tdima 
•'' !'' ilTrrnia/iiim <lcl |>nnci|<i . in *<■ im-ilciini" " I'híiiuiI'. p KM 

!l xal.iri' uniri.lic" 'l< IIa pacifua niaiiif. »m.-ie.iic ii.-i |ilrlM«riti, la fi'ialc <,-i.>iir la vi(,|,ii;a 
. .. riMiiiti-ii-nr. lonsiMt a|i|itinl<. in i|ni-lo, ilu- mi purifican.. I'..]!, ra .kila f,ir/a. .Inn.í- 
»ran«!.. du- om t%^n «lava c.ilUKat" il cltriM.i. |.croi-clu- ail cs.ia «.i aKKiimnt-va Irlnntnlo citila 
vol'-iiii liti |iii|iii|<i" ÍMsIimlii. |i IM 
* Fuíinalo, p. 156. 




hc^c n.'aM)ii> \\ il! ¡i,,\\ 

iiif\i:;iM_\ lic ur^a'il ai;;im in aii>\\cT tu it-~ DppuneiitN. 
'/(■ -nninian/cil. 

I itlc n-t- fi.r it> tinal ^aiictidii ,m inihlic (.i)ii!Ì.)n. lli-inrv woul,! -wiu 
I- pr.ivc iliat. Ill i|iie>ti.)iis ni tt-rntcrial ..(.\ iTciijnty. piiMir npu-ion l,a~c> ii~ 
lu.l.miuni Mil an niicxproM-,! iiiaj.,r ¡.remise, nanu h, iliai i,,, iitlc aoaiircl 
ciiIht lhn,n^;h treitv, o,n,nK-t .t . .cc npati, m. ,,r hascd ..„ onnuinu-, ranal 
nr liiMoru-al ar-uim-nts. ,,r ari,Minn'nis m inlitarN nc^•l■ssll^, ,, \ali.l, n,, mat- 
ter li,.u many ruUnric. ii ha. rnn. unk-s „ !,.„ hdiin,l ,m1i,. r,.,,,,.,,! ,.i il,r 
■ iia.iuntv ,,i II,,, mhahitam. ..f ,1,,. terrilury. ()• tin. laa Irrlan-l. l',.laP,i 
liai>. i:-lirmia an.l ,\!saa-l .. .rraine aie -ntìuirnt i-r,.,,!. 

!!"■ 'l-.trin.. ,,i natmnal sdiMK-lcnninatmn uà. h^rii ,.{ ihr due. ,.,,, 
tnUuH.n ,,, ,lK. ..,,:,l,ta.n,l, c.nturv tu p,,htK-al >l„,uul,t. ih. a..rn,nn ,.i tli. 
r.^'ht .., Uh- ,n,|n„lnal t,, ir.r.lnm imm .L.prnic rnntn.l. 1, „ ,,., t.„,m 
•" "^••^^;-"".tl, a-ntnr> ,l,at th. imlivi.Inar. r,<,^ln t,. .sd.-,, ..rnmnit mn-, 
>)d,l ,n >lH- wdtar. „1 .,,.H-iv a. a uli,.l,. , „,.. ,„„.,, „UT.mro. a.k ]„,u 

"; '"■ ''"'■''""■ ': '■""^'-"■'" "^'l> ""^ IT-c'it pini plu. h „ ,,„.„ ,„u-,l 

-l'"lHT.t-n..t tlH- na,i„na! a.piratinn. „f ,„u. ,n,np .li„„l.l „n,u.,l, ,¡.. 

"""■"""■ ''^"7^ "■ ^""•"'^■••- " " ^1—M appear tlKU .a.i.tao ,' , , 

' ,7^""";''^'^ ';■• •■•'^■•- H'-'-Lueri. ,l,a, ,lK-ma,nro|m.iu-,„ 

u -lK.,,,p arene. an,l that „nlv In l^.in, ,ul.. „„ ,1,.. prnuiple „i 

^ ■ ^; lin '■'•■""■ 

. lau nr iMr iIr. wirld-unU- soiietv ut State. 

I li-' principle „i national .ell-,ie!erm naiiun ,,nee UTenie,! ,1, ■,■ 

;;p ...... h..he pM 

.'.-n.....;i;;:^.::L::h;'r::j:, :;;:'::■ ^ -e 

'■' ""■ ' .„■ the ,nl,..l,„a,n. hv a .nrvev . T T\ '^ ""''""■ 

"«- a,„l intere.t.. .,at,stu. ,. „, r-.e. 1 ' '"'■'■■"•"■'■ ^•^■"-'-nnr 

■lepniati :,n,| pet , . V '■-«-^— ' -h„„n. an.ll.v reee.M,,. 

„ .'"'"" '•^'■" "••^<' ■' 1 l'I- I- .he., „lean. ,„ h..„ 

""." nnnr;;am/e,| ma..e. an,l mtere. 

.' TM Ol racial 

'., Il can 

an. t,, hl\ .hnun that tli- ei 

'■" ■''ICI K<u;;rapln, .lel,.,mi„ati,,n are i.,,i .„In, ,en, l 

""l^'n.nire,.anlm;;nat„,nal.n.time,„ Th, , ^". uni .,ni,|e. i,,r 

'"••■■•""• '.- •■^■••. uhen iinn ""--- panunlarK , nie in \l.aee- 

'"■'"^ '"''"■^■■'•^ '" 'l''"mi,nat ,hr,,„.h,,. 

" "I ili<. pr.., 1,1 ,., 

'. !■. ., iiielhcl 

ticii '" "I"'" ni.i.i,..|,,.,t,. (■ener.iliA-i- 

,::;■■'':''' l'''''''-'^'-''^'' -''■-■'• .d,l.e,etnn 

1 1" 'la\ ,,, III,. , ,,,. , ^ I ¡ .. 

MilMe.iu,., ,„,, ,,)„■,...,,,. , , , . , ' >''ii'^"'i; 

""■"' ""■ '"-'^ "■ I"' iM.e.l „p,,„ „,„,,, 

..■..«r;.,;íri,::!í?l:;''r''' — ^ -- -.-.r,. ,. ..,..., 

.(. t.i 

«'iptxTI Ihnr 

>ii.|.i, ,, / I 

■'"."'. p. t. 

i'!.i'.i;i^( 1 1 !■ 

Iiirtlur, i-vfu ilinii-li xhv ma^lcqiuitc ^'ciiorali/aiioii may hai)iicn U> rcacli 
llic i-:i;lit i-iMih. tlKi-f iia^ hccii nn iir.M.i tliat tlu- rcMilt i^ nj;ht or doircd. 
li'a\ itaM\ lliiTi' \m11 I'L- ih^aliotKin m ¡lie ifu.t.'iy m .|uc>lion ami in iho 
Stair ir.on wlmli it i- -I'liaratcd. 'T the State uh.^r claim i- imt -^ali-ticd. 
Tlir irai pr. .1, lem i- iH't dily t^ aMcrtain ilir r\i>tt.-iKi' ni a majont). lnU al.-n 
!.. till- iiu<imr..'.fnililo lait i.t that maji>rn> m .»niiT t.» (k-\itali/c 
]i. ..t-mial - .lint- ..i abitati.. ii. 

\ua;n. tin- a. 1\ alitale t.. Ik- acjiiircd 1>\ the aniU'Miiu Stati- thr..ii:<h t-nli-t- 
hil; l..\altv t.i tlu- State- uliuii i- the ii.Tiiial p-schnlnf^ieal re-iilt o! 
iiartu i|.aii..ii m the ]tr. .ie--e- ..i' •e!eel!..ii i- aiMther e. >ii-i(U-ratii .n ami a 
,>triiii,L: ' lie.' 

That ihe-e a.haiita^^e- will aeenie ir. mi an aetn al v. .te. it iliar,i;e> ..Í irau.l 
are 11. it t.i.. -en. .11-, ;- -li..\\n hy the ' ahan \..le- .>:' 1S(((). '(if) and TO. whieli 
elïeeiu.ill -ileiue.l the elaim- ..Í -tria, the pettv pniue-. the rentililuaii- 

;,,id the r..|.e. It 1- -li.iwii li> the \..te- ..i S;i\..y ami .\iee thein-ehe-. t..r 
\\il,ite-.i-r tile pre-^iire, it \\a- ..ii\ it e.iiild li-'t aee,,iint the ..ver- 
■i\heli!iiii'^ iiiai.>nl\ e,i-l i..r ee--i..ii. 1 he re-nlt ..i the \..te- the \<rn- 
te-I- ..I "neat I'.ritain. Swit/erl.iii.l .iii.l the ..tiler I'. .wer- .-qiiiear a- weak 
,1- the', were intile. It i- -i-iii'i. .int. t..... that a .li-alieeted partx lia- n..t 
-nrvr. e.I m th.. -e territ..rie- ..r m ll.ilx. ^ et it iiia\ he .i--erle.l th.i; m eaeh 
ea-e there were ..tiler uliuii aie. mi .-d i..r the ¡lerni.iiieiu e ..t the 
.,,Iiiti..ii Tin- Ì- iiiid..iil.ledl\ tnii-. Imt here i- ,iii in-t.inee where the eumii- 
l.itr>e inree ..I the invariaMe .. .n.hti. .ii ..i -talnhty t. .11. .\> ¡Hi; the Mite- e,in 
n..t lie .in.l where, e. in-e.|iientl> . mie ean ii..t iairl\ aeen-e the ar^'ii- 
lueiit ..1 l.ii!.- an e\an.i.le <<\ ■■ f.'St li.u . ,-).,-,. pr,-pl,r lt<>c." 

iL.r.htle-- ;.. he -niti-.l I.' the ti-e ..t the twentieth eenturv. the iileli-eite 
imi-t he ni...leriii/e.h I he ..1.1 nietli.i.l- ..i ¡Kirti-.m a.hiiini-tr.iti. .n w..iihl 
ii..t -:iti-i\ the 111. .re -. .phi-tu .ile.l |i..htu'.il -laudani- ..i I. '1 he plein — 
eite nr.i-t Le un. 1er internati, .n.d .ami . .Ii\ i. .ii-l«, imiiartial an-pice-. I he a-eti- 
iiiii'.ite.l!ii:il e\]uneme ..i a eentiirs ..Í reiire-ent.itis c ^'.)\ ernmeiit must 
|„- ,,ppli,d t.. >. .1111111--!. .11- win. h -h. .nid ..\er-ee .'imi p.. lire the re-^i-lrati. .n. 
.nul L^ the -e. ree\ ..I the hall.. t 

111.- re.d pi.. 1.1. m- .ire, h.. w ever, .>f .i ni.. te ^ nature. ,in.l in\. .l\e, 
ani. .ni; ..llur .|iie-ti> .ii-. .leliinil.ili.m (.1 the territ..r\ m whieh the \..le -hall he 
l.ik(-i' ile> .|n.ihrie.iti..n-, .iii.l the .Ir.iwniL; ..| the ir..iitier hn<- alter the 
\,,t.- It 1- ,1.-, ,..iis th. Il a 11^1.1 pi, m t.. tii .ill ..1-e- i- nnii..--il.le Special 
e.mdit-.'ii- ne. e — nate -|it-ti,d ].r. .\ i-i. .n- The ii.mlitu.n- niii-i l.<- -tn.he.l 
-■■ itli iiititi i(- . ,i!e, .inij the -..!iiii..n- mn-t lH-,ir pr. .ni -.- ..i iu-tu e t.. ail |i.irlu'-. 
imlndin;,' li..tli tlie man.i \ in.l the inin..rit\ In ■ ,i-c- ni a mi\e<l p^ptili- 
lion ,im! .m imli-iiiietU in.liealeil imiitier line, the intern, itiun.d cnnimiN- 



\\I<,.\M.\ AXi) rn|.; ^oMiAT \ |;.\.\1SS1 \. 17'il 


-U'U Ulli he fi.r>i'(l I,, f,,ll,,w ilu' limi), al ma. k- hy l.a •Imiii- .TAiivcr^nic in 
thf ( niiiVrciuc (.1 l.niulnii and drau a hi,c ha^ud oii i\w ^,,w, m th^' wa'^v that 
^hall ;iin.i iR-arly sati.My thi^ ,,hxi,,ii> ,il■-lrc^ ..i thi- nihahitants ..i thu n-mn 
Ihiv 1^ th.. |,n.iRT place i,,r thi- clause ,,f ,,pti,m, a place hrvt aro.rdedit m 
the Trea;v ni MuHuiummi at 17'»,s. h „ pn.perly a measure t,, pr-neet th.- 
di~--ali>iieil niiii(irit\ . 

1 he clnel ihe,.retical npp,,„ti,,n l(, the d.Ktrme cunies „,,u imm the apjire- 
heiiMon ,h:,t. ,.i;,-, admitted, .mall nmts. even m, mikiII a. eitie>, mav demand 
^ell-detei-mmati,.,;, Alllhaii.], thi> ,lilticnlty ha^ m, tar heen an arademie 
-ne It ha. n..u une ni' imjHirtaiu-e. X,, rule i-. nt" c.iir.e. pM.,,|,le. 
I he .iiieMiMi, 1. nne i.rimarily ,,i pn,purti..n. ,.| -en^raphic pnsumn and 
ecMiinniK- tvlaiinii: in a uunl. u nm-t he settie.l aecrdm- \n the .pedlie ea-e 
\m .t^r.Mip, hnuever Miiall. .h,mM he uithniit it. ,lav m mun. I he CMur- 
-il. .nid he an internati.. nal o,mnn.M,.n tn uh,.. e jiuloment the matter mu.t 
he lett. With the re^mree. ,.l' en. t,, m. z,„ie. an,l inieriiati,.nali/at!. ,n ,,l 
IT. er.. p,,rt. and the ¡ike. the ,le.ire. ,.f the .e^er,d partie, m mtere.t evii m 
the .a.,- ,,i a smj;],. ■ .„ .i„,„|,] i„. ,.,,,.,|,,^. ,,,• |,^„,„ i,.,^,,,, ,„„,.,| .,,„, „,^. ^^,|, 
. '! ihe iii.iii.rit\ >ati.;;. J 

I he elnet practical ,.pp,..iii,,n t,. the ,l,,ctrine cnu- at pre.eiit I'p.m th,..e 
■Ah., tear, .u,,! with r,-.i.,,n. that ai.plicath.n m vari,,u-; re^n,,,,. u here .he 
...n.|ner,.r ha. heiit e.ery ellnri tn deiiati, .nali/e the pcple aii,l h;,. rc.rtul 
:.. iv.tncti,,,.. ,,1, lamitia^^.. t.. dep,,rtati,.n and t«. mas.acre. u,,ul,l .an,ti,.n 
''"■ ""■'"'■'■ '-'""IH^.t. It ,- ,.lui,, neccarv tlut .uch n.etli,»!. .h.,ul,l 
'•''•I "I 'lu.r ,.h|ect ati,l their rcults .h,.nl,| he neutrali/e,l 1' , -.rrue 
■t .. ui.t .,,Int„,i, m ..uh a .a.e i. n,,t ea.v. d here are. h,,uever. mean, ni 
-•ItUi.L uhuh .„..oe.t It mi.^ht he well t,, let ,M,lv th,..e v.te 
-'■- .n-e n,,tne-l.,,ri,, ,.r ul„, uere ,l,,muile,l in the rej^i,,ii hei,,r,. the c,.n.|iie.r 
■'I" >-^'- •■■ 1-' 'i>'.M. chil.lrei, .., emigrant. ,,r ..ptant. ^,„e ul„, u,ll -v.^- 
H-l.^c t,. Ine m the lernt, .rv if ,he ^,.te ^-c- m tlieir i'.u,,r I--,nalh^.c 
l^'tm, the u,.men ^, :e. n,,t ,,nK u,.n!,l there he a m,.re , , ,mprehen.i^ ,•' ex- 
I"v-.i,.i. ,., ..pmi„n hnt there w,,.dd al... he .e, urei représentai,,,,, r ,r the 
""" "'"■ l^.'^c he,.,, kille.l m uar ,„ l,n e pen.lie,] thn.u^h .lep,,naM,,n 

N.ln.i,.,,,,,,he..epr,.l,lem. ,.,,,,, ea.v.,,, ,rd,,,ul,|..:,eat,e,,ip, ,tu,tl„,m 
' . kn„u]ed^'e h,„h .f ,1„. .,„, ,,, ,,,,, „ ,.,„, ,.„„, ,„ „,,. „,^|^,^^,^ _^^,^^^^,^ 

anil .»icct'sses (If ih, p.i.t 

' ■ ' '■!"' 1 l'-> <'!■ Mil. hkj \. 11 kl\,,I 111, ,\ 

.\\,,..\,.N AM, 1,11. t ,,M 1 M \|S-MS..1N. i;,)! 

•1 ITS') .\vÌKn..ii ,„i,l ih,. i„i..lil„.rm,. 

r,n.L; ' \ e, .,i..m uen' .nil a n.irt 



i'i.i-.ius(. iTi:s 

.111 ,»i(/i/r(', <iirrnnnilc'l In- tlic ik-partiiicnt^ i>{ Houchcs-du-Ivliône, Bases and 
I lauti'^ Alpc^. I )r('inu' and (iard, and itx.ll cncircliiif;, or nearly so, the I-'rencli 
ininniiiiie^ nf Sn/e and Mi iiidraj,'iMi and the tiny |)rinci|>alit_\' of (¡range. The 
l'a])ac> had a(i|nirid the two l)it-- of territory hy -oinewhat dubious title in 
the iliirti'entli and fourteenth teniurie>. After Axiynon had ceased to he 
the ]ia|i;il re-idemr lioth it and ihr \ mai'-^in had heeii left ill the hands of a 
\ ife-leL;ate. under whom the two territories were separateK' administered. 

Ily 1 7N' ' tlie ninety-eight rominniies oi the two territorie-- contained o\cr 
l.^|\iKlii inlialiiiant^. ' The pei'pk' were hVench in race and language, and 
eni'i'.ed the |jri\ilege ol rri/iiii.'iiS. sharing freel\ m the holding of oltices 
under the 1 Tench go\ eminent. To 1- ranee the iiicon\eiiieiice of this situa- 
!i"ii wa- L;re;U, l^r the region wa-- .i reiuge for fugiti\es from justice and a 
ii,i-e fiir -niugglerv lli-',or\. too. -how n ii to he of great strategical 
iin]iortance in c.i>e I'f in\,i-ion from Sa\o\- or l.omhar<l\. The Kings of 
I'r.mce .ilw.av- con-idered that a- heir- to the ( ount- of l'ro\ence thee .1 ■ l.iim til the territory, I'.eiore 17S'' it h,id heen ciceu])ied and annexed 
.It \,iiioii- time- during the i|uarrel- with, ilie I'ope-^. hut had alwaes been 
rc-i^red. ihouuh the ri-lor.itioii heen accom|)anied hv the statement that 
• ivî -ii\ereignt\ l.n. with the irown and the l'o]ie held niereh' a niort- 
i^a^e The method li\ winch the |i;ip,d title hail heen au|uired enai)led iho-e 
iippii-MiL; it ti> i|Ue-lion it- \;ilidit\. The \'en;ii--m heen t.aken in 1J74 
Ml 111 k'aMniiiid I'f ¡ oulou-e hy I'hih]. the ll;ird\ .'iiid gi\en to l'ii|)e <"iregor\- 
\ m niurn !or hi- aid ag.iin-i l\a\inond. .\\ignon liad heen sold to Clement 
\ I 111 l.US hy leaniie, (jueen nf .Xajile- .nid (oimte— of l'ro\ence. in order, 
.1- the -iiii\ run-, in g.aiii .ih-i iluln 'ii for the murder of her Inishand. It vsas 
t'lnher .is-eried ill, it Jeamu' \\a- ,i minor .at the time .•uid that the ¡iropertx 
w .1- eiit.iiled 

ii'i ni.ui\ \e.ii- th'-re heen in \\ignoii ;i p,irt\ for .innexation to 
I r inc.- 1 he tie- lucii -treii-llieiicd li\ the -e\er.i! ;miie\atiiin- to the 
Iviii-iinm under Imii- \1\ Ihr ,ilk ni.anuf.icturer- w ho.-e output -upplied 
ilu chiet indu-n\ 1. 1 \\i-ni.M -,iw their < •' l.M.n- far outstri])ping 
'liiiii. iliaiik- to die liarrur- The tnli.acco growers re-eiited heing 
!rpi i\ I'd iif the I rriicli m.irket 

< Ml the hreakiiiL; niii nf the rr\ , .In! ■ ,ii m IV;m<a' ,-i -iinilar one immeiliatelv 
'■'igiil'cd the cit\ iif \\i-ii(.ii .Hid -I'cad frulli there In the \'eii;ii--iii Ini- 
ined;.ilrl\ llinr p.iriii- ,ip|ir,irc.l. ihe ;;,',/,/•,.: wh., uidied to ;iil,.pt the 
I I'll! h ( "!i~iiiiit!ci! kilt t'l ci.niinik- under the -oMTeigii;\ of the l'npe. the 

' llii .\i.,.u> ^l.ii,il ill. hwiinsn.r VviKiii'M M III .ÍIOHNI .uni Ihr ( ..MU.ii In lUiHi 
tr,h,:,:( r<ir/.-m,iiMiiY.v. mti<-> 1. v.. I, J.i. p,, _'.Í7 .,,i,| .Í4.V M.n,,,, ,;,,w ili, ,-\,i.t tl^;Mrl•^ .is 
I,'.'.")!'» in Uh littal rqinrt. i/. r l).M.niiii'iit>. /•,!,</ i. J.iJ. 

hi 17S*J tlllTr wrrr njlV'tV '."ll'.irfht'Tr. ff ÜÍVl'ü! -. iir r:!:VM!:^ ;■-!■•!. I;^!-;-.-.;:-.:- ■;-. *....,....-. 

' •,:;,. r i,,l 1, |, U') n,.l,- .-i 

.WKiXoX AM) TUE LOM lAT \K.\AISSI.\, 17<»1 



(Patriotes who wished I'dth the I-'reiich Ciiiistitiitinn and iminn uith iTaiice, 
and the (iristoiicitis who were ajíaiiist the constitiUioii and tor the Mjver- 
eij,niiy and mu-han^ed adnnnistration of tlie I'ojie. do the /'.(/no/.-.v l)e- 
lon^'ed a large part of the i)rofessional chiss wlio desired reform, the 
majority of the merchants, who wished economic ad\ama<ie-, and the lacMljin 
element, dcj the ar/.v/iu r,;/,w were jomed the \ ery nnnieriUH and [lower- 
lul clericaK, Konglily speaking, of tlie ninety-eight coninuine-. tho>e of 
any si/e apjiear to have Keen for I'rance. whereas the small cminnno of the 
upper Comtat and the rur.ii district--, svliere there was great poverty, were 
lor the I'lie en>ning di>tnrl)anc. ^ and ci\il ss ,ir> were üot wholly ,,n 
IMliiual line-, howe\er: exces.sive 'al-iisy between the two clii. f town-, 
Avignon and Carpentra-, and the complex local and per-onal mairie- o.n- 
tu-ed the i-sne-;. Later :\ {nunh part\. for antoiionu. deseloped. Inn wa- 
ne\cr ot im[)ortance sa\e m contimiing disorder 

I he tir-t iirop,,-ition mad.- in the l->ench .\s-emlily f(,r the miinn ,,f the 
terni..ry with 1-Vanrc came on .Vovemher IJ. 17S«». from the neighhormg 
I'rcii.h department-. Ii wa- based wholly on ilu- claim- of l-rance to the 
tcrrihirx and on an e!alH)rate indictment of the i)aiial title. .\o mention wa 
made of the wi-h of the inhabitants. ' .\lthongh there wa- n,. di-ciis-i,,„ „, 
the .\-embly. thi- proposal of union can-cd a i)rote-t b\ ilu- pan-he- of the 
( omtal to the l->ench .\--embly. This protest avowed the greate-t a.lmira- 
tion for the principles of the Revolution, but emph.i-i/ed that am, mg ihem wa- 
thc principle of -el f-delerminalion. ami -tated the undying l,.\alt\ of -An- 
people ot the Comtat to the l'o[)e,- 

On June M. 17«)0. the unstoo.ürs .nid ^,/W,,/,■.f became invoKed 
ma hot armed conllict. 1 he " patriote- - deleated their opponent- an.l drove 
olí the |iapal legate .\fter -eseral insurrecii, ,ti- the liberal- of \signon liad 
Mvured from the n icedegate a municipal goxernni. ! ,,n the brench pattern, 
and .in elective a-embl> . \t the call of the mn,.„ ,pal olVicial- the -li-trict 
a-emblie- now met. declared the l'ope depo-cd and Avignon an m.lependent 
^t.iie. an.l then s,,ted for union with !• ranee. .\t the same time the State- 
'.cnenil Ol the \'eii.n--m. which li:,d iii-t adopte,] the 1-rencli ( -.Mi-titnti, .ii. 
rciienited II- de-ire for the c, .ntmiiam-e of p ipal -o\ ereignly,' 

\ ■,,,,, !,,„„ Wigii,,,, presented liie s,.te aiuTpetiti, .n f,.r imio,, m 
II'- ' ,.n-tiluent \-einblv at Pan- ,„, (mie Jh |hi- peliti,.,, an,| -nccecl- 
inv,.ne-were,eler,-e,| bv the ( , .ii-m,ie,il \-en,bK 1, , a < ■,,„„„„, ee , „i \si... 
•>■"> lo which wevea,l,!e,l later the I)ipl,„„at,c C.mnntfe an,l the ( ,,mn.,.„^e 
<'n l!le I ,„i-lilntio,i ' |Ih> ( 

' See ! '..i-"t,iiiii>, /.,,{( p i;! 
• I'ncmiii'iits, i>iijI, p 17.- 

,'iniii't!ee rep,, ned on \ii-ii,i 27 ihi! ilie |',,|,e'- 


OKii'.il Olli', , Uli' 


.1 ..Í .Mirai 

iralx- HI I ih. 

. hct. 

I'l.l-.lUSi ITI'. 

mir. tli(.;ii;li laiiliv. cüilil III. t iia-iiialil\ lic c iim-tcd, that im traii^icr of 
s.j\i rri^iii\ -li.iiild l'o Iliadi.- Willi. Uli tia- cnii^fiit <ií the pcojilc iinolvcd, ami 
thai liii,' v.'tf ni niiii'ii. taken diinuu di^tiirliaiKO ami ;n the ali>i'iH'c ni the 
I'l^iii.i; pans . -ll.iuld ii. it l>e c m-idered a^ le.^.d.' .\llliMii<;h tilerc \va> a -])irite(l 
(.ip|)n-.itii>ii III' the .\^-einIi]\ the reijurt w a> arcei)tcd. 

ri\)l war iii'w (lilt with nileii-e ¡la^-ii'ii. 'i he I'npe. whii iiiaui- 
taiili'd lie lone ill the territory, a-keij the l-'reiuh ( io\ et iiineilt to intervene. 
I )eliaie- oil union mue more oceupiid the .\-.-eiiilil_\ . Inil in place of union, 
I-'reiK'li ¡roi']!^ \'.ere ^eiii to protect i'reiich jiri'perty and to restore law and 
order.-' 'I lii~ Í. 'fee wa- ot" little ;i\.iil and \\a- wuhilrawn in the tollouiii^ 

1 hirint: tlri> jicriod of ci\il war. from lideiiiher. ¡"'Ml, to April. 17''1. 
vote- 111 fa\or of union were t.ikeii li\- many of the coinniunal a>seinl>lie> of 
the tcrritorw ( >n .\]iril MK \7'']. delegate-- carrying what jiiiriiorted to he 
the formal miiiiUe- of illese ((iiniliiinal \ote^ presented thein-ehe-- to the 
.\--eiiiM\ at l'an-. The m.itter wa^ referral to the (.'oniniittee on .\vit,nion 
which, after i'\aiiiiinii^' the record-, reported in fa\or of union mi the j,aoiimi 
tiiat !ift\-niiie coinimme- h.ail .i. tii.illy \oteil for tinioii, that all hut one of 
the forl\ other.- had imlicalcil a corre-])ondinf;- de-ire, and nioreo\ er, 
the title wa.- f.inlty. 

There wi-re three uroup- in the .\— eiiiMy. tlm-e lor itnioii. whether tlie 
peojile of the ierritor\ wished it or not. the clericals who were ali-olutely 
a,L,'aiii-t union, and liie inde]ieiidenl j;ronp who \\i-he(l union hut only if 
\cacd li\ the jieirple of \\i;.;non and the ( 'ointat. The i|ile,-tioii of the 
iree(k.m of die vote- wa- at once from the lloor. It ua- a--erted the e\idciice rei;ardiin; them \\,i- iii-nllicient. l\olie-|iierre and others 
defended the- \oie- Imt the t(. -tinioiu- of l.a roiir-.Maiilioiiri:, the an,il\-is 
of I 'cniiont-Toniu rre and the armnneni- of \arioii> memher- of the .\s- 
-.inhK iliat the \oie- were taken in the iind-t of ci\il war ami tinder intimi- 
dati"ii h\ the re\ ohitioiii-t- Coiunued the \--enihly lh:it the exiires-ioii of 
the will w.t- millier -uriicietilK, fo,rm,il iior free to he ade^juate 
.and ihe eii-iiiiiL; \oie n -nllcil in 4^7 to Mii ,i!.,MJn-t ,ii:iie\ation ."■ \ similar 
fate nut tin- drait decree iniri«hiced h)' the Committee on the followiii'^ 
d,i\ pio'iid'iiu; for the .iiinexation i\\ \\ii;iion .done ' 

I'h.irli'^ (Ic I.,iii!< til. 1 >' Ml -niir ani I'.cmuIii. In tliisf «■ r. a'MccI ].<, ilc. re. of .NuLni^-t 7. 
ir'fl. I'lti'ii ¡\r \ illi-i'i u\c, CimIi- anil Ki i|' n, Ir.hi:,-: fitr¡i,iiiu'tiliiii,-s. mtÍcs 1. vnl. 
.'J. I', >i7 

H'í. I >in iiiiuiit>, f,t.\l. [1. I**.-, nporl In Tr.nnlut. 

-Cf I'ociiitUMits, ^('!f, IS»), fiT cU-cri-c. 

'lAlrait'« friim the report and dcbali- arr kìmmi in 1 ).«i:ini nt^. />.•.>. i. ISS Tlic ili|iuii,. 
iruMi till- iU-ii.(rlnicnl> loiirl'.iiii: \vii.'n"ii ■• ti' e-Siin*! tlir unirti in alun l tlii -.nur i.rMportion 
Ht t'--r •■.!!■■• r íUT-ütifí. 

*CÍ l'i cnnirnt«. f- '' " '"-' 


\\li,Si>\ WD lili'. ("(iMTAl \'i:\AI.--M\. 17'M 

1: \\;i- (-■vicknt, linut'\cr, In all ]iartics lliat M)iin.'llim^' must be done to 
>_nrlj ilk' o\il war wlin-c udlcme \va> tlircatciiiiiL,' the iiiMf^diixiriiig dc-part- 
111. nt-, rititiMii- fnr intiTxcinidii t.' prrwin tiirther lilund.slu-d pdnred in 
in in :1k- rcLjiuii. Aiirr iiitciiiiinaMo diMii-^ion tlic A>>cinlilv liiiallv aduptcd 
a r>.m|)ninii-(.' iiicaMirc and mi Ma\ _'5 voted to send three e(iiiniiissiniier> as 
mediali. r- t.i do all in ilieir \)<<\\t.r id hriiiL; ahdiii a ee--ali<in di iid.tiliiies 
.1-. a iiere"ar\ |ireliininary td taking aii_\ iiirilur deeisinii le.t^ardniL,' the 
iii'JiN di l-'ranee m the Cdiimr\.' 

I. e Seme <k- .Mai-nii., \ erninae-Saiiit-.Maur and the Ahhe Muldt were 
apihiiiiled niediator-, The-e made their ua\ at onee to I )raii;;e where ihev 
-.ii:errr,l w:lh deimtie^ di' ilu- patriote army of X'aiKlu^e. oi' the two 
niüiiieipal hcdus df A\i-n..ii and (.'arpeiitra-, and cit diie ..I the two rival rep- 
re-enlar,'>e a-einhhes (,t the terrii..rv. A treaiy oí peaee was drawn ii|). 
eallrd tile •■ iVeliininarie- ,.1 ( iram^'e." uliieh pr,ivide<l that tlie two armies 
~n. .1,1,1 l,c ,li-haiide.l. . .rder ,i;uaranteed hy tin- mediators hy mean- df j-'reneh 
nati.. nal -nani- ami an eleel..ral assemhly hehl m a ¡ilace Mwpeeled of 
[.ani^aiidiip. where it dioiii.l ..eenpy ii^df wilh the deeisii.ii a- lo the p.. lineal 
-laie > .1 ilie e. ninir\-. 

IIk l'rehiiiinaries were ratilied hy the |-"reneh A--.emhlv on [uly 4. After 
e..mparaiive order had heeii restored, the mediators re.piested ihe president of 
;he nan. .liai as~i'mhl> ,.f the tw,. snu-, i,, convoke the aeiiw eiti/ens of the 
e..nimiines t,,r the eleeln.n of deputies t.. an eleen.ral as.cnihlv. where thev 
di..iiM tlraw np a Maternent oi the eomnmnal \,ites on the .piestion .if uni..n 
wiih the I- remi) K'ejiiihlie . .r eontiniiance under pajial rule. 

llie van. .11- ver-i..ns ,,i tlu- hisi,,ry .,| iJu- v., tino m ihe e.,mnuines and 

ilie ...ndiii..n- Mirr..iiii.lni,i; the v.-n- niav he i;alhered in .letail tlie re- 

I'""- '" ''' i>!'diat..rN the rej^.n ..f the ( '. niiimtiees ,,n AM<,rnon. an.l tlie 

fdinial ehar-es ],r,.n.t:lii hv Al:he Manrv m ihr \ --en.: .]> - I lu- eleeti.m ma- 

.Iniierv. lli.,ii,i;li ..l ihe enule-I, merel\ rellerts tj,,. eiisi.,marv laek of pohtieal 

•■ !.Iiisi,eaii..n .,f ilu- time-. Minorities ha.i little or n.. " piok'eli,,n. The 

*■''■' ''""^ • '" ■■•'"tne eili/eli." v.ere all th..-e men, n..t .l..nie-lie -ervants. ,,f 

'■ '■ ■'->■ "' -'•■' '-^ "■^^■'■- wlio pai.l tax.- am..iiiiiiii- t.- ah.,ui thiriv cent- an- 

"ii.ili} The-e wrre hv i.,wn erier ,,r h\ ,,ii the dav he- 

lore Ihe meeliiiK- Th, meeiniL: I.... k plaee in the ehuf eliiu.h oi the eom- 

miine. \fier an a.Mre- ihe pie-idin- .Mieer, eiilur the niav.,r or ihe eld- 

'-t em/en. put ihr ,pK.sti.,n ,„ hi- ..wn A,,r.l-. Il„,-e ,,f ,he eleet.-r- wh., 

-idie.l i..r union wilh i'nmee were t.. M I,, rem,, m in the h...K ,if the .-Inin-h 

'"l'I '''■ '■ "'diiim .,, remain iin.ler llie i ', .pe i,, pa-- ,nt., ihe rhapel. or ,-„v 

vr,-.,. Only one or tw., .,f the ...nimn,,,. -.eni i.. hax,- ha-i f,.rnial 

' (.'f. I)l1ll,tllcllts. /-..j/. |1. Jll 

• i'i«:iinicnts, [■,<st. |i|i. J,iy , ,. .,,•./ 


i'i.i-:i;iM n i:s 

pn iccc'lni;,'^ nr to li;i\c u^cil a liallut The ri.':iiimi!Kil ,:-.s(.'mlilies nu-t nil 
(lift'iTi'tit (la\^ (lnriii;,f lliu ])i.TÌi'cl ln-tw ecu July 7 atn! July . i,' At mails' of 
tlii-^c a^^ciiililit'^ the nicftiiiii ua-- (i]n.ii<'(l li-.- ut the ni(.-(liatiir-> with af 
aililrc-<. '-(.'ttint,' lOrth thi.- advatitaf^t'^ di raimii, I'iciv, h irci(i|i> \scrr ])n.'^(.'ni. 
a])i)arri)tK at ihr cloniri- ni hnth ¡larln-- ami at ihi' rcqiR'-! (il tlie i.-iiimmiiial 
aulhnritU'^ In prcM-rt (h-tiirliaiico, 

I'hc \iil<.- ni .\\i^ni(^u \\a> take'H liy <li^irii't^, It^ sincerity is ilu' "-iiciMal 
iilijcii ni attack^ IIk- lir--l iiiLt.'liii,i^> nt the di-lrii-N wt.Ti' adintirncd 1)_\- the 
iiu'ihatni- nil arcniini <ii the tnrlmleiue ni the eleetnr~.- At the tiiial meet- 
in;;^, twi) (la\^ latiT. it i-. ^aicl that niily the adliereiits ni iiiiinn (iared attend. 
(Iwìiil; tn the -mall iimiilier- ni eleetnr> present at the se» nnd mectiiiir. it wo 
annn'.iiued that thn-e citi/eiis w hn hail lieeii ali-eiit -liniild L;n in the I Ii'itel 
\ die tn jiiit their --iLiiiatiire- tn the minute iti the \(ite. Xn one dared reiii>e, 
-a\ the nppnneiil-, w Im tliii^ aeenniit, pmlialiiy with rea-nii, tur the iact that 
at the eiii] oi three da)- the -ante act which had lu'eii drawn iq» in th.- aliimst 
de-i rte(l ili-trnt a^-emlihe-. \\a> en\ ered with -ÌL;natnreN. 1 he emigres pro- 
tetteli irnin their reiiiije al•rn-^ the ri\er at \ illeiieiue that the vote .ad lieeii 
taken while the aetue eili/eii- were in exile.' 

The delei;ate- elected liy each cniniminal a-^enihly n t in a " national a>- 
seiiilil\ " at lîi'darrides, proclaimed the independent st;ite oi ' X'aiichise and 
\oted inr incorporation with I'Tance. Tiiree delet,'ate- irnm this assemMv 
acconipanied the mediator- to l'ari-, to carr\ the \nte to the C'oii-tmicnt 
A-semlih . 

The Committee on .\\ii;noii, to which the iinestioii was aj,'aiii reierred, in 
an elaliorate rejiort declared that on examination ni the votes it was convinced 
ni their authenticité and oi the ireedoin tinder which tluw were ca-t. The 
r loit -tated that ni the ''S cnmmnne-, 71 ti.'id a>-emliled and vnted, 3_' voting 
inr I'Vanee. \'i inr the l'ope. ( »Í the 27 other-. 17 had voted inr Iraiice in the 
earlier \ote- oi \pril and Ma\ and, heiiiL,' liii-\ with the liar\e-i. reinsed tn 
a— "inlile ai^am Tlu' . oiiimittee counted these a- still ior union. Ten hail 
ali-,aiiK'il entirely troni xntiiiL;. Whether tlie-e -hnuld he cn' nted inr I-Vance 
nr lor the I'opi'. the ( omiiiiltee reported that the m,iiorit\ oi coinninnes were 
clear'- ior nninii \- inr ih^ mainrity ni the pninilitinii oi 1 .^_','M'» jIk- ( "mn- 
niittev -tiinated the .^J cnnimniu'- vntitii: inr i'ranci- cmitained 101,044, 
I- veil cnüiitiiiL; a- iinw inr the l'ope all oi the commune- iorinerh xotini;; ior 

' < Ine I'l'iiiniiin. nut ,i- I,iii ,i^ \:ii,;n-l 11 

•Tile >ti'ry w,i^ wiilil\ .rclitcil iIku at ih<- lir-t ,i-.-i-mi!iI\ tho f;itr, .•!,.■■ oiuiuvl the 
ti.iiili- III till- iliiinli «liiT. I'll- a-MiiiMy «a- nuttiiii; aii-i tlir.'.iti-iu-l !.. l!ii,iw tin iiapists n\ 
ami tlif,it..r- O'lii. nliil tin iii-rK . - «itli nuriU iln-uii; ihr t..i)i!is an. I .li.l alln« 
Ire Mtniiii|>alit\ t.. it-m.-mIi-, Tili- -tiir> i- an«'.Mr. .1 li> I.e .'^n no .!.■- .\lai-...n- in Ins 
aii^\\tr l.i MaMr\"^ iliaii^r'. il.K""tnciit>. l'osi, p _'f'". 

iuTif <iiar|.i iiiif, / ,-,( i;r,iii(i,ï rfisodrs dV ,',i >;~;'iini.'ii ildns .Ivimi^'n .•( /, i ■ìiiu,>i, vol, 
1 : .,'", vmnt- .i,:t ilat tin- |ir. |. -t licar^ n.i siiinatur. <, 

.Wli.Xfi.V ANI) Till-: TOM TAT \ i:\Al>Sl \. 17''! 


J'raiuf. liiit later ali>taiiiiiií;, a> well as the 10 ah^taiiiiiiíí and the 1') acfuallv 
M'tmj,' tOr hiiti, the iIlhal)itaIlt^ ui the commune-, votinj,' inr the l'ope mini- 
la rei only 31.N7,^.' 

ri'.e \nte, accunlini,' U< the report of the mediators, liad been free and inde- 
]n,ndi I of all pres>tire, which wa> proved, they said, liy the fact that some of 
the cm miines, evcii though I'rench f^arrisons were ¡ireseiu. had votcl for 
papal sovereitinty. The (.'oniimttee, therefore. coiiMileriiiM; that the in(ie])eiid- 
«iue of the territory had been reco<,'iii/ed ii\ the rreliniinarie.-- of ( iranj^e and 
1.C1IÌL' of the ■ pinion that uiiion would he to the ¡ntere->t of i'nmce as well as 
■,;at i>i Avi;;! u and the ( ..lulat and that the Tower.-. w.Jtild not object to a 
procceilinj,' -o lounded on iii-tice and rea-on. reported in fa\or of union, 
l.a-MiL; il^ tlnal report on the communal \(ite of the territor\. After a -torniy 
debate ilie law of imion ua> p;is-ed by the A>scniblv on September 14, 17<)1. 

1 he vote ol Avignon and the (.'oiiitat is a matter of controversy to thi> 
da>. I.ocil and reh,i,'iou> feelin.i;. laner more intense, have served to cloud 
the whole alïair with recnmin.atioiK ^vllich later hi-iorian- h,i\e perpetuated 
•Mthout adeipiate consideration a- to whether the ( liaran- are reallv meant 
a- attack- on tlie votes themsehe- or concern other ;ini' -eparate local i^-Mies. 
1 he comple\it\ of the rivalries .if the refjion. which make- investigation at 
till- di-tance of time most hazardous, ap]),'ars in th-. tact that one of the 
chief complaints a,ü;ainst the mediators, iiamelv, that they reco^Mii/ed the Army 
o| \ ,iuclu-e and the electoral as-embly of e'avaiilon, came from the munici- 
palities ol Av;i;non "uid .f ( ■arpeiitra>, both b..dies ha\ iiii;^ recently vote.l for 
umoii with l-"r;mre. 

Ihe clerical p.irtv made the accii.-.ati,>n that the i>.nolution in the Comtat 
• iiid Avi-noii v,a- u ited from l-rancc, that the mediators had sh,.wn par- 
tialité towards the rmy ,,f \-aiichise ■' .hich was a -elf-confessed ban<l 
ot bn-ands. whose kavier i^\nn,M in the name of " roupe-teie: ■' that they had 
shown uiip,,rd(.iiable lack ni in 1,-ment m haMii.t,^ siuiimoiied ilie leaders ,',f the 
baud to a inference at Oran-e; that thev had rcco.ijnized the less lei^ally 
I' ¡i-tituted of the tuo rival assemblies, ani that, by threats of withdrawal ,.f 
the 1-reiich forces, thev plave.l uiioi, the resu!t;n^' fear ,.t \ ioience and 
thus !,,rced the oimmunes which were really m sentiment to v.,te for 
I '-nee. The l-rench partv in answer to tin- last p,,inte.l to the respectable 
"'^^"'"•i- "' «-nniMiies which, although vonn.o lor the Pope, mcorporate.i in 
then- nimuies ,i v. ite of ihank- to the mediators. - 

' i¡'< -liH-!,.i! ..I what ,Mcn,MKc ..Í ii,o ,,, i-i'ulatinn .if .\^iu-n..„ ,,„.| tl.o ( 
■ rr activo citMiis" an,! «hat p.-ra-nta«. ..l lh,„. v,,i>,i .a,, i.nt ho .-.„surn-,; ,l,l„:,„lv 
Al.nou ,„ h,s r,,i..rt stat.-.l ,ha. tho ,,.,,inla„„„ ,if ,),. o,ty ■•> \vi«„..„ was .'4,n<l,) .„„1 ,l,a, 

r^,!Vn'>. '.."',,.!!',.■,' ^. '!;;'"."■'"''/''■''''■ ''''."" ''','"■ '■^■■'"•^""" "■ "='• Vonai.-in must 

< ,1 ,'i /",-""'.■ '■' ''■-■''■■ ■■■■■i:^^ X. t:-!. .,M,i; |.,ni-in . , liio rnrai 'hstri.ts, 

- . -.■ tlu- .M.niitr- ,,t tfu- ..Í .^.cir.t, l>u.unu-nt- / ¡, .'1„ T1-- iiiiivf - . I 
llu ( ..n. ninno ,,t Ca'lrr..n.-o, ,,ft., reciting that tin- adivo citi/on. n„-t ,., thr nnnih. r ,,t ,îiW 


I'l.i.iu^i II 1-: 

Ila- ilcrnal ]iar¡\ \\,i- um!. mlai-dlN iii-lili(.<l in midic im" it> pmiUi. 'liic 
iiuili.ì, ;iuir uc.rk uà- iÌmih- |,y iiitri.t;in.- rallier than liv ínrcc m 
thrt-ai-. uur .1 !i.iinl\ .i;uili\ ,.i pariialttv . ' 'lin- .\lnii~tor ni Jiwin-c, DuiHirt, 
ni a It-rirr ..I \-u-.i-t 14, alili(.nt;h chara', irri/mi; ilu' attai k> on the nic(liatnr> 
a- t.-\af4,:;iia!t'(|. adiiniinl thai iluir n\\\ì c irre-]), .ndencu uvinccd tnn <,;rcat 
a ilr~in- tu riifi-t tile imi. .11 and t.... liitic impartiality.- Tia' Armv ni \':w- 
ilii-i- iiTiaiiil\ c. imniitr.l txre^-i.-- niuKr their e\c-. and in fact later hecanie 
N. iiiiriil\ that I! <.|.|i..-ed uni. .11 an.l uislie<l aiitonoinv a- the liest uav (if 
j).i>llic.iiinL^ :iie return ..f law. The niediat. ir>, h(i\ve\er. a]i]iear tn have 
laMirei! the arin\ ii.r it- ja..iliinÍMn rather than it- pni-French ,-entiniein-. 
i..r they -iipjiLrted it aj,'ain-t parti-an- (.f uuK.n aN.i. 

'' '^ "' ^""i"-' -ii'l m uura\ellinir the tallirle (.1 evidence tn lind that the 
-i.lnti..]! ni the .lüc-ünii a]i|iear~ tn have hrciii^ht -ati>iactiuii, at lea.-t td 
the niajnrit;.. I he papal aiitlmntie- admit that even the ('nmtadin- who 
were 111. .-i dcM.tcd ti. the ilniy See had felt the need of uni. m with j-'rance. 
ami that the cleavage .|Uickly cea-e.l tn he alnin; the ipie-'inn u\ si;\ ereii,MUv 
ami liecanie ..lie ..i da-. In hecnmin.L,' i'Veiich the I'apal ]iartv hecaine r.ival- 
''•'■ I 1>^' ''IK-' •'■i- -1:11 nue ,.f ,ni.<tninitr and patriotc' The vi.ileiice 
which nut a-ani M.,.n after liie iiiii(.ii di<l tint extend tn the I'.nntat. 
liut ua- linute.l I.. .\ml;u.,ii an. i appear- tn ha\e lieen (hie to local hatreds 
ni incredil.Ie inieii-it) ami In (lela\ in -eiidin..,' i'rench trooji.- and instituting 
kreuch antlinriU , 

I'.v the ■krcat\ ..f i . .leiitin. .. -i-ued I-'eliruary l'I. 17'i7. the Tnpe finallv re- 
hii.|ni-hed all n-iit t.. the dtu- and terrimrie- ni .\\iiiii,,n and the Cnintat 
\enai--in in ia\..r nf ihe Ireiuli l^puhhc ^ X",. nieuii,,n i- tiiade in the 
treaty nt the \(.!(.- ,.f the ]ie. .pie nf iIr. terrimrv. 

ill 111. !.ar,Mi ,h;:rdi ..n j;.l> J4. ci.tu, u^, •' Tlu y h;i-t< n t.. jiroMt l.v tlie tran.iuillitv pr.mii.L.,! 
l..^ the fft'irn ..1 ]~-r.i:,-. ,,r, Iniit ..Í tin »m.,],,,,! an.l n,,l„lit.. ..f the I'n.n.h „ati.m, aii.l „f 
t!;. inlMiil. ,arc ijiv.n l.y tin lii, .],.■,(. .1. ..Í 1 ranee . . an.l nnanini.,uv!v <1. elare ill the faee ,,f 
the ,innor,e in the .rami, r ..r.l,r..| \.v the nav..r. that tluir ,K-.i,e i. t.. remain faitlii-il t.i 
the l'ope and the IL.lx See." Translati. n. h..r |, \i .ee ( /,,„ ;■, „iie. v.,1. 1, p. .>.>,5. 
'■''"^ '^ '""' "' ''" "■"""inu- wliieli. Sonlhir .av~, the uere nn.ihle t.i n1a^ter 
SetM.ret. Cnll,.,, aiM l',..hne alv, fave thanl.. t., the n,e.hat..r<. in lluMr t..rn-,al nmnite- 
Ihe ..niv minut. ...n-an.inL; any atiainsl ll., me.!, i< ,hal ,,i th, c.,imn.,ne 
"t I'M.llene „h„l, ha.l N,.te.I l,.r the r..,,e .m J-lv 7. 415 riti/en> heinc pn^ent The nmni'e 
reate. lh.„ .,n \nunM Hi. I.e .<, .ne .le< Maivr^ ,„.p. are.l with tr,...p. ami „r.h re,l them 
to vote f„r um„n ..r ,., rem.ive the French arms xvhieh they ha.l .lisplayed for protection. 
'he .■,..-ens ^,„ol t.. a-k th,- a.,1 „f ,h,- I le|.;.rtm, nt ,.1 I ir.'.me t,, in.ln,-e th.. nie.lian.r. t., 
:in.^«_tle arms t.. -r.v . an.l the u.te f,,r the l',.pe r.n,au„.l „n.hanuol. Cluirfcnn.- v,.l 1. 
V. -I.\ Bivcs Ihe text ..f ihi,; (leliheration which is. li. \ve\ , r. nn,.ii;ne.| 

= Chaif-, Itili . \:A 1. p 

'■' hr,.ni n..« ,.n we shall see „nIv tn,. partus. r,,yahsts an.l rcpnhllcans. We were wholly 
l-rencli. an.l utre arruoi at a tim. wli.n thi 
Tr.T!:-.!.-5te!! fr.-.rr, V.-.|,,'/,->-, x..; 1 .. -: 

* !" ■!(■ Martens. H.-^,!,- t'itit.s < 2u<\ oli, x,,], .-, -, ?4!, 

:, re was n.. more , pi, -ti. m of the cmrt ..f Komc 


A\ 1 »\ , I7''J 

Swms-. \7'>2 




t lie 




1 i.f 

I V. 

a il 

U' Mii'i, reals ci the Re, : .Inti. .n m Jraii> e ilie (huli_\ ..f Sa\M\, \\1,hìi had 
'!!'>■ u.nvxil i)art ni th,- ..-nijure ,,i' ( liarlciiM-ne. ua^ part ..f ,1k- kiii.L;(l.,iu 
■""•'""'■■ •" "''"■■'' -"^^Tei.mity ¡I ha.l |,a",-,! tlinm-h the niterim'hate 

lie cliKiix 

hail. I- In the ( i.niil^ <•] 1 'f 
r, -e\in iiruMiiee-. It had at li\e ihlïereiit t 

.1 5S 

immune-', rrmipe' 

'"-''"'" "I"-' |'i'"i'le were Ireiich in lan.i,nia,L;e an<¡ ^\míia:li\. ami ti 
i¡>!< - Ol. tin- k(\,,liaÍMii imiiicl read) >..ii\iTt- .-inKiii.. thm;. il 

iiiie> heen ¡i.irt i.I the i'ren.h 

le j;rm- 

le I unii Cl airi. 

'\ '•llerillL 

a-v lililí 1.1 ihe emii,'re> aiiil ]ier>e> iiiiiit; ilu- ^,,/^ 

aiirn.iteil whatever li.\altv midil h,! 

■X II! S. I 

!/■"''-'. .Miiiilevi|iii(n:. ( nf the A 

ive reaiaaie.!. \Uieii, mi .'^cpii-nilier 1'». 

n\el.e l.,in;iliiiii>, h 
'!'..■ >ai 

rai\ .,1 tile Malí, eiitereil 

.i\ii\ with 

e uà- reiaucil with the iitm..,! j,i\ |.\ ¡¡k. u\]\h\ 


an tniiij). ahaiuli med .ill the ñ irtilu'iti. m. and retired hei.ire il 

Imi-irIi w nil -ea.rieU- ,a -hut. ( ) 


t. < )ii Seiitemlier _'4 

tlir..,\n npeii !,\ ihr .Mmi;,i|ial:! \ and ilu- K 

the ^'.ate- ni i li;iiiiljér\ \', 

■^yiidu- ;;reennu liiiii w itli iIk 
Kir. ered." 

d. •■ W 

e\ > [ire-eiited In :he ( ieiieral. the 
e ,are a pei^jìle imt cuinniered hut 

Ml .-^ipleinher _'4 .M..iue~i|iii. m >ciil a -Inuiii" d 

er\,in. .\| nii.-ler n 


.!> - he lia-> alre.adv heard 

e-cri|)ti.)ii el hi, reeeptim 
ir.' In >ijeakiii- i.i the welcome ut" the pen; le h 

the kfpnhlic and a-k, liuid, 

-iii,',t,H--ti(iii 1)1 erectin;,' Sa\i 

mil) ;i (lepartiiieiit 


nice .a- ti I hiiu tn n- 


ie i|uestii.ii ua> dch.ate«! in the ("onveiiti 

;reat inllueiua 


a- the depulie- were at 1 

lull at Pari-, mi the J.Stli. ( irat 

-ere .at thai lime lindiiu'- m t mil 

le irieiiddii|) I'rance which th 

eir .ariiiu's 


y m S.a\(.\ hut .aUn m ti 

iveiice. lile Mit,',-e-timi ,,t .•innexin-- Sa\ii\ witlmut cmiMilt, 

peipu repudi.iled .ali^ )hitel\ . Xeilher ill 

le cmintrv ahmit 

Itinll 1)1 the 

e ar,:iiimeiit> nt Danlmi m 

a\et lie ( mi\ nri^iiif,' tlie need nf deiraviiiir tl 

ar ,1111 

I 1.Í 

,Li tile e\-()eii-;e> ol the 

ciiMirm- ,1 tree -mernmenl f) the iiewlv delivered S;i 

e.iikil, I »iMU-Miiii mi the i|Ue>limi \\;i> cIom.-,!. 

Miaiiwhik- the ih 

ilimi 111 ki 

ree cmllml^Mmler■^ wlm had airead v heen >ent 

■p watch ii\cr 


ivn' ird 

)\' tile t mi- 

' iple-, decideil. mi cmi-nl 

■ine-timi lit uiiimi to a vote. ( )ii ( )ctnher 6 tl 

l.iiii.itimi In the .'<a\i)yaril peuple ,ani 

esi|uii)U-. ileMitimi In re\ i ilutimiarv priii- 

l.atimi w nil the chili- at ( 'haiiil 

uiiherv, to put tlu 

le commi->imiers i->iied a nn 

rei,L:ii rij^lit-. m' t! 

Hinein«,' to th.em that the imiire-irii 


:i\ e ,a tr 

le peopl,. were re-lored to them, and that thev should 

ee ciimce a< 1" llieir tiilnre; 

lid 1 

le .'^a\ • i\ .•i'"d- cl 

venirn to dieir former de-pots the vvay .Muild he open, lint tliei. c! 

It 1,.- tl 

ic ni.aiorit\- of th 

Clloosl" to 

lioice nni-t 

e people in [inmary as-i'mhlie-; "which are the 


Ti'i.i;!!!)- ' TIk- c>!al.l:,in..l 

l'l,i;i;|s( I I ;.;< 
""Iv ..,„. ulicrr tl„. ,,,,,,,!,. can rxcvi^o ..,^,, 

;:;;'::,;:™' -- ■■ -- ■"--■...:;: i:;:.n™;:'Lrrr 

;-- - V'.. 'c":: ;:::,:;; ::;,:r';::.r: : ':■-" 

Ir.iii.,-. ,..h,.,, Hi.- .ii.n,,..,,,,, |.,-,..,-,i, , ,i ■ :"'"'"- < m ,„ 

:'■"" -'"■■■- '■■ - 1; ; ;;;::„..:":;: 

:::::::::n::;;;,,::^i;,.;::..:!::-™- ^ -^ •■ ^'^'■^■^' 

■-'--' :'-;:':::;:;:;^':;:::;;:;:,:::™" --- -"-■ 

':■;::;',',;: ■'\;';v';,: ■'■'--; -'» ™,„„. ,.,,„„.„„, 

>„,:„ ,„„,, r, ■■"■' ':'•-' I-™ -.".„„„I „ „..„ ,- , „„, 

I "I ii,( (i.--,s ,, niniMiic- III ^ai.i\ liiil t" ,il,.,i t ii 

.-■;:;;;,;;;,:;-i..i;..... 11. .,,,, :; ;;^;;',:;- 


»■■■--■"-« 1.1. .';:,,;! r.i: ;:,,:"';?;;.;:''''''''■ ■■^™ --■ 

•—•r-^Mio ,1,, r,„|,, ,,• „ „, , ' " "" 1— ^-i-n. ,,i ,!„■ cUtì^-v u1„1,. 

^ -'•nil.h ,.,n,a,n,P.r ,1,,. v , i ' '■"'•'' """"'"' '" •''-• 

: ',>-,m..„,s. ,„.,, p. J-, ' "" •"''•'■'■- "•'^nvnv..,l „Hi, 

-Sci' D.Kiimcntí, /-„.ti, p. jxi 


III. I. 

'>-."! «,. IlisMn- Jc \ar,H, v„| i ,. ,' ' 'h .1..,, „ I, v (,,,„„ 

■•\|><'liti..i, auaitisj f;,•|„.^a " " '" " ""' """ '■'•'itrm,,l,,i,„>; ,,11 

«..:.'^';i:sri^ S!:''"r;::r:;,T-; •"- -- -'• -.- ^.•...„ ,., 

l'(Kiimm»s. »>,.»» 1. >«« I'rnctC'lini;^ 

"«•mtients. />«/>. p. J8<» 

XU I-:, 1 7' M 

I ir 

nil oil the 

.tMU aii,l nurrcd 1,,-tlu. 1 i.pIomaiR- ( nmmitt.r. On \uvcm!icT 7 

■v;;,,,,-,- prrH'nt.,1 the- rcpnrt ,,i ,lie o,„,„micr an,l a drait .Iccur „i un:,,,,' 

I IH. rq„,ncT rccte- that ,t ,. pla,n that ,n .Nu„v a. ,n the pn,,,l. 

.,r. .,vcr.,,-n. l-ranœ lia. .u„rn „„ o,n.|„c.M.. l,„t ha> n„t -wuni t.. repulse 

|".-r penpK.. alrra,Iv ,„i„e,l ,„ ,t l,^ „„„„„„, pr.nnpK-, a,„l ,nlmM. wh„ 

''^ ;' ''"''' ""V '^-^ ""• "■'■"" ^'"•r ^'" .m,nuTa!i,.n ,,f the :,„nual Uu.u.l 

'■■ Ih- .-slKCcl. ,h. ,h-ncr ua. M,l,„„tt.,i an,l a,i„p,v,l. The- prcanihlc. a. ,n 

'''^' ■'^•^;^" '" """■" "I \v,,^„,,„ an,l Ih. huer .lem-e., l.a.os the uni, 

"Ir ,,1 ihe pe, , ¡lic ,a-t ,ii |)ru,,ai-v a-venihHe- ' 

IIk- ;..h,.„uMrat,ve ehan^e. were aa-nn,,,l,.he,l w,th,,ut disturhance The 

I-tK; "H.-,„e,l tlie IVench .e^niie. the y,,,,,,;; men enr„l!e.l ,n ^reat ,iun,- 

'■r^ ,M the /.,•,/,„„ „¡l„hro,/r an,l ,-,,niie,l l.altah,,n> ,,i v,.hniieer>^ i he 

M-nMe. uh,eh ,ame bter uere a e,,n.e,|uenee ,„ the .leN el,,p,nent ,.i the 

"■\r'r""'' '''^"'''""" ■'■''•■ '■''■'•^^' -1- ''^'1 "Ho-nie,! the lTe„,h 
■'■"1 .la.l n.,t a v,„ee a.^-an.M the ah,,l,t„,n , „" tl,e,r pr,vile,.es. uere -leeplv 
'■;-'"""' '" ">'• ^■•^>'- "a.h^ The l,vely fear ,elt hv the SavnvanI peasant „:r 
ihe .n.uu.v n„,.e,neni a^aiuM rehj;.,.,,. an,l In, reMMitnient a^auiM e,,nM-np- 
""""<■■■- .„ade u.e ,,t I,^ ,l,e ..„^res. ITere ^raduallv ar,,.c a elearlv J,- 
araiM r.,^,!,.t n„,ven,e„i. Th,-. ,!,.. ,.,t. h„uever appear tn have Keen 
" '>-:'l' ■! ni.aenunt l,a.k I,, Sarduna a, auav lr,„n the Uevnh.t,,,,, 

N.r,h„,a ren,.unee,I al! :^h,, i„ Sav„v and \,ce hv the -ITeniv „i I'ar,. 
:;' ^'"^ '- •'"" nH. .eo„„l Trea,v,„ Par„.,f Mav ,^, ., 1S14. ,!a,ded 
N-n.^N. ;,nv,n,,^ par, t., IVan.e an,| part I,, l",ed,.iun,, dh,. ,hvi„,,n an.n-ed 
""■•"•'n„,u. pr„teM ,„ the ,h,ehv. 1 he ln,nt,er „f \7'>o wa. ,e-,t„red hv the 
re,„^ ,„ \,.e,nher J... !,S15. the I'Ven, h ( nn.„tut„.„ ua> taken awav' and 
'i'-' ^-."'iMs ,-, ^a^,,var,l enn^re. „, I ranee he^a,, a^an, dhe „vth annexa- 
tinii ha,l late.l twenty-three vear,. 

N'ui-, !>'M 

\Ve, ulneh had pa^.e.l l,ke a ~hunle-e.,ek hack and i,.rth !n,m Sa,d,nia 
... Traiue s,n,, „,, M „hile \,e-, ha,l heen ,,^en. .„h „s M,rnn,nd,n^r e.n.ntv 
■ ■ ^..r,h,i,a hv the I realv ut \,\da-( Tajielle ,,i 1 74,X 

\- .. ¡.an ,.i the n,d,tarv expe,I,t„.n „„,, Sa',,, v. (».neral Anlehne a heu- 
U-iian, ,„ \l,„,teM|„„.„. „,,h .inno ,„,„, ,n,.M,l the ,r,,n„er „u., \,ee I he 
<'"<ran,-e nn,, ,l,e e,tv ua^ ,„a,le u„h,.„t a d„„, ,he enu^^re. an,l ,he s,p. 
^Muan „-.„.p, ,Wn„ :„ n, Saw,. I,,, X,,,,,., apparentlv a. ea^.r a.' ,he 
■•nnvar.l- ,,,r the lernuna,,,,,, ,,, ,he Sanhnian rule. ,e,e,.e,| the i,en,h 
'rn..p.uuh,e„,H„„ \nMTne.h„.e,.r. fart„„„,„ll„u,n, ^h„,te.,,n„,n^ 

' 'iiiiiit>. /•,,//. p, .x>5. 

I Tu»al. I.anmxi.w ./.• I„ ,S„, , „■ ,, /„ /■,,,„ ,. ,, ^,^,„ 


i'i.i.i;i-( i TI'. 

|H)lny ut |]ri'-tT\ ìiil; tlic alri'.uly i'\i-tiiiL; iniiiiii ip.;! linüv- -i-t u]i uvw nnc- 
til 111- ''W?! ihi"i-ni^ ( 111 ( irliiln'i' _'•), l.;i~iPiirK-. it|M iitiii^ \'>r tlic I 'i]il' 'matic 
( Miiiiiutti'f Mil ihc K'iicr I.Í Mi iiu -tpiMii rcfi-iTi'i ti' it li\ tlu' \^>l'1iiÌi1\ ,' 
c' .\n~rliiii' IkkI .t]i|ii iiiilcl inlnuKiK ami a'liiiiiii^Irat-\ ■ 1hpc1:c, — 
a ri,;lit. acciiriliiiL,'- t" llit.' i . ìIii!iiiiii.t. ii^i ]im-.-c-mi! 1i\ Iraiicc ainl tlicrcNirv 
iiira]ialilf III tran-iiii^-h 111 tu lur ;;tniTaK 

( )ii .\'(i\ (iiilicr 4. lluTi' \\a> irail ni the < i iin nitii ili ail ittk-ial IctliT ~ii;Mcil 
li\ ilu- |iiii\ i-ii'iial ailiuini-iratu t' l.ndir^ ni ilu- ( it\ aiiil rii!nit\ ut Xioi'. a])- 
l)iiin!(.il li\ \i;-cliii(.-. -latini; iliat !Ìir i!t!/cii> .k'-in/il niiii.n wnli Immii-i- - l'Iic 
«IcK'uatis carrviiiL; iln^ \\ri\' rccciv i-'l unii ,L;rrat liii'in-ia-ni, luii ;i iiintiun 
tliat llif rn|in--l l'i llic cili/tn- ut Xua- \ir ai iril mi al nina- ia!l-il ...rtli a 
priiU-i iii'iii llareta' 'K- \ ht. zac wliu in>i-tri| mi a t rei,' Miti' "i tlic iHnplv 
in ¡uiinar', as-iiiiMu-. Iifiuii- aiiv -luli ai'lMii. Tlu' t i ui, l'iitimi tluTnijimi 
clii-i'il ilu- i|i-rii--i,in. (IrclaniiL; lliai it cmild iint di. liluTatc n|ii.i' ilu- iKniaii<l 
{>>v nnimi iitiiii tin- cNiirt-- wi-li ni the in'iijiK', ircily mit-rrii ni |iriiiiar\ 
a--cinlil'c>. had l'ccii lir ird ' 

I Ih- \n;m-, ai > iifdiiL;!) , -et alimit .M|.\n;L; llir pf' H'idnrv in Sa\ii\ a.ii.l 
licid cUiiimi- liT a "natinnal i'üiu iiiiii iii." Ihr ¡inniars ,i>~i inlilu'- i\iro 
>uiiiinmu-d ì]\ ilic ina\iiriii ilu- jir. >\ i-i. .nal i,'. i\ criinuMiî. m IcittT- ni cnn',.!- 
catinii villi uni mi \i.\inilnf !_'. callniL: "ii llu' iii!/rn-> tu drlilii-raU' mi tlir 
ii'iin ,,| l;..\ cninicnl -niialilc In a -nirrci^ii iimpk' inr ilu- -i i nnii'^ nt their 
hlirn;. ' 

llu- \ntiiit,' \\a- li\ ,1' i laiiiaiinii. ,i~ m \\;L;nmi ;;nil m Sa\n\ llu re were 
lin \nieN au.iiii~l niiimi Mnin an\ a~-eiiililie- a> a wlinle. and ;'e\\ irniii indi- 
\idnaN I here ajipear-. In lia\e heeii a -ec niid eniunealinii m; I )<■• eiiiln r Id. 
m nider In eliel deimlie- In the " Xaliniial \>-.eiilliK 

I In laiinar', t. ]7'K\ the delegale- ir. .ni llie inniiiiiiiie- ami ihe eiL;lu m-. 
II. nal a--enihl'e- xi X u e, it-eli. r. .n -tunle.l tllelllsol\t'> a> ih.- ■■Xati..lial 
\--eiiilil\ ni ilie ( .ilmw Mar-eill 11- " ■ Alier \ eritìe;.;inii <<\ pnwer- and 
llie lakiii.i; '<{ an nalh <<\ allt iiamc !.. ihe nalinii and tu the priiuiple- <>i hhert^ 
.ui.l e.|iiahl\. a \nle de]i.i-MiL' ihe Sar.hiiiail Kill;; \\a> pa---ed, ainl I\\n dele- 
..Mti s wire appniiited. ihe -aim- t\sn \\\h> liad aireadv pri->i'iiti-d the addre>> 
.li ilie Munii !]ialit\ . 1.1 a;;ani pre-,etil liie \M-ii m ihc penple <<{ Xu-e. imw 
ireeh e\pre--.i'd ili pr ni ir\ i -etllitlicS, inr Union with l'railCi- ' 

' L'i. sufra, p. S. 

• Ddcimuiil«, t'osi. i>. .'S? 
^Cf. Diic.iiiifiits. fost. p. J85 

* A note l>y the e<titor> of the Archivi, ,,in, ii..j. .in.- 1. »..i .^n. .• .i-, ^l.ltr< 

»hat th»' MinimiiiiH »a« »itit to .mly Ittenty loiimimif». «nmc havinit bien inailviTtentK 
fi.ri!i'tl<n. «onif Wmv. ^wW in thr lianil» nf Sanlinia. Imt that the n er^iuht w»» qtii. ' '. 

' Nice WB« fomicle«! nome time í>efi>rf the Christian era. hy the Phocaranj of Mai>tilU> 
" l>i>iiitm'iil>. pt'.il. p ."*> 

1 ill-; i;i;i.i.iA.\ i i i.mmi"xi;s, ir-'.î 


lin.' ilorri't' Ml ;ini(]ii wa- ilclaxod liy tlic al>-. irhin;,' '|iic-tioii oí the iatc nf 
l.dui,-- \\ I and \\a> nut pa^sf.l iiy the ('nnxenti.m iuitil January .M I'lu- 
(krrec rwitc- that tlio ( inn ciitii .n adepts ili.' \iitc i'l tlic MiviTiM>;n p«.-. >]ili' ni 
Xici'. freely e\]ire-.-nl in jininary a^-einliho, ami iiu. .r|i. .rate> the euiiniv m 
the Kepulihc' 

Till. r.i:i.i,i A\ ( MM \ii M -. 17'), ; 

In XM\ I7''J, the deMre mí the XatiMiial i MPNi-iiti,,n Im -tnke at the 

< MaliiiMii, and • -pr.iallv at Anuria, ai ilie weaken pMint. led u> the di-pateli 

the Armee .hi X .rd under 1 )uiiiMtirie/ iiUm the AiiMnan XetherlaiuN. \\v 

the \irt,,r\ Ml jemapiH-, mii Xcxeiiilier (.. the uIimK' m; the •~MiitlK-rn part ni 

the eMiintry was Mjuned In the advaneinj,' I'reiieh ann\ 

AliliMii^'li the reimhhean iiinveiiit-m ut 17S'' '»U jiad U'eii ~liM|-t hwd and 
Austrian rule had heeii (|in\l<ly reoialilished. liatred ui the \ii~triaii~ \\a- 
^tmn- and eiithti-ia-ni i,.\- revMlniintiary ideas siiH tlouri-hi-d. I »•.uiMiine' 
ua-. ueK-Miiied with enthn-iaMii ll;: ,'- hailed hiin a^ a li! TalMi- lie'-e. 
the eapital mi' iIk- WallMon eoiiniry, >eeined intuxieated with Jm\, 

ihr ( MiiveniiMti, in Mrder tu prevent any acai-atiun uf wi-hiiü; tu elïeei a 
pulilical iiua>ii)ii, had re. ailed n- en\.i>~ t.. the 1 ). parlnieii! .hi X..r.!. a hu 
wished lu iollnw the army im.> r..'l.L;ium, I'.uth -eiuraU an. I p..lili. laii^ re- 
jecieil all idea of tcrriturial ai^jrrandi-eineiit Ihruii, k..he~pierre. Dnniuiirie/, 
all were explicit as to the aim n\ the eampai-n - 

lake Muiiic-qi'iuii, niimmine/, on etiterm;^ \l..n ..n X.iuinher S. ha. I 
issile.! a pr.H-lamatiim callinj; .,n the jieuple t.i assert their -.v erei-nt \ an. i 
dep.. -e their .le-put>. assiiriiif,' them that th.' Ireiirh ( un\enti..ii ha.l n.. widi 
tu interfere in the .|iiesiiuii ..f their fmiire j,M\erninetil I'.iit the j.r... laina- 
ti. 11 went fiirtlier than that uf .Mnnte^q.nuii. It iiNÍMed ihat. m ..r.Nr tu 
treat with the IVen. !i Kepii.plic. ihi- oxistiiip aiithnritie- miwt l.e >ii-pen.le.l 
and new admiiiisirati..iis nmst he >et up. Tliese. lu l)e sure, were tu li.> 
freely eliuseti hy popular election and the j;i-neraU were in^tnietcil liy I )u- 
monric/ that they .-arried liherty tu the peuple and should nut seek tu inilu- 
ciiee tliem in the eh.<icf uf the form- Iiy which thcv wi-hed to maintain it.'' 
Iii't Dnmonrie/ had omitted to draw up provisions i..r tltc elections in .ietail 
and the prituiiile of popidar elections was «lifTcrrntly applied in different 
plaeev In -pile ..f ;hi hivnch anent-.* however, the popular -.«•ieties, and 

' l)<Hiiiiifnt«. i''nst, p. M>\. 

' Chuqiiet, Jfrnctl"'' '"' '■' 
fli'/./i'jr à lit fin dn .i- 
Ri««, (7ii(,/if,7, |i. Is' 

' ("/iH./M.V p 181. 

■ I' u ■ ^ ' A iî"t«n<'t. f'/iTr-.ffi' lint 
irticiilarly Irttfr of Geiuuntir to Malnii- 


.ippuinted tliree Fffnch 


'i.!:i!i --i rn-.s 

llu- cxlii.nain.ii-. ni.iilf li\ 1 )um(inrii-/ m hi> ;ul(lri-^-f- and )ir(n laiiiati.nis, tlie 
cIirticiK i,ir ilic |ii>|,iilar a-si-iiiMii'^ went i..r the st.ilisUs ur im ult-ratt'S 
wlici ui^-lud til roicre the lùd eon-tilutK.ii ami the State^. ( icncral. Oiilv 
HI the pnivnue :.f 1 lainaiiU and tlie eiiie- ni Ürn^-^eK, Mon- and ( harlcroi 
did the Ireneh jiaity L;ani cniitn.l. and there nnly. it u a- ehar<,'ed, hv means 
111 ¡ire'-^iire and ii irie. 

It had liei.iine aiijiareni imni ihe .,i ilie a.i^ent- and army 
a^ «ell a~ iri.m the dehale- m the ( nmuUKm that the eharaeter .. the 
e\|iedni(>ii ua- ehan-ni-. The ( Mn\enti..n \\a> fared with the n^d I, .r 
fund-, with wliK-h n. earr\ .ii tlie war. and the wealth ni the !;eI,L;iaii. made 
an irresiMiliie appeal, 1. t the pn.l.Iem ni h,,u tu -i¡pp,,rt >i\ hundred lh,.ii- 
-and trnnp. ¡,i the eampait;ii was a de^perale , me and .er\ rd tu weaken the 
scruple-. ni man\.' A iuriher alK,,rpti..n ni the ,isxi,iiuit., \a- imperative, 
and the that the I'.el-ian- \v,.nld receive iliem \..lnntariK and , jiar 
hail nut Ihtii inltilled, 1 here am-e a demand that the .■ircnlati.m diould he 
tnrced. Dnmniine/ reliised Ihe ^tren^u], ,,, ,1„. .,/„,,.,./,.,, ,„ ,|„. ,.I,,^.,„„„ 
K.-i\c rise III the ari^nnieni that the r.elj,Man> miisi l,e sa\ ed I'mm their lethar-y 
and inned t.i he free. Ti. remf.irre these ar-iiments the .Id mie ni the 
■' limits" vvas resiirreeled. I'he l!e!,-ians uere iiu! sl,,w m re.ali/.' 
tl'c trend. On 1 )e.emher 4 a deputali. m representitU' the cities ni I'.rns.eN. 
.Mulls and I'linrnai presented thenisehes \n the (■..inetr m t.. ihan; ihe I'rench 
nati. ,11 f..r 'is ai.l .ni.l t.. he^^ ,¡i.,t i' u.-iild ]ilei|-e itself ne\ei ■■. .i-n .a Ireatv 
nut recLMii/iiiL;- the mdependenre ni Heli^iiim. Thev had l.eeii instrnrted tu 
piulesi a-aiiist the and n. deinand a pled.i;e that there shuiild I.e nu tuuards nm,,n wilh Iraiice, hni un ihe advice ni le I'.nm these |iru- 
te-ts wen; nimtlered 

ihe tears ni th.- I'.el-i.nis were s,„„, t,, 1.,. ,,„lv t,„, \vell justilled hv ('am- 

' ' '''■'■'■'■'■ '•' IVreniher l.r- This decree pruvided that, m the cúiintries 

ima.le.l In Ir.nue. n. . . .iie ciild \..Ie . .r h.,ld uiiice uh,, had iiut taken '.he 
"■"'' "' ''''>'''^ ;ii"l c.|!ialif\. and reiiuiiiue.l m writin- the prnile-es ,,t 
\^li'>l' lie liad Leen p.. s-, ,,,.,!_ \i| ,,„,.. ,,,,.r,. al„,hshed. a measure i riivplm,^. 
lu the eMsiniçr -..vernmeit!. The decree lurllier pruvided fur \\u, sel, i,i 
•'-'"'■ '" ^" """ I'clmnm lu .,--isi m tiic eM.dilisliinenl ..i •' r.'v , .hiin ary 
puwer" \ c..nmiiss„,ii w.i- lu he sent i,, fralerni/e with llic pruvis|,,!ial 
admim-trative h..dies win. h sh..„i,l 1,,. elected iiii.lcr the sutfra-e .ah.. ve de 
scrihed. .111.1 anuiher c.dle.l \,iii..n.,l ( unimisH. .lu r,, w nv lu advise 
Willi the generals an.l ihe pi . .\ i-,, .„.d .i.lministrai,, .„s as lu the .luestiuns „f«. lioiinlois. Mctman and !.. a.Ui^.' uiili Dunmiin./ ami witli tin- s.lf a|.|.. int. .1 
t I'HiiVi- ri-rnlulioiiiuiirr ¡{,-s Hrli),s i7 /.ii</i.i.t. 

' .Sec the l.ii.r of l.r Urmi to llii- national CMmiisMi.ncTs, laniiarv M. \7'Ky Cli,i,¡u,-t ti 
I'».^. al«) lci;..r nf ("amlmn. ìì,>r,in<-l. v.. I .'. \>. V>7 

- Docinnent!,. />,.ji. |i M)2. 

I 111-; iii;i.(,i.\.\ L< i.M.\u\i:s, i7",i 


siii)1)1r-s f(ir the ariiiic-. i'lioc pnjvisioiial Ixidii-, were to rc-igii tlioir 
fimclini)-; as scxjii a^ the people ^houM liave ortjaiii/ed a tree and popular 
goverinnent. hut >lioiild they relu>e the l)les>mi,'s ,.t hherty and eiinalitv and 
recall their I'ornier i)rnices, the decree further >tated that the h'reiich nation 
would con-ider and treat them a^ an eiieinv. 

i he decree prejudj;ed the uninn It at once called forth pmte^t^ fnmi 
the friendly provisional hody of Urus^iK, fnun the j,'overiinient- of llainau'.t, 
Xamnr. i.nuvain. Malino, Tournai. Ürn-eU. Npres and (ihent.' The only 
cities where the decree did not hrnii; f.rth oflicial protests were i.iei^e. Mous 
and C harleroi. and even in^e there was iiKli-nation. The protest- were 
\ain. The nece-Mt\ f..r the circulation of the assi(/wils had .leateiied the 
ears ot the devotees nf ])opular s,,\erei,!;nty. Moreover, it was ,at the liriic 
when the trial ..i Louis WI was aliotit to l)e,i,nti and an\ other suliject wa- 
of minor imporiaüce to the Convention and to I'.ari-«. 

(amus, Panton and Delacroix had heen apiiointed on Xoxeinher Mi a- 
commissioners i,. nnotif^ate a dispute hetueen Ser\a!! and 1 ìiinM.une/ re- 
Karditif,' i|ue-tio,¡s ,,i tuihtarv Mipplie-, On their arm,.' in tîie i:el;;i;iii 
country the\ started chilis everv where to prepare the way inr a revoluti, ,ii;iry 
triumph in the elections. I iummirie/. l.eiievin- tiiat a free 'íelgian repuhlic 
woul.l he .if far t^reater protection to Irance than an unwillmi,' anne\ation. 
was sincere in his announcenicnts that iie wished to free and en, pier 
the countrv. The st,,rin raise,! hv the .lecree .il.irnie,! Inni, and it was ,,iils 
after threats from l)elacr,)i.\ that ho cuisented U< i.r,)claim il.- 

Il ,,l,vi,,us I,, the r.el-ian patri. its that the only hojie ..f in.leiien.lence 
lay in a nati, mai asscinhlv. l,m ihcre \\;is u.> c,,iiin!,.n .entre m the couutrx, 
nor was there Milluient unaniinif. to make ,i nati,, .-, :, ijieniti, .11 e.isv. .lud 
the decree ,,f Decemhcr 1,^ ha.j deprive.! the ii.lmii isir.itive h.i.hes ,,| all 
res,mr.-es l,v alM.lisJnn.i: taxes. I le.^e, 111,, re .lem, .cratic than the rest 
aii.l .lis,, „nil h III, .re natur.illv sMiip.ilhetic \,uli IV.ui, .■. u,is n.,t s,, .mt- 
ra,i;e,l at the d.cree n,.r w;is ,t aii\i,,iis t,, |,„n wuh the ,,tlier more .^.iiserv.i- 
ti\e llel.i^ i, miniiimties un, 1er .1 .,.mmon j^ov eriiment 1 'n.v m.-i,,i -I'lili- 
ment existe.l 111 111, ,st ,,i ¡he .,iIut cities ,ds(). 'Hu- assemhlies ,.f 1 .h.i.i an,l 
>'|>res s.^ni .lele-ates 1., the ( onveiiti..n t,. hej: for a n;iti., .i-senihh. 
Iheir pi. M w.ts sni)p,,r!e,l li\ I )utii,>une./. Init the rev.ilutionarv cltll)^ of the 
I' .Ulfs eiuhs !;,ruel\ .■onip, .s,.,! .if Frenchmen, sent their delegates t.. 
oiip,,s,- the i)lan .,1 ,111 assemhiy aii<i tin- Convention (lisreiîar<lt-<| the líelfjian 
¡.lea i he .,nl\ snpp,,rt came from Diininuriiv, wh.) saw in a national a>-ctn- 

'ihuqu.-t. V .'111 Cf n.Krimu'iits. /..u/. p. .111. f..r thi- protesta ,,i Naiiiiir •■ ' " '■ 

The protest of llic lUiir. x. iHíiIím- .Xv-.-nibly o( llainatili was endorsed by a . 

/{..rcH.-i. V..1. .'. ,.,, Idilli.;. ,;„,.- , ,.,.1.-, „ . .,.,. ,.„„;„rnt 'in I' ■ 

UÍ the I'miiitry. 

2 It ivn- •',,• |i,»|c.l III (!•■■ ,.lii i.„r . I • 


i'i.ij;i<( ITI-: 

lil.\ :lìr nnl\ ìuv.uì^ ni a\cTiiii- iIk^ .f-nn, lu íurtlicr a nati. .nal av-cinhlv 
Ik- tlu' pian ..i li..l,h!i^ primary a-i'iiililic-«. ..iic l'ur i-adi tw.i hiin- 
ilrt-.i lannln-, each |,. ih. „.-e u\ , , cU^tnr., tli...-L- in, m each pnAiiux' K. iiict-t 
at a ii\i-.l pian- L. l'Ii-rt nu'inlnr^ .,i the |)riivninal a-cniMy and .kpulic- 
t.. a ÌK-k'ian Xain.iial ( mi u'iiti. .n, ' i In- l. .!i^cr\ aiivc. wert- m 1,^ cxilmk'd 
li} the ir.|inrcnu'nt ..i tÌK- natii ,,| IiIk-iix an.l (..mality. llaviii- nr.lrrod tlu- 
clivi!. .n~, DinnniM-H/ h-ii t'nr l'an^ and the ..mmisMniuT-, failed tn carrv 
nnt h). ni^tiiK-tiniiv The md) pla> e u here priniarv a-eml.lie. were hehl 
aonnlm.; ¡.. l)niii..nne/' pian ua^ l'.ni^M-N. Ir.nn the .letailed acenniu -nen 
liv i;..rL;net ..Í the eleiti..n^ held \>y the tueill> -eclinii. nr Mrn^-eU it )> 
eM.¡e;it tliat j.ariy ieal,.ii-ie- were lar t.i.i extreme t.. permit aiu suTiliie 1. .r 
■' "'"i"'!'! >""il < 'iil\ ..IK -eot)..ii i.i.ik the nath pre-erihe.l h\ Dmimiirie/, 
Ihe ..iiier-. ^nl.M;:ii!ed aiinlher ,.| .¡itïereiil All .>i the a-emhhes 
M.îe.l ¡..r lln' ree-talihdimeiit ni the ^n\ eninieillal -\ stem c>i \7'H), a \nte 
^^'"'■'1 '>'! '" ili-l>"lu- meaMires ir. .m the e. immi-M. .lier- w h. . aeoiiM-.l the 
ele.lL.ns .,i lia>m,- laeke.l t..rniahu an.l reMi>e.l t., all.iw .,ther, t, l,e 

Ihe ma-ler- .,1 the p..lK-v m lal-mni were the e. immi-:nners .,{ ¡he ( mi- 
veii:i,:n: ( amn>. (...x^nuiii, Uani..n, Delaernix, 'l'reihar.l, Merlin .le i)..nai. 
■""' ''-■"'"'■'' 1 iH-e >..mmi-:,.iier. u ere !.. pa.. pn,vi>inna]lv . ,n ail qiie,- 
iiniis a- In and !.. - irat.rni/e ■' uiih the pn.M.iniial a.lminiMra- 
"""^ '" ''"■ "i!lit.-ir.\ i. .minan, 1ers ua^ lelt ,leeisi,,n as t,, time, pLue aibl 
manner ,.í as.vniMin.L., and the issimi- ,,í the pr, .clamati, ,ns neeessarv t,, th,. 
earr\ 111- ,.nt ni the decrees. 

I'll, 1er Ihe c .niiiiis-,, „„ rs ueiv ihe iliiriv ii,iii,.iial o.iirnissi, ,„ers uh,, ha,l 
tlu- iliiiv ,,1 ,lirenm,u an.l -ni,,- mielarx supervis,,,,, ,,, ,1h, prn\i.i,.nal a.I- 
niinislral.,.iis. t,, ,l,e e.renlal.nii ,,i ihe ,;,-.v,,,„,,/v aii.l „, ,dl re,|,ns„„,„, f,,r 
"Hln.m purp, „es .\l,s-„„led as uas ;l,e,r p,,liev. tlu^v appear I,, have heen 
«ell-munii,,!!, 1 !„ii st,,,„,l , :ill,i,s,as,. \\,,rkm- u,ih tlu-e ,,ilieials were 
llie elnl.s „, |;,a,ss,.i-. .\|,diii,s, I,,,nvani an,l \i,iv,,-rp. where thev lia,l heen 
Iii.ldmi: MUTtin-s aii,l x,.tm- i", „• „„„„, ,-,,r a m..iith pasi, hm these ehihs 
uere i";ir tr,,,,, speakm- l,,r ihe e,,iinir\ The .V ., /,7,' />,>pi,lair,- ,,i Hiaisselí 
in f-Vhrnarv mimhere.l luehe l'.el-iaiis. the re-l ,.t ils memhers hein- in.,silv 
i->em-ii." In s,,pp,,r! ,,, ,he .l.vree ,.|' :»eee'u!,er \ r ihe ehil, n| JhusseK |,a,l 

I. .'. p. tl«>. 

.j-ns ,|e mainte „,..,„„ .a.n,,!,,,,,.. |,, |,|„.r,,. ,, r,^al,t. oinf,.rm. mont 

•' "•■; ' '■• •''• ™"""«'«'-e la »OHVrainctr .lu „.„pic l.ral.;,nç„n. ■ fr.-ni th,' í-rnia! „minte* 

•' ■ "niary a>!tt'inl>lK> ' " '. , ) ,) 

..I. .'. p. \¿X 
■ -sard, on* of the naii„iul v,.mim.. momits to Uriisiifls. quote! l.v Cim.juct. p J20 
■iTf -a kiii.l ,,t aniliulat.irs ,li-t,rti.,i,. iiivrstf.l «it!, unlimif.-.l p,,«,r .„r.n'l.n •" ,' 
Iik:. .s !.,rr..r thcni. and »tr.,i :'" |,.r lalcirt an.« ,1,, , 

' t Ali /i(,«f, p. JIS. 

rill-; i;i-:i.<,i.\.\ i < iM.\if.\i-,s. \7'k> 


ordered tlK- fnniiaticn vi a k-.i^n.n .-i saiis-iiilotlcs h,!,/,:,- rt lir./ .ind 
had ^tart^.•ll a riri,'n cif tt-rror. 

1 Iif lir-t \(ilc 111 uninii wnh iVan-.c catiif imin ihc t'..iiimmn-^ -i tin- 
l'a}- de l.ii.m-, ihc heart ci i!ie Wall. .,11 iMimirv !.ie-e held a |m.-i!:m!i 
entirely «hstiiict fruiu ihat ..f the re-l vi the üei-iau eines. It had had 
lin part III the coiilederaled repiihlie (.1 17S'-. Secrnltil vi ilie e. .11-er'. ,i!u e 
spini and miIimt^ ieiiee in the ilmnli 111 ihe re-t nl i'.el.^nmi. widied 
tiiiinii with I-"r;.iK'e tn escape a re~t<iratinn of the I'riiue líi^hop.' lii raee 
and piihlieal -trniinre it ha.! ajipeared to i)inii..urie/ on hi. eiitraiiee a^ a 
seeoinl IreiKli I', with ih.e -aiiie repuMiiaii idea- and eiieff^n . t ninldenl 
(It its Mipport he had allnwed the nld nuniiei]ial enniu-il, elected in 17''ii. [,, 
\k re-tnred, and to cJl a Xational t (invention of Liegeoi-, ..n i ha-i- ..t' 
iiiiner-al sutïr,i;^e. 

On Deceinlier J.i. 17'L'. the coninuines ot' tlie district, of l-'ranchinion; - 
and Sta\ello in the 1 'a_\ . de l.iei;e met in ]iriniar\ a^etnhlie-. dei lared the 
ridili Ol popular -ox ereii;iil\ . aholidied fenilal ni^hl- and \oIed to iorni an 
indi--olnMe iinn 11 with the I'reiuh Reptililic, Three da\> Liter the nieinlier- 
ol the (■<■);-/;■, w frdih'liiiii,>n',>is vi ]7'*'K wall the other de]iiilie-. a^reeil to 
tili. \oie 111 the name of tin u'reaier pan m the coiintrx-, re-er\ in- to iluir 
eon-tituent. the ri.t;ht of ratilicatioii. (In laiinar\ 7. the depilile, of ilu- 
^Tealir pari of tlu- district met ai'am lo ratifv the \.,te. I hi. \\a. all done 
with the api)ro\a! of tiie conimi. .ioiier.. The pnniarv a-.enililie. of tlie 
commune oi^e were oMiciallv .iimniniied on |aiuiar\ !() iiv the mnincipal 
council and met m -.i\t>-oiie .ectioiis on |aiuiar\ _'ll. liie \ oie wa. imr 
coiiiiied until the J.^th. ( lut of iij(i{) m, 1,110, 'i,(,f,n ha.l v,.ted for union and 
only forty a,!^ain-t, in the niaionl\ of liie .ecli.m. the \ote wa. hv '■ .eciet 
hallot,' so-called, in other. 11 \va. hv acclamation " preferrim; the more eiitlni.- 
ia.tic niethoil." I'.ut wlierea. the \ote of j-'ranchimoiii had lieeli iinaccom- 
pamed hv any re-ervalion., that of l.ieL,'e carried .Ii]iiilalion. re,!:anlmi;- the 
national délit, indemnities and the uxs-fr/iiii/.v. ■ 1 he etïort. oi Danton to f.;ei die 
whole country mcorpor.iteil when only tin cit\ had \oted were nn-iicce.- fiil. 
ilk' ( oiueiitioii wa. .till aiiMon. to a'.oid all ,i|)])e.-irai!ce of »•on(|ue.t. ami re- 
fused Io decree tlie iinioii hefore the re-t of tin- i'a\. ,],■ 1 .u-.^c !,,•,,] ],^■^■^^ heard 

Ihe (oinentioii wa. heiomiii;.; imp.atieiit ,al the dela\ of I )iiniourie/ m 
coiu.ikmL; the priniar\ .i.-emlilic. m the other r.el<,'ian commiine-. \ccord- 

' ( hu./liil p. J.M. 

- ( /ni;/.,-/, I' 222. (innU- lIu- folinuiii.i; \ImIiii .1. Ii.mmi. ■' i ,■ ,|in. 1., | r.iiio :< . t.- 
[M. ir I. ii«U' >' nrcpe, le i>.i>s ili l.iii:e la iti jiour la lîcltiiiimv it 1.- [i.ivs ile T raiichiir.oiit 

p'Mir ct'lni lir l.iitt 

■ l<'i,i.ul. \>Å 2. i.]i 1'".. l'i,s. Jim l.iti.r .1 \\,,!t.!. pre. fi. ut ni th< iiiui.u ip.iliu, to 
• n'iural Mirandi ./i-,Ai:..i /ni /. iii, ii/iii. , v, -irn« 1, '.1 ?'). 



iii;,'i>, nì\ jamian M aiKiilicr (k-.rc-i- \\a> i)as.i-(l, Mippk-mriitni^^ that of De- 
■ tnilur !?tli and [)r(i\itlm- idr U- iiiiiiR-iliati- i-\trutiMii, uitluii liftcen (lav>. 
inuliT ]jciialt\ Ml iln- llcl'^iaii ¡ifcpk- liciiii; ci piiskKtimI iiu-mu'- of the l\c-- 
pulihc' 1 he hunt a|)|)ear> to have heeii -unieuhat elaMie fur ,,ii i'ehruary 
!"!h t!ie cii!i)iiii^MiijuT> i.svaed t.. the i;el,i;i,iii |.e.i|ile ,i pn n laiiiatinii colll- 
l"'-eil (il a iirepd^Ienm^ iin\tiire di' hililieal citalmn-. and exhuriatiMns ui-i,Mni,' 
a \nie inr nnmn u ith tile Ireneli Kepulihc at the a]iprnaehin<,' ek-ction-.- 

I hat the ininini-siuner^ were relyui^^ nn I'dixe rallier than mi the de-ire 
111 the inhaliitant- In win a vote nuKJii i-. imrleiiiahle. Ihe e\idenee is 
n\erwlielmin.L'. Iinrj;nel (|U(ite> ( lia:i->ard tn the et't'eet that the Xatioiial 
( niiiniiv-i.jners had met at I'.russels nn hehniary .^ tn decide the inie>ti<iii 
■' >liall Ikd-niin he muted In I raiue r " {"he Mile, uitli one ah-leiitimi. wa-, 
;manimMii-l\ m la\iir ni" the union, and ilie dÌNen>>ion turned on the proee<hire 
lo he em]iloyeil. The hallo! \\a- rejeeteil lor the rira ;;i¡-i- vote which " had 
tin ad\ant;iL;e of m.ikiii'^ known the iiuluiduaN. of incalculalile value under 
llu' iin um>Iaiu'e-." 

Ihe (diiinii-^ioner- were eoniuined in ilnir di'-tnist of :i free \ote li\- the 
pnl.lic.iiioii Ol till \()U' of the \':í\-. de i.ièi,'e on h'ehru.arv !_'. The country 
had, to he -lire. ,i;i\< n 1'» 401 vote- for union out of _M..^1'» \otiiij,'. Init 14.1n3 
of ihe-e \-ote- were tor .i union with condition- a- to the ¡issi, /ii, its.' Xo 
¡jre— lire lieen applied, ,ind the \iite free. — the only free one in liel- 
,¡,'111111. r.iit the condition- made it di>ta-teful to the ( "oiu eiitioii. which de- 
l.i\ed the \ole of amiex.itiou, liopiiifi for another and uiire.-erved \nte 
troiii;,'e, llu- \\a- delated too Ion;,' .-md could not he manatíed hefore 
the Ireiich e\;tciiation.^^e \\a.- annexed on .May 4 on the ha-is of the t'lr-t 

I he primar\ .•i--emlilie- of .\Ioii- met on rehni,ir\ 11. of ( llien! on the Jid, 
and Ol Urn— el- the _'.^tli. riu- -y-Ieni of votin;,' m ilitïereni place- on <htïerent 
d.iy- eiialiled tile siDis-iulottrs to carr\ their method-, of terror from one citv 
Io the next, i.verywhere torce w.i- di-pl.iyed "ti)])re\eiit di-order." ' The 
Mill lorceiiieiii- rei|ue-ted h\ the commissioner.- diil not arrive, so the troops 
a- well a- ilie siins-iiili'llt-s were iiio\ed from one town to .another. The 
<lector,il ni,!cliuier\ appears to lia\e lieeri <|uite as crude ,is of .\ci;;non 
;ind ,"-a\o\, \ el wherea- -olile -emhlaiue of order w.i- oh-er\ ed in the prc- 
\ loll- .i--nnlilie-, in tlio-e ot the llel;;i.iii commune- no one a--erl- that there 
w.i- the le,i-t -U;J!?e-tMli of it. 

' I li ( ■llu-MI-,, f. .si. \i .!1.S 

(1 I Imc uiniiit-, /'!■.(;. 11 .US. 
■' />'.ir;/iii7. \mI J. |i 1,S1, i|ii, Itali. iM Ironi ( 'iKi', U.i>i.iir,'i hi.\h'rl,¡u,-í ,t f'/ifi'./u.' 
p. 437. 

• /'•>.. I,,/. ,,, JIKI. s.iy, ,ml.(XKl ritl/i'Il^ al'slauifil. 

• Chu. ¡Ill I. \< J44. 

Till': RIIIM-: XAI.I.HV. 17'M 


'l'Ile circuiiistaiices appear t(! have liec the same throui;hiiut lîel^'iuiii. 
(July a small mimlier ol eitizetis \(iteil. 1 he cluirches where the voliiij,' took 
place were surrounded or tilled with Mjldier>. After an addres- liy the I'reucli 
C(jmmissi(Jiiers, otteu not understood. an<l a demonstration hy the clul», the 
\ote was taken at onee and hy acilaniation. or !)v passini; to rij^dit or lelt. and 
a refjister opened lor ])r(Jte>ts which no .me dared to make. In the >niall 
towns where the coniiinssioners lacked the supp<irt of the tri;op> there ap|)ear> 
to have been a lively resistance.' 

Had the t/oinention desired to (|uestion the validit)' nf the \otes it had 
had ample warning and sut'ticient e\idence in the formal minutes themsel\e> 
to warrant it. i lut such wa> the eat;erne>^ to consummate the union, that 
the testimony di the l-ri'nch aj,'enl> was ea^'erlv credii..'d. and no investiJ,^•ltion 
was attempted. .\> fa^-t as the forni.'il minutes were laid before the .Vssemhly, 
it proceeded to annexation, in nii>st oases on the very da\- or the da\- after, 
at times dispcnsnit; e\ en with any report of the Diplomatic Coinunttee. 

(iwinj,' to the military re\ of the l-"rench arms these unions were not 
earned out until 17'',^ when hy a decree of ( )ctolier 1. the decrees of .March 
2ii(l and 4th, and of .\la\- S. ]7*>S. were put m e.xecutioii and the \otes cast in 
17'i.s hy the conmiunes of ^ près, (iramniont. and other parts of I'landers. cif 
lirahant and of the forme .Xiistrian part of ( 'lUeldrcs. not included in the 
former decrees, were accej)ted.- 

Thk Riunì: \'.\i.i.i:v. 17''.^ 

\\ hile the líelfíian communes were heim,' forced into a reluctant union, a 
similar activit\- was K"'"íí '"> ''^ '''••■ region to the south. ( )n I'ehruary 14 
the ("onvention in one decree ¡iroclaimed the annexation, li.ised on the popular 
\i)te, of Monaco and of mimerons small communes aloiifj the edfje of the de- 
partments of the -Moselle and lias-Rhin These were chietly in the Saar val- 
lev, in the dudu of l)eux i'onts, in the hailiwick of 1 larschkischen, lielon<;infi 
to tiie rrinces of .Xassau, as well as other communes helonj^inj.; to other ]iett\ 
princes.-' These votes had occurred .after the re,i;ioii k'cn invaded and 
thev were held under the conditions laid down hy the decree of Decemher ! .r 
On M.irch 14, Her};/ahern and thirty-one nei,t,'hl>orin;,' communes were an- 
nexed.^ The most im])ortant annexation w;is, however, that of the " Kheiio- 

< ¡ennanic 


• ( huijuct. p. i4'', ,■( Sdì. Sec Fcinnal Mimtlcs (if the .Xssfiiitilits of I'.nissel^ .ind lihctit, 
Documents, pi'si, pp. .UJ (■/ sci. 

• Martfii!.. k,\ui-il des tniit,s i 2'\ v\ ). vol. 5. p 1S() 
^ 1 ).»;ntin Ills, hiist, p. .ÌH). 

• I f. 1 l.xiuiu iits. ^ II. .U.l. itf'l,-. ( )n Mari h 2li the coiuniiMU^ of r.idiui;. DiiititiK au't 
till (ioriiian p.irt nl Li'limi;-! lupiri- wen- also aiincxid. 

^^ l'l,i,l;iv( 1 I i.v 

I lu- w.iin- ..t ihv ],v\i\ ].yu\:v^ n{ ilic iv.uiMii IiL'tvMcii r.m-i-n ami 
utir parti-an- .il llir ..Iil ivltmiic m I raim/. Km the rcN i .Imi. iiiar\ |iniu-;iilc- 
¡la.l i,v,u l,.M-illy rr.vnr.l 1,-. Ihr 1 „ mi-r. .1 -:c. Ihr l..,l-r- .'I l'ivrllia-, .11- 
hail loll- ln-.n \\., riunì; fi.r tin- -aiik- t'li.l- and ai ..n.c lu-lpc.l >,\iih tliv 
i-'.i'i'l''' ' ' n-inii'- a.lvancc \\a- iin. .¡.p. .-cl \'.\ (1,!..!ht J' i. \7"2. iIr- ijatc- 
'.t \\..rni-. Spri.r an.! Mavnu.- lia.l lem ..pmr.l t.. Inni íi- m Aiiìijn, lu 
.Ma\i-ii.a- and the r.-i..n- lu-ar ANarc ilu-r..- wa- a parili ularr -tr. .n-- l'rfiu h 
in..\i-nK'nt o .inii. -i-.l ..! i!u- ink-i:ociiia!-. i!ic -npp,.rHT- ..f ihr kc-v .Inti, .n. aii.l 
llir nU'iThaii!- i't\->\ ...' hackward r..ndili..n- an.] r..r;-n|it rnif.-' S(. I..11- a- 
( n-liiic rclra lied lr..iii ant.cralu- iiica-iirr- llu.. expr.Jiti. .11 met with n.. . .pp. 1- 
~""^" '" '''<■ i'f.i^i"ii ..^-rnpu-.l i.\ thr arni\ . lu!..!::,.:!!.^ u> thr \r(,'lilii-li. .]i ,.i' 
Mayen. i-. i ii-inir ai ..11. c a-i-ir.l m \\u- t'. .rinati. .11 ..i clnl- -iiinlar t.. th..-o 
ai-IUf m lUhjinin, aii.l -rt np ro. . .Inii, ,iiar;, .u.. i-rnnimt- \\illi..i:t ilu' i..rinal- 
">" "' ■' ^■■"<' ''''>■ '■'"'' ■'! Mawii.c ],ia\.-.l a ,-ia-al part m ihr laliT e^ent-/' 
1 Ile venerai adniini-lran..n naine. 1 l.\ 1 n-line nninl.ereil len nieiiilier-, -i\- 
t..r Ma;,enee. linee Í. .r \\..rni- ail.i 1. .r <],eier. Tlie Max elieai-, feari'iil 
nt ihe l'rn-ian a.Ivai: ■,•. reeei\eil the pr..p...,d l'. .r nin..i) with I ranee willi 
(-...lille--. lile -euer., I a.Innin-t rali, .n .ielennine.l t.. pii-Ii the x.Ue an.l t.. 
ereate a .lepartineiit . ■ l'.. .lu he-.ln-Mam. it wa- feare.i tiiat tlie eitie- w. .nid 
lie nnl'a\.. rallie. luit lhe\ euiinte.i . .11 tlie p.M-ant • t.. the t.iwn-. ( '. .111- 
! uere -eut li. ail the t. .un- li.'tweeii l'.mveii ,111. 1 i.,aii.i,iii tu ,a--emiiie 
.di the inh.diil.nit- ,,\er tw ent\ -. .ne. exeept ii..ine-lic -(r\ant-, t.. read t.. them 
extniet- ir,.in the e. m-litnli. m an.l t., ...lleet in a l'..rni,ai inimité tlie iianie- 
"'' ;■''' ^\i-li"i-' 'lu' e..n-îilnti..n llie mninte -tale.l the .le-ire.I 
t.i f. irin une raniil\- w iih the I leii.'h.' 

M.ixen.-e M.te.l . .11 De.enilier 17 an.l IS. Imt iew -iqnatnre- were -eeured 

1 he ci!i/en- had Keen -iiinin. .ne.I 1)\ e. irp. .ratu m-, The merchant- a-ke.l t'..r 

time, the .and e. ml. mnier- wi-hed f. Le .Mthmi-h ..nt- 

■miil; I..e.alitie- v.. led f. ir i'r.aiue the \..te cime t.. 11. .thin-. Cn-tine re'"n-e.! 

t.i i;i\e imii..rt,iiH-e t.i tlie \.ilt-, 

!.. i-arry ..;it the deeree .il" 1 )e.emher 1.^. wliieh the C. inventi. .11 h.i.l in-t 

' 11. M, Steplun... //i.i.'.rv ,,,• //,,. /•,v.i,7i A',t ../„íí,,„. \ „1 _', ,,. l'i.ì, .av-, tli.i! it « n- ..n 
.•.eo..:i.i ..Í t!.i- r<i.,.it..l inMI.,ti..n- t,> I i.n.Tal Cii-tin,-, liiii,., li -, fr.enia.. .n. fr.>e; tlic 
l,..i^;c- ..1 \\,-T,rn ü.riiiain. iluit Ile ìia.l .r.a.le lii- ),.,1,1 .uhaii.-c. 
- l'h ■.|.i,-t. l/,n,-i,, ,• \. 40 

■"/'■I.... |.. -1(1, Th. rl.ili ..1,. !,a.| tn . luMulre.l nii'ii:' fr< Hc-i.!. ■; r,..linur aii.l 
Staiiiin. a.lh.reiit- ,,t l„-ni,c. tlur, «,,e -.v.n ,,,r-, th,> hl.ranan i.f ih. Tnixer-ilv, 
(.ei.rKe- F..r-t.r a.i.! In- tu.. a-i-t,.nt-. 1«.. - li,,n! t,-a. her-, .'evni !•>, n,-li le;,, lu 1 - .f lan- 
^.'|l:i^;<■-. three I reii.-h ro-i.leni- ..f Mnye:u-e. eleven b\v\er-. nrtuiais of all kin. I-, ,I,ti;v u'ío 
h.i.i laken tin- eath. y.nini; men. -tn.ients. literary men. m.T.iiantv er,iít-m. 11. i.r..p.,'s 
l.ri.nv;lu l.\ (■ii-iitie an.l <itluT>.. 

^ ' ll-i,l.. : |.. 5(1 an.l .>K, He i;ne- ihe li-l a^ i;a-.t,-l. Na. kenhei.ii. \\..II-|, in. Xie.j. r n!,„ at;.; 
Klein W'lnlirnliiini. 

rill-: KiiiM-: \ \i.i.i:\'. \7".\ 5.-; 

adi i])lt.'il. I laii~-iiiaiin. Uinilirll, Mi-rliii. .'--■iH'im ,iiiii i in'^i ■irc wi-rc sont a> cni- 
iiiH-ii iiRT-. I luv .;iTÌ\C(l 111 M.ndu'i.- nil l.!iinar\ M. I."''.'., ami a! ■ ■ucc 
ai'icil a^ il 111 a i.mi1'|iutc(1 ioi:iiir\. iiiakini,' i"(.'i|iii--itiiiii- wiilimii ])a\iiifii;. It 
\\a- ili-;rrniiiU(l in ¡''iw ihi- nnulaìi' if the iissi^/iiii!.^. aihl I'T tli;~ :iiiiic^ i- 
null \\a^\ Wir iKcrii.- <■ J.muaiy òl |)in tiu' iW- ,cc ni i irccminr 

1 5 illtn illlllRllialC lAli ■•:ii III.' 

In I;>1:l:ii'iii fear ..Í tlu- >ir. m^, .nal írt-liii^ hail ^■an■-^■l! ilic l'ia'iu'li 'm 
n])])i)>i' a iialiiiiial t-i in\ iiitimí, Xn -ucli ift'lin',' c-\i-U'cl in îlic Klu-in^li ¡iV'i\- 
iiKL-^. Imwcxtr. an«! a cniu < mii in \\a~ iktirniincil nil. Tlic |in]iiriar i-lu'Mnii-. 
were li\cil inr Sumlav. Iviiniar\ _'4. and llir miu i •laimii I'i tin- Naiiniia! 
klii'iii-li ( 'nii\ riiiinii inr .Mar. il in, |-'.aiii (.nmnniiK- \\a- in ^■\^■^\ at li-a~l niii- 
ilc|iuty. t]in-.(.' ni W'nrin- and Siicicr in I'lcrt f.' n ,acli, and Masaïu'i' tn rlrri 
~:\ li\ d!~;rict-." I'.arli df|nu\ w.i- ¡i. hu iiinn--:nu'U'd .nul Ifii wiili ia'l pnwir 
tn 1 lin. .-!.• a .i;. ''. rrnnu-nl " -ni ted tn lilicrl\ and r.|i;alit\ ." 

TIk- cninin --iniuT- wrri' d. icriinnrd that ilu- \nu- -limi],! lu- niif inr nnmii. 
.\ni niil did tlu" ii]ifiily iirm' it. Imt tln'v drew ii]i .a li-t ni n.aiiu-- ..i |irn\id 
patrint- wlin-i' clínica' wa- in lie Kii|in^cd nil ilu' elcriiir- ' Ilu- chilli ni-;;- 
tiili-d a rtii;!! ni iirrnr and main lied irnin tluir iiu-nace. 1 lie eniiinn->inii- 
er- and ntlier a^eiii- "i { ti-tnie, Ia their niipre^-n e and aiiiinxin^ aiiir.ide 
Cnin|iieied the alien.ilinn "i pn| -\miiatliy.' 

I hi 1 elirnarx IS. ( n-tine i--iied a decree enii\nl%inL; tlie pen]ile- ni the 
eniintrie- hetween Laudan, tlu' .Mn-el'e. and the Isliine, in pnniar\ a--eiiililie-. 
1 he ilnlile'-. the eeele-ia-lie-. and the innner nllaiaN were tn deelare in uritinji 
that ihev -nleiiiiiK reiii iiinced their ]iriiK-e-- and their pri\ iki^e- and that they 
wmild he inrex er i.nihinl ti' the prineiple-- ni lihirtx and ei|M.ilil\. W lin- 
e\er iieL;leeted nr n !:i-ed tn make tin-- ck'claralinii lieinre the iiinnu'ipal hmly 
in hi- place ni residence wniild lie reL;arded a- an enemy ni the h'reiich Ke- 
]inl)lic and at niice expelled irniii the i-nmitr\. 

ddie eiectnral prn\i-inti> ui've dr.iwn ti]i li\ I'nr-ter ulin repl.aci-d 
'ire-^'nire nii tin- cnmiiii>-inii. 'Idle a--eiiihlie> were tn meet nii a Snndae, at 
S in the ninniiin;- after nia->. Mach as-eiiiMe wa> tir-t tn name a ]ire-ideiit. 
tliree teller^ and a >ecretar\-. The hiir,-t!ii cnii-iittited. tlie\- -hnnld th":; 
elect the nia\nr, tlie cniiiiininal attnriie\\ the municipal otticer- and lasti\- the 
ilepntN tn represent them at the natiniial emu intimi at Mayeiicc 1 he eleclnr- 
were tn write the name- ni tluT candidate- nil a lialint, nr. il illiterate, cnnld 
tell the name tn the teller- in the ]ire-ence ni a irieiid w hn cnnld read. I'.ach 
electnr illil-t he twent\-niie and dnmiciled inr ;it lea-t twadve iiiniith- pa-t 
in the re^inii lielween 1. andan and tlie Mn-elle. 

' .>^ie .(»/"ni. 1" 

- Cliii.|iipt. .U<i',, ii,,\ I' ''.'. 

■I //'.,/ 

*//a,I.. p. SI. 


fST r MAR' 

-.Nii j; d !bG '£bT C H 


28 B 25 





1.4 lili 




i'i.ij'.i.^( n i'-..- 

' )|>liiiMtic:i; I.I ihi- ilR-tatii.ii u\ new a'lniiiii-tnitu o I'l.rin. ua- at uiuf n\,\ i- 
lui- Attack- ..atiir in,ni the rii,T,L,'\. ihr i.,;ir¡~, ainl ilic c, irjiMratiniw at'-ain-t 
lliii- ii.niiii; iM-.,|,lc 1 , '.^■ ircc :ii ii.nii- prc-iTilii'd. ' l\'arl"ul .if ( ¡i-rman 
\(ii,L'taiKi- aii.l ilif Im. ira. le the uti/./n-, nl.jnU'.i t.. ilu- ..ath .it' adlicTciice 

t.. rt'\,iiar\ |m in. ipl.-.. Si:ii.,ii ami ( .ri'-, urc wi-akcm-.l a~ t.. the .,al!i, 
I. Ml uirc |M rMia.lcl l.\ tlir . .ili.i . . .iirni-;. .tier.. I la!i--maiin, .\|.r;;n, ami Kcu- 
li(.-!l uli.i arrivr.l at the inmiiciit. The .uius-ciilolt,:-; wctc m.u in tiie .a.i.lli-, 
I lie (■..nniii-McinT. ..|n-nl\ tliicaicn, .i t"..r.<- a,t;aiii-[ ili...f ¡)r. iir-tni-. inijin- 
<'iUTÌ . r exiHJlr.i III,. .,i.l an-l r.vlcMaMir-. an.! rriii>c-.i all .appeal 
'" !'"■ »■■■n\enli..n at l'an. I lu- lea.ler, .n the . ,pp, .mu. ,11 u^iv .lep,.rte.l 
a.r.i~. the Iv'lniie,- 

llie \.ite .11 Ma\enee wa- taken in h\ ehur.lie-. It laMe.l the in.irn- 
in- ..I the Jitli n, the exeiini.; ..] the _'(.lii. \l,.,ut .ini I rleet.T- 
lheiiiM'l\,-, an. I e\iii llie lineai- ..1 the e. .ninii-M. .ner- uere iinaMe t.. ul- 
erea-, tlie iininher t.. ..\er ,i (5 I he .i.ea-i..n ealle.l t..rlh 11., entlui-ia-ni. 
I he i.iil\ -.,1111.1 111 tlie -treet- wa- that ..l tlie ea\alr\, 

111 "nl\ ,.ne e.iininnne. that ..I Xa.kenluiin. ua- tiie \..te -p.miaiu -, ' In 

Ml. .-I ..I the ...ninnine- the pne-t- ha. I l. .rl.i.l.leii the pr. .eiainali. .11 t.. he rea. I 
aii.l fill the pea-ant- llial the Ivev . ,!iin. m ua- a nieiiaee t.. the ( hnreh an. I the 
'-aerameli!-, I ear ..1 a nlinn ..| their l..ini<-r niler- al-., nihil, iie.l an\ .le-ire 
t.. iilenlil\ tlieiii-el\e- \Mtli tile Iren, h lile e. ,iiimi-i. .ner- ma. le 11-e ..l 
arme.l e-e.,rt- av..ue.ll\ t.. ai.| llu- \..te |.,r l>aiue,' Maiu e. .innii!iie- al.-..- 
Intelv rein e.i t., lake tile ,.a;ii \I,,\eiiee, llm^^en, \\..rm- an.l Speier pr,,- 
te-te.l a-am-t it, I he l(-a.ler- .,| the ., pp. .siti, ,11 uere il<'p.,rte(l. !i..ue\er, an.l 
the a-eml,lie- hei.i Al ihe lir-1 a--einM\ liel.l .n \\.,rm- .,nlv _'() alten. ie.l 
A -e,. .11.1 a-eml,K ua-heM l.etue.ii Mareh Tan.l 11. u hen -'50 eleel. ,r- \\ere 
I'"'-'"' 111«' ^"'<' "1 -^peuM- ua- hel.l .,11 M.ueh ,^. " an.l 1<». 1,, the tu.> 

<li-lrul- .v)_" ,-1,. |..r- |,r( -elite,| lliein-el\ i--. 

The .lepntu- lini- eleeti.l uere ,,| e.,nr-,- ali trien, 1. ,,l uni, ,11 uiih l'ranee 
.1- 111. .,,inini--i,,ner- iia.l taken lare tluu -h,.iil.l he | hes ,li,i n..t repre-eiit 
'''>■ "li"l<' "I tiie ...n.piere.! e..nntr\ l,,r the e.,miinin.- ,,| ihe i'aiatinate 
li. l'i , il.-lilialeiv K ln-e,| !.. \ . .|e 

Mie iiu.lin- ,.| tiie ., .menti. .11 >\.,- p.,-ip.,i„..| i.,| ,, ueek II met the 
l'ih an.l i.irnu.l the ( .,;i; ,-i//i,.;i i,, ;;/.,, ,,;/,- ,/,■>- ,\H,„unuls lihrrs iiall 
wiTi- pea-aill-. hall mulleetiiaK IlaMiin .,„„• tlir.,nL;h the ne, ,---ar\ |,.riiial- 
tti«'.. ,.n Mar.h is ilu-\ ..p,-ne,l the ,li-.u-i,,ii reyanhii;; the .l,--tin\ .,t the 
*'""""'.^ \ ua- ,il ,,nee a,!,, pled, (ieel.iniii; the (■•iintrx !,.-uw-. n | ,. 

' ('ltiii|int. U(n.-ii,,-. |i. >}7. 

■ S.T thf K.i,.,rt ..f ihf (-'iinimis^innerii. I),.itmicnl.«, f,>st, p, .S4'*. 

M hiiquct. pi>. W. KKI ami IDI, 

' It'ul. p 1(1-4, C'Iiiuiiiit l|U,.|e^ I-'.,r<l(r t.> ihi- clTt-it 

• ii'ij.. p. \m. 

Mr!JI.\LSi:.\ AND (,K.\i;\ A. 17''S 55 

<lau and lün^a'ii free from all politii-al tio with tlii' I'mi)(.'rnr aiul JMiipire i<i 
' icriiiaiiy aiul froiii .ilk'-^'iaiici' in their ri.'^iit.'ctu c i>t_-ti\ rulcr^. and [iroclainiiiif,'- 
it to he an indi ■]iciu lent ~latc, indi \ ¡-ihlc and li iundi'il ■ iii the |jniu'i]ik'^ of lihort v 
and ei|nality.' i'lu' cnii\t,-ntiiiii haxiiiL; detertninod that it w^nld i-niiu' tu no 
di'ri--ion on ai'v iniportaiit iiieav.irr witiiutit ha'.iiii,' fir^t cNaniiiui! it m three 
>iieee>>i\ c .•-eN>ion^, the ileeree i 'i union with Iraiue wa^ po-t]ioiie(l In the JKl, 
when It wa-. N^teil c.n the ni' 'tii m ni l'ur^tcr. 

< )n Manli MK ( iiiiunn^ii.ner I lati--iiiann reported to ilie ( i nu entii mi i.f 
I'lanee nil the wnvk nf hiin^eli and hi- (Mlleat^rue- .-' lie I'lrnrp. .rated an ac- 
count of ¡lu' deportation- of tln' hailitf-, pne-t- and imhle- who w<'re attenipi- 
in«,' to frti'-trate them. in the dehaie ; anihoii -puke of riiiiior- .»f mi-eondiiet 
1)\- the commi--ioner-. which were rife in the Kepiihiic. and -aid tliat their 
report refuted the-e. luit ihat it w..iild le well that a innre delaik-il report 
shiinld lie ^uhniitted in nnier that f iiinpr iitii^ht -ee fm it-eif < in the a--er- 
tioii of Iiaii>-niar,n that he had nut the iiece--ar\ inatenal at hand tin- -ii'^'^'e-- 
til 111 w a- ilri ipped and a fler the dcjiiitie- i if the Xatii 'iial k'heni i-( lermaiuc < nii- 
\entiiiii had delnered their addri'--. the hreilch ( niuenlinn at unce, withniit 
dehaie, adnpted a decree In the effect that, in \ lew nf the decree- <>{ the X.i- 
tiniial i'iheiin-f ierinanii- (ninenlinii fnr union with 1 ranee, the cninmime- 
eiiianeraled were made an integral p.irt nl the Kepiililu'. 

III!. Rll'llllU.s III- Ml|.ll\l-I.\ \Ml lilM\\, 17''S 

Miilhati'-en and the adjacent territorv had for many \ear- formed .i -elf- 
^■nvernmi; ■-tate, at time^ in clo-e alliance \sith or mcnrporated m the Swi-> 
( 'on federation. Ihe },'i i\ ernment ni tin- cnntmiinitv ni (i,()nO mhahiiant-, 
which iiKludid the inmmiiiies nl N 1/ach .and .Mndenlieiin. w,i- cninpn-eil nf ,i 
< ieneral ( niiieil and a I nmnnttee ni h'nrt\ It- relitmn- with 
I'V.ance had heell -mall Inil cnii-tant .tini il- h.itred ni ilu' < lenii.inic Inipiie 
iiiteii-itied It- Ireiu-h -\nipalhie- In pmieet il-eli ir-'iii the hmpire. it had, 
in 1777, concluded .i deleli-r. i milil.ii\ alhaili e w ilh Imtl; I ranee ,ind ,'^w it/er- 

In Se|ileinliei 1 7' '7 the lieiich Kcpiihlic dei 1. ned .\1 iillian -en tn U' fnr 
eiL'ii tirritnr\. I hi'- re-nlted m ,in appallmji -ittiatmn fnr the little state 
All impnrt- nf ini\i\ fr.iiii j-'r.r.ue mn-t p,t\- he;i\ \ e\pnrt dulie- and there 
w,i- alread\ j,;re,it -c,ircit\ lhrniii,'h l,iihire nt liu' crnji- \1| expnri- tn 
k'r.itice mii-l p,i\ a he.i\ \ iiii|intl diil\ ,iiid 1 r.iiiie w,i- their lie-t cii-tnmit 
I he "-ilnalinn w ;i^ intnler.iMe Ihe -l.ile dei ided the niiK -.ill 1 1 mil 
\\a^ iiiiion w itii !■ ranee 

'('lmc|usl t,M^<"^ 'lii^ ilfi rt'C III lull. .l/ii\,'ii, i'. p. IJO. 
2 Itdciiinciils. /i.ij/, [I .'4.t 

•"" 1'I.m;i-i i ¡ !•:< 

Wlini Ih,.- ,K'A. ,,i ,h|. .k--ia- ivarliol i\ai thr Diavi, ,r\, ,,„ iaiinary 1. 
<ld.-at.,-.i 1 a./,-n jraii-l Iih- .\ÍvM;,t, a iiunil.rr ..i ilu- central a.hnini^traii. „i' 
"I llH' ,lq,annu;ii ,,, ,1,,. l¡,,„.r K\nu.v. a~ , , „íudí^m. .tu-r m tl„- Uq,,,!,!,,. ,,í 
Mullian-cn. i., >,,ii!;r -.Mili ilio iiia,L;iv,, an- ami viii/n,, a- Im r ,ii,l¡!Í. .ii^ and 
M:|.i,lali..n. ,.i „nmn. i,, nru , c ilu->r n,.;,-. an.l i,, ,lrau np a ir.aiv .,i „i,„,„ 
< MI jamian, ,v Iimu^.^,. 1., i,,r- iIu- ,., \\,-w^vv. ihr I au-, .nia^ur- an,l 
',"•""'"'■"' ^'"•■'' ""■ '!'.ninl,va vtc, '^- „,.í, , ,n r, „xhíi, m m,' rsampí,, .„ 
lr-:ii CMn-cr:i.n..ii. iIkmi n.^ulv rMaMi-luMl. lr,,in rc.|;;;.iti, „i,, „irl i r. ^ni ili,- 
:;viuial Ml,iij.ati,.n m InlKini- im,.,.. unni aiur lliv n.xt LTiirral yv.wv ( m 
lili- la-M .la.>.. thi. ■,.,.. ua. .•..nlinnc! 1a ihr ^cnrral a^^'inhU ,., hin-i--^.. 
''"■'■■""- '" ''"■ *'liii!-^i' "! Saini-i.iK-niK.. \i ,hi, nuviin^^ 3'M \,,ir?l i , ,r 
"Hi.Mian.l 13 a^amM ii. Ih,. ■.,,!, « a^ , . .nnnnniraiol m Alri/n.-r an.l a new 
•'"'■'"'''^^ "' '■!"'■'■•!- i^"iH-.l ,lri,!iPr~ iM Mvaí unii Inni u-a-.hiiL; ih.- .Iriail- 
' 'I lile nni' III, 

""■ "■'■•'•'. "'■ i"""ii "1 lli<- k'rpnhli. ,.: Mnlhan^-n wnh ihc Irnuh Urpiil- 
'"■ ^'•'~ "-'^'■'' "" Jannarv _'S.' \U „ ,hr ^,,u. ,,,• tlu- oii/en. ..( MnlhauMMi 
an.l iIk' ..iIki- .■..ninniiK- «a^ acvrpí,,!, uiih ilir c, „ului, .„. stipulai, ■^1. an.l 
o.iitani. a rlni-r ..í,.n pr..M,lin,^ ih, prn,..l ..i a vrar. .Innno uh-.-li inno 
''"■ ""^»•'>- "' i'h' UTii;..rx «.,iv .k-.lar.-.l i.. I,,- ■• I ,viuli-l,.,rn,- \n„],. .í 

ili.'M- ui-hniL' !.. .inil ilu- i.Trn..r\ ini-ht rr \ ,■ ijuir p, ..„■-. i. . in. an.! a 

""■''"•'- l'-n-l '•! ilnvr ^,,n. ,n ulndi i.. m-11 iluir pr.,prr:\ an.l h.nn.l'.t'c 
llu-ir .lilii, 

' *" ^'•""''' '" ''"■ '"""il >vrrin..n\ ,.| annrxati..n !....k plarr m Mnlhan-eii. 
""'''■"""■■"' ''> ''"• 'l'>l.ifal!..n Ihai li,ii,a-i. .rlh -ihr Iv'rpnMir ,,i MnlhaMM-n' 
v.]>n~.r- .„1 ihr ..I tlu- Irnuh ■ Tlur,. ii Rniainr.l nntil the 
pa-Mii- ..I \' t.. (¡.■rniaii\ m \X7] 

i;\ Ihr nii...n ..| Sax..v unii ! raiKT ni 17".'. ihr KquiMic ,,f (,r,u\a 1k- 
'anu- an ,■;/,■/■;:■.•. mut. l,v Innrli .1. p.irlnimN uhi. h al ..luv eagerly 
.k-siiad IN in...rp,.ran..n ni ihr rej.iiMir. 1 h, n- uà- aK,, a ur.nip ni ParN 

^^"'''^"'- ""■ ''"^ •'""•"■ "' ^'l"-r «■■■ni-.- |),-p..rt,-. the Irni.irnm.NUT fe-i- 
.Iciil al < .fn.\a. uà- an acti\c aueiii. 

In 1,'C ih, e..,n..niu- ineaMire- uhi, h lia.i l,r.,ni:Iit -n.h ,li>in-- i,, Mi,]- 

''•'''""" i"'"l"><''l a o.rrc-ii..n.lini.; rcsnli ni i„ni\a. ami ..ilier (l!..rt> n' rrc 

.■vrrle.l l.v the irethh !.. hnn.: li..ine 1,, the ( ,ene...N the .leMPahlllU ..l' nilh.n 

Miet-e uà-,Ie .^er e,,nii-al,aii.l aii.l a neu -paper, riulio ,l,-s.Hf,:< uà- 

MNiiini.,1 ai t;e t,, innhei Mie ean-e ,.i nni..n I Innii- the uniler 

"I M.ick nn-er\ iju- jm .p.i^amkt n-snundol, tln' .u..\enm,o nitk-er- ..Í ihe 

repnMi..- nniainiiiK iin-iis|)ici,.ns of the plans <,f tlu- l'Veiu li 1 )iree!,,rv W heii. 

¡Il Maieli. Mnlhau-oii laiiììi-.l ihf treaty ci miidtt. umpI ea-ie ir.mi l'an- t., 

iH-spnrtes thai the aiiiie\aii..ii uhieli lie wa- -. . .hh-eiith pieparni,- unuki 

' IXk-iiiiuiiIs, I'.ist, p. Mii. 

Ml[.ll.\rsi;.\ A\l) CF.XiA A, 17'>> 

ÌK- appr. .vi-(l ,,n i-MiiditMn iliat Iw -li.uiM ^nrncl in caiiMii- a rf.|nc-t fnr it 
tn CMiiif imm tilt- iH'i.pIc III' (niK\a tlicni-fl\ c-.' 

1 la./ardiiiL^ an audaci, un Idult, 1 )c~p.iru-- callrd in ihr utVhM;- ni Mu' -. iv- 
(.■rniiK'ni aiKi annuiinifd in tlu'in iliat the nninn nf iluir i-iu:iir\ \mi1i that 
ut the l'r<.iu-h. kcpuhhr had l.rrii iii'riik%l mi at l'an~. and thai all rv- 
>i>VAmr uiinld l.f ii^i-lc" and dan.i^cr. -n-, a- ihc j-iviuh :i-iii.ij~ winch were 
'luartcfcd ill >\\it/(Tland had nnlcr- nut in lca\c \', ithmit niplctmu tin- 

matter. Thi- was cnnininnicatcd in the Adinim-trair. c 1 I .c-i~lati\ c 

•iiniuii. with the ÍMi-tiuT pinpn-al ni Dc^j/iiru- that the. appmni a -pccial 
cniiiini--!. Ill In winch ilic -n\ crciL;ii pnwer- nf the • icncrai I nuiicil ni I'lti/cils 
>liiinM he ilc'fL'alcil. I h)^ ci .innn^-inn wa- appmiutd accnrilniL;l\ nti March 
1'' lic-piric- ilun aniinnncrd In lallc\rand thai !h<- cninnn-Mmi wmild 
a^k III the |)ircciiir\ the unirli "\ f.ene\a and ii- tci-riinr\ in ¡h,- Id-.-nch ke- 
pnlihc. uilii tile -tipnlaimii tiial it- relii;inu- and cmnnicrcial ni-iitiiiinn> 
slinuld lie i'nn>er\ed. and in rclnrn I )e-pnrte- \\a~ prn\;ilrd wilh itili pnwers 
In cnii-iili Willi the penpK' and niiiciaU ni the (ieiieM-e Uepiiliir- rc^aidiii.i; 
all ihn-e matter- cniiccrmm; the nnmn and in rccei\r their \nu--- 

'llie pnwer- ni the -pecial cnitimi-Mnn mi which i )e-iinrtc- wa- rehniL; had 
expired helnre the trealv cmild lie nei;ntialeil, i Mi \|,vi| 15, iho ( .> lu-ral 
t nnncil ua- i.nn\nlsed tn renew llieiii. I ¡le nieeim- innk pia. e m the ( Imrcli 
i>i >amt-l'ierre which wa- -nrrmindeil wiih a irench tiiiard ni I,(,n,h fnnt 
and lii.r-e. with arliller\, which had heeii rei|m-itii iiied li\ l)e-p.rtc>. I 'ndcr 
the niellale ni their havmiet-. -n ilu- (,ene\ni- -a\. the citi/in- renewed the 
puwer- ni the -pecial ciimini--imi and the cmiimi--inii \ntcd inn-i nnw illniL^lv 
liir the lriat\ w liu !i terimnaled the e\i-Ience ni tile l\'e]JiiMic ni (ieiic\a. 

r.\ ihe -tral<'.i;\ nl 1 )i-pnrle-, the cniidiiimi ni ,i icpie-l irmii <.eiii'\a had 
iieeii 'ilhlled 1 1 wa- an ia-\ m itier In make Iratice and lairnpc liclu.»,- that 
the t ielle \ ni- had \nled inr I he ummi \nhintanl\ , ea-erh . and li\ a iinanimmi- 
lilc!ii-cile. 1 In- wa- m iaci ihr -:nr\ a- piiMi-hed in the /■..7i,) ,/,•.? .Il/trs.^ 

Ihe treal\ .1 ; iimn i- -miliar in liiat ni Mnlhaii-iii ]'.\ it I'ratlce accept'; 
•If ^"!e ni ihe pcnple ..i i,,i, a. :^r. mil; ihe privile^;!- ni npunn tn ilin-t- 
<leviriii}; to leave the cmiiiiry I lu' claii-e- wliicli dilicr are ilm-r pi rniaiunils- 
exclndni!,' li\ name tiiree citi/en- ni deneva w lin liad ■ .ppn-,-d ihr ItiikIi 
ell'nri-, and ilm-e prntectm.u ihe prtrmn, melai- ii-ed m tile i ,eiie. a Mail- 
and í^uiim; escepiimial iavnp tn tiic manniactnre ni chmi/ I lie principal 
advant.i-e nii.rtd in ( ,ene-. a . Mniiiail-eii. wa- the irei- ilixjiu^al nt the 

eiitnnnmal prii|>eri\ , 

' llUtoir« rt d'Archeologi. i-. Mémoires et ioeumentt publUt, »crii» 

4. M. i. -i. 11. 178. 

' n.K-iinifiit«, finst. p. M>7. 

'"I.e 2fi Rfrmiiial an VI de la Ripiil'liqne françaisp, !.■ poiiplr seiu'vuii rim m Oinscil 
(fiiural a vi>t<- .-i rimaiiimité, »a niitiinti A !a R.-|i'iMi'|iic frati<;ai-.." M,'mnir.-t ,-i ,1 <.uiii.t,ir 
p. ISO. t¡;!otct! from i'!:cka des Aipcs. 


i'i.i:ius( I 

■| Hl-, I'l-.KK )l) Ol' lX4S-lí<7() 
Tili; It-' ¡an I'i.khi^ci ik- '.|- 1,S4S 

In 1N4,V tili- .|M.iit,iiic,.!N ua\u eil iMti. malien an-l .inimcracy, wliuh ln-an 
wilh the l(l.riiar\ rL\ oluti, m in l'an- and MM'],t rai.idly Iuin.|if, j;a\ c 
t" till' >iiliK(t pelile-, ,ii hal\ IH, t (.Illy tliL- in^inratiuii i,,r aimthcr trial ii.r 
tm.l-in Inii ilu- iiuiIumI ,,{ ..eciiriii- it. The i< ani.lni.L; ,,t tlu- Kin-dmii ..Í 
Italy ,.n tlu- Vdhiiitaiy uiTi i,i tlir pi-nplc ,,f i.ach iir.iMiice, (.■Niin---c(l In a 

iMipiiiar \,,t,' liy !iiii\ cr-al niaiili 1 Milira-.-. dah-- imm thi- \a-ar, ( In,;,- 

adMi.tid, ih, iiH-tlii.d \\a- tnlloAi-d iiiidi-\iatini;l\. Ir.. m tin- li'r-t npn-iiiL; 
111 IS4S in l...nil.anly until tin- unitMati..n ..I ltal>, m it- prc-cnt t..nn. u a'^- 
'i.niiiU-ti-d l.\ tlu- annrxati..n ,.1 R,.inc in 1S7m, iIr. -tatr-tiK-n \v,.rkm,tr '"r 
nmn-.l llalv iu-\ rr i'..r a in.inu-m l.a-i<l tlu- uni. m , .ii an\ ..ilu-r title than that 
"I -rli-di-lerniina(i.,n, n,.r .li.l tlu-y at anv tiiiu- re-t entent unii the ,uere 
a-erti..n ..| the ¡...¡.ular will i..r uni..n. h..«e\er ..l.\i..u- that will niav lia\<- 
'"^"- '"" "• '-"li '■■■'^^' li'l'l Ilu- |i!elH-nte I.. I.e an e-eiitial part ,.t the title,,l\, \eiRt.a. Mi.dena. an.l I'ann,.. in 1S4S; lu-eain. l-'.niilia, Sieily. 
Xaiile-, tlu- Marehe-, and l 'mliria in iNnU; \'enetia. auain. in ISdi,; Ronu- in 
l.'^/C; ea.h in turn \\a- deelareil 'i\ I 'arliaineiil. uiili a -lii^htls ilnïereiit 
plira-e..l,.,-\, !.. !„■ an mle^'ral part ..l' the Kii „'d. .in •' m \ leu ..1 the re-ult ..i 
the universal \ ..Í the pe. .pie ..l' the pr,.Miu-e t. .r uni, m with the C.n-titu- 
ti..nal l\inL; ..i \ h-I.t l-'.nianuel II and hi- -ueec-,.r-." 

I he re\ in 1 S )S ..i th,- n..rthern pr,. vince- a-ain-t Au-tna heijaii \->!ih 
the ■■ l-i'.e |ia\- ..I Milan." , .n .Manli IS, ( m .Mareh Ji > the niuiii,-ipaht\ ,.| 
Milan a--niiie.l antli,.rit\ ami m-titute.l a ].r. .\ i m. .nal i;. .\ eninient. uln.-li, ..n 
\prd S. v\a- eMeii,K-,l !.. the \\h.,le ..I I .. .nil.anlv ( )n .Mareh J,^ ( arL, \1- 
l.erl... km- ,,i Sardinia.' a--unie,l llie lea.Ur-hip ,il the re\,,It an.l .le.lare.l 
^'-"■"" '^"-tria llie imniieipalitie- ..I l'arma. M, .,1< iia, an.l K'eui;:. . at . mee 
a-Minie.l p,.uer. a- ha.l alreadv ;li..-e <.l \eni.e an.l the < itie- ..! \ eiielia. aii.l. 
e\,-,pt i,.r \,iim- ii-elt. -et up pr,,\iM,.nal -. .\ ernnient- -mular !.. that ..f 

111.- .|n(-ti,.n .-I the p-htieal .le-lm\ ,.i ihe-e pn.vmee- ha.l alreadx ,au-e.| 
a -harn aliunm. ni ,.| p.iriie-, e-peeiall\ m I ..nihanlv an.l \enelia, Tlu-re 
u.-re tu,, imp.. nam pam, - an.l -e\ eral iimi.,r ..iie- The ra,|h-al-, tlu- parlv 
"t •■ N,,nii- l!al\ ■• und.r Ma.vnu. «an!e,l a umte.l Itah mi.K-r a repul.luan 
i-iin "i -.ivernmeiil ami had ma, le a l.e-mmnj; l,y deelann,: a Kei«nlilie m 

' Ilir.-iiL-Imm filis MII.I.V ..f the Italian ,,Ii-l.isdtf« tlic terms Sardinia, S.iv..v ainl l'u-.ln-otit 
^Mll I..- tise<l imcrchanKraMy t.. .Un.i, th. Kinu.l.mi ..f Sanlinia «h..s,. mmiin« ia,„ily 
«as that of Sav..< an.l »hose lainial «,,. m I uriii in tlir pnniiice ..f PiHnimit The 
kingdom of Sar.linia »as erected in iri>; «I,,,, the Hiikes „f Sav.,v »er.-|.elle.l to 
a<-ce|,t Sardinia ni i xilianijr for ' 

'IHK ir\i i\N" i'i.i'.i'.isi !Ti;< * •!■■ is4- 

\ (.'Ilici'. lili' i'c>iiM'rvatÍM'> were m twn partió, (HK' |iarl\- wÍnIiíhj,' to fciriii 
a part d a uniltd kiii,L;(lnin ,,i .VurtliiTii Italy iiiKk-r the C(.ii-.tinitinnal iiimh- 
ariiiy (it the I lotice ot Savny, the nthcr, tlic ckru-al cmh.sitn ati\ c.-^, acK dcatinu 
union 111 a icik-ratMii i,i ituk'pciiik'iit State-, iimk-r the presideiicv ni the 
l'"lii.'. !ii -l'ine III tile pruviiice- there \\a- a eertain di'-ire tur autnin iiiiv. 
l'(ir tile iiin-t part, ijie-e partie.-, fcuitul their -upport in the eitie-, the enun- 
Iry pei 'pie appear tu ha\e keen euiiiparativ el\ inditierent Imtli to the >triii;^le 
a^^•lill-t .\ii-tria and in the i|lle-lMii nt the politicai I'lilure. 

.\11 p.artie- had nni'ed to iree l.nillliardy and X'eiietia iroiii foreign rule 
I'll the a,i;reenuni that the i|iie-ti(iii ni the politicai -tatn-. -lionld he po-tjioiied 
until alter the war. InnnediateK upon it- in-titution the provisional L;o\erii- 
nient oí .\lil;iii had promi-ed that the inie-tion -hould he po-t])oned niilil all territory -hoiild he free and -hoiikl then he -eltled liv a tree ]iopular 
vote,' Tili- protiii-e ot" a tree \ote \\a- repeated liy Carlo \lherto on .March 
31. (In ihe -anu' day. word \\a- -enl ironi the Kiiiii to the Milan t:o\ ern- 
nient that recoi,'nition had I'eeii accorded it piireK' mi it- il,- f,utii '.tandinji 
and lh;it a- the i|iie--tion of the future shoiiM he settled li\ the peo|ile tlieiil- 
sehes, ihe Kint,' \\a- nio-t (k-irmi- that a re|ire-entati\ c a--eiiihl\ for all 
tile in-iir^'eiit pro\ iiuc -iliould he ek'Cted .il once and on a \er\ hroad 
electoral ha-i-, " in order that the deci-ioii ma\ he realK regarded a- a iiio-t 
•>iiicere e\pre--ion of the cointiioii will." - 

Ihe pledge of ik'lav had keen iii.ade to plea-e the rcpiilihcan- who hoiied 
li\ tin- nn';in- to -eciire a repiihlic winch -hoiild include all of upper Italv. 
¡'he pari\ for union with Sardinia wa-, Imwever, L;:iiiniiL; in -tren^'tli thnmj^di 
the pre-iii^e of ( arlo .Mherio who, of all the prince- of ItaK, had ,!j;ranted a 
hheral ci iii-titiition. and who had m,-ide hini-elf the chanipion of the Italian 
canse, 'i'licrc wa- al-u the dire need for i;reatiT niiht;irv el'fectix ene-- which 
conici onh he -eciired li\- conihinaiion T,! end the niu ert,iint\ , the centr,d 
pro\i-ional L;o\ernnuiii ot I .onih;ird\ . mi .\pril S. .ipponiie<l ,i ( i .innii--ion lo 
in\e-liL;ate the lie-t inethod (,; coin eiiiiii,' the pniiiar\ a--eiiililie- in order 
to ohtaili .1 ••e|'le-enlati\e a--ein!il\ li\ \ote and with the lea-t po-- 
-ihle dela\, \- it w a- ho|ied the re-iiltiiii^ elecloral ,irr;in^enient - Coiild 
he n-ed .1- ,i forninl.a li\ the oilur -late- a- well, if noi for a imnt ciin-.litn<'nt 
a--eiiihl\. iklcLiale- were iiiMled from the cilie- of N't'iieha, 1 '.irma. Modena. 
Re.ijjíiii. and i'iaci'ii.'a, to join in the delihrration- I'lie -('--ion- of the (om- 
nii--ion la-ted frmn \pril 11 .'■'^. It- report w.i- in fa\or ,,f a cmi-liüicnt 

a--ellilil\ ot dell L;ate- elei ii'.l li\ the i oiniinine- In iiiin er-al nrinli 1 -iir!'r:i'je 

of ,'ill . .\-er I\\em\--oiie who hail not Ìh-cii nndei- indicial -enlcncr 

' St-r I iiK-i'imiifi, fi'si, |i .in 

'^Sev rri'clatii.'tiiin aiul ("iiiHulintMl d ■iniirinu ,iiii in I i,«- ;,ni iili.. f.'i! |i;) .Ç\ alni .(/.t. 

'The ilflil'cratiniii. <if the rommission ami the elenoTtl law proposed by it are KÌ\eii in 

/.I" OSSt'niiii t lírí rí.vii» i/|Mi|-»;rii, \ul. i, ]i|i i ,vi i'if) 


i'i.i:i;i^( iTi;s 

lile |iri i|ii .sili« ,!i (Il an a^^ritil p1\ . wlnlr Iia\i:i;^f iik' --aiu'iiiiii ni ('arid \1- 
liiTiM,' iiniil\c(l a L;rra!(T ilclay than lii~ paiti-an- m 1 -■ iiiihar'l'. c.r.iM t^l- 
(.■rati.-. I 'fi:iiiiii-~ 1k'l;l;i!iì^ Iit an miniiiliatr pcpnlar vnti' wrri- ./inailait'ii. 
TIk' citi/cn- ni' l 'laccn/a liad alrradx. mh \|.r!l S. ..|„.nr'l n-i-tcr, {.¡r 
■1 \";<' "1. tlic Mnc-iinii ni ninnn ami tlu- i-itic-- ni ilu- Wii'-iian niainlaml 
were lifi;L;ni^ Milan'- aiil m l>nn-niL;- piv^nn- mi ihr \'cni'iian rc|,;;lplu' tn 
'•"'>■ ''"' nninn. Tin- ini|)aii(n,a' wa- rfilfcinl ni l.nnil,anl\, li wa- ar-iic! 
thai iicla\ wa- inr\|inlu'nt imin a nnlilary vi.'uimim and thaï an a--ctnlil\- 
ini.ijht cnirr inin , finhet with 'he Sr.lialiiin.- l 'arlianimi. 'lin- laïaiicial un- 
l)arra--nirnt ni ihc |in.MMnnal -n\ crninciu and it- lailnrr tn MippK the mili- 
tary C((i|Kraiinn that tlu- |pin,,u. uaiihd iiîidnnhtr.lly in^r.-a-cil ihr impa- 
tifiua- at dila\, a- rtidanticriiiL;- ilie (.-aii-i- a-am-t AiKtna. l'iu' wanntli nf 
thf di-rn-mn and the prc-tirr m' the part;, t'nr iininn tinalh- prrMiaiii-.l ihr 
i.ïiinhan! -n^Timu-nt \n antinpatr tlu- Imidin- ,,| an a-M'inl.h' lu takmi; a 
pk-hiM-nc nil llu' <|nf-tinii MÍ wliriiu'r there -limiM he an nninediat<> nnmn 
with Sarilmia nr a delay ..Í the deii-imi. 

1 he decree tixitn^^ the iletaiN ni tlu' eiiTîinr, wa- ¡--ned n|i Max- 1 _> -' \^.. 
rnrdm- tn tin- decia'e. the eleet,,rai( ua- tn le mnipn-ed ni all male nti/en- 
nver Iueiit\H,ne. .\liether literate nr imi Ke-i-ter- were npened in each 
cnmnuine imm the date nt the pr. .claniatmn n\ the decree nmil Mav _"'. In 
the-e the vnier-, in the pre-ence .,|' the pari-li ¡irie-t. a--i-ted h\ tv.n eU'ctinii 
nllieial-. 'Aere tn indicate their chmce nf the tun allernatn.e-. lllilerate- 
im.Ldii make ilieir mark Mie -nllier- with the army m the tiekl uere tn 
^"''' ■'' 'l'^' iuad^narler- m their cnrp-, in ihe pre-elice nf their -iifierinr 

1 he Sardinian cnii-titntmi! m lN4S had e-!ah!i-hed imt nianhn,,d -ntïraLrc 
hni a -nttra-e ha-.d ,,„ prnpert\. hii-ine- ..r iimte-innal -tanditm. Thi- 

M'arin \ll„r»,, ua^ aiisinu- t- i.rKtponc tli.^ .lisent..'..,, ,,i the i„t.iro a- he iVare.l tlie .•..iiipli.-atK.ns «InVIi u,.mM ari-r fn,,,, fn-i..ii. ainl. ..n ih, ..ther han.l. ua- 
aiiviotK to p.-inciit a n pnhhc. 

= Dociiiiifnts. /•,..;/. p. 376. The i.loa ..t popular cmisiiltatimi t.) -ettle tlie .iiu-tioii ajMnar* 
t . l.i.e l.reii pr..p,.vr,l troni vari...... ipiarter<. ViíCiim r..ii...t.hv. »ritiiii: from Vi. una t.i 

I'alm.Tston on Mav \2. 184S, tran-mits a .Irait ..f a pr.ipositioi, for a von- of the citizens 
..I t!ic l.onihar.l-\ enetiaii Kinn.join a< to whctlier they )ircfir to enter the prnject-.l Italian 
roiuV-leration under tlio snn-rainty oí Anuria, or «lietlier thry prefer ahsoliitc in.lepen.lence. 
-.nil- rivnmiH-nse to he made to An-tria for the «acrilico of her riijlit«. Untisi, rarli,iiii,;,iar\ 
l\ih-rs. AfTairs of Italy. 1840. v,.|. .^7 jIlOSl. p. 444. The text of the proposal i. in Krcncli 
The n.nnie of the author i^s omitted from the diM'atch. and one wonid feel safe in avMrt- 
itii: Ihat he was not an Aiistriati were it not that there is a Maternent on cood anlhoritv 
that in Jniie. IS48. the .Viislrian i;i>vernmtnt iiresentef! to I.aniarline. the head of the F'rencii 
exeenlive. a t.miect of meiliation which conM»te.| in leaving to I.nnihardy and the duchies 
of l'arma an.l Modena fnll power to dispose of their own destinies. Venetia t.i remain 
a lart of the Austrian kinRdoni. Luisi Ghiaia. Ixllfr,- c>1ili- ,'d iiuuliu- <li Cnwillo 
vol. 4, p. ¿51. The choice of method was. however, apparently «pontaiieutîs witii the insiir- 
Rent governments them<cl\cs. with the anproial .,f Tarlo Alberto. 

HF. ri'AI.IAX i'I.ICIilSC ril'.S dl' 1S4S 


was (lisplcasini; tu tlio lil.i.ral> oi Lumhanlv . Tin- m, tu ¡..r iiiiu.n ac-ccinimi^-ly 
tontaiiicil a -ti])iilatiim tiiat a niiiMitucin a-cmlily im- ü\v uh. i'a- Sanliiiiaii<lnm, iiK-Iudiiifi- tlu' states a.llKTiti.i,' t.i ii. >!i..ul<! hc cum. kfd In uiiixc-r-al 
-i.if;ra,!;c\ tu e-talil'sh a now ciistitutK .11 Inr ¡lu- iiinnarthv. 

l'.xci'jii t'i.r a piipiilar (liiiiuiistratinii wlticli ucuirrcd (.ii Miv 27. t.i dc- 
niatid ilic satr-iianlii)},- ..f tlu' tivcd..iii ,,1 the jirc". tlu- ri-lit .,1 a-i,ciati..ii. 
atid a nati. mal -uard, ami a reiterati.. 11 ut' the -tijiiilatiDii t..r uin\ef>al -iif- 
lra,t,'e in the elections f..r the e. .n-tituent a--enihl\. all <>i whirh ileiiiand- uefe 
a<ïrcc(l t(i l)y the Knverniiient. the sÌ-iiìhl; ct the lists appears t.. have |)r. »ee.le.l 
without .hstnrliance.' The result ua- an o\ eruhelinni- deleit .>i the ¡.arix ..t 
lielav. an(' a e. .rres])ondnn: viet.irv i.,r the Sar.liiiian tini.uK ( )ii! ..f the (I'll,- 
J-'f)(inalitîed vlevs.- 5fd.(»i)-' ha.l v.ted I'or iini.iedi.üe uni, .11 and ,.ii!v(,Sl û,r 

I he iir,.p.,rtion of those votino to the .¡nalitied is aina/iiij;!v hi,L;li. 

Mie o\er\\helinin,!i iiiajo'-ity may he aec.iinte.l lor in |.art li\ the iaet that 
the reptihhcaiis were divide<l and irr. -..lute, niaiiy of their leaders hrini: away 

.at the war ami the mass hesitatini; to ..pp... e anv in..\unent iiiiii\ 1 hen. 
t.i... the ¡irestiije ni .'^a\o\- and ¡he inllneii.e ..f the Uisioiiist. h.i.l inrre.isrd 
eilorni..nsl\ on the news ..f the Motones .,f (i.nto an.] ¡'escliiera. 

I'etiTe the lists were el. .se.) the re|iiiMi(ans had lir.m^ht eharires .,f nnf.air 
aeii..n. ( )n May _M there apptare.l in tlie ..flieial lu-wspapiT ..f .Milan, // 
-'-' Miirrn. a letter sii;ne<l hy .Ma//ini and s.nne tuent\ others, leiiresentm^' 
societies and newspapers, eharjiin,!; that the i.;o\ erntr, m was usin- iiidec.r. .iis 
haste m the hope of causing' the triuni|ih ni si, h-, an.l pr.. testini; that the 
citi/eiis were unprepared to decide such a moment. .us .piesti..n uitli..ut m.ire 
informaiion as to the \ital issues, inform.ation which ha.l heeii inirp..sely 
v.ithlielil hy the ^;overnine!it. It w ,as al-o impossihle, the\ s,ii,l. i,, ascertain 
the m.ature ciuiction- ..f the jicple wlnle ihe war ..n. \s to iju' nietli...! 
of votili','- hy si<:nin,i,^ reui-ters. they :isserte.l that it n..t onlv illep^.d Imt 
als.i c..iitr.ary to the hheral ]iro,i,Tain of the .^MNernment ilself, hec.uise it 

' 111 ..I!.- .i.-o,.,|.| tli.Tc is f...i!i,I the a-,Tti..n th:xt flu- rrpiiMi.-.itis .ntt,-nii.|, .1 t., oNirtiirn 

the ^..vcrr-mcm ..n the .l,iy tlir.t the i...lls w. r.^ cI..m-.| K.nTa, Ic I ii.n :i«i„ .h. "I.,- ri-.,rKÌ- 
nuiiiii it," Ill tt.'rui f'/i/i.-.i d'ltaiui. M.i. ''. ]). K.'d. 

-Tliese fiíjiires arc from the report liy the Minister of the Interi. ir t.i the .Suhalpiri. I'ar- 

liallî.lit .III Jmi.- l.s, 1,V4S. /.,• ,7.(.i,-|)!/./,-,' ,/,•/ ri.!.;r,;„.i,-il(.., M.I 1, p J(|0. Hr ^;|^,^ llie 
ropiilali.m ill in 1.M4H as 2.'i(,7,.U7 

' In a (h^patrh of June <>, .Xhercronihy, the lîntish r. |.re>.-ntati\e at Turin, «ivrs i!i,- 'l^nrei 
t< r the chief citie.s of Uimharily as follows {l'arlmmentary I'afcrs ill(W|, ,, 5;f,| 

Pau a 





vi.Tt» r.i« I „. 




J 5 


ri.i-.i;i>(. ni-.s 

I)rc\fiitc-il ili^cn-^Mi'ii, llu' iiialicnahk' ridili ni llic citi/un, ami -ulistitutc'il a 
iiinif liowiii^ licinii' ¡ii.wi-r ii'V il.i- ii\c c\|]rc^>iiin ni lliu real will ni tlic 
|]fi'])k- ' which Wduld lia\(j hi'cii ^i-cnrc-il liy iiR-aii> ut a ciiii>titufiit a-^cinhly. 
.\> III i!k- iR-utii'ii- i"r linldiiiL; tlu' pklii^citc, '.iic^c, llu'_\ .--aiil. were nhtaiiieil 
I IV liriliiii.u the iiiiintrx iieiqile. 1 he ii iii^eixalu e^. mi the nlher hand, nlijec.ed 
to the C(iiiditiiiii> cniitanieil in the \Mie. ijeiiiL^ MjijiM-ed hnth In unl\e^■^,ll -ullrage 
and Id a idti-imu-üt a>-eiiilil\. 

riu- iuMiiiii-i- were eliar.m'il |.y the re]iul)lieaiis with carrying' (Hi an un- 
-(■ni|inli>iH auilatiiiii. In order to iienlrali/.c the repuirncan i iiii)(i>nii>n. they 
-aid, ro\ali-I ai;eiit^ had heeii al work -fireadiiiL; the idea thai the ehmce 
w.i^ linnled in re.ilil\ io llu- diieinma: r.ulo Mherlo or AiKtria." 1 he 
liishiip i--ued coiiiiii.iihU lh,il the will ol the j,ro\ eriiniem -hoiild lie >il|i- 
jported .ind llu re were eonijilanil-- ihal llie ¡lea-anl^ \oied under the guid- 
ance of the iine-l-. It wa- iunher ;i>>erted ioreij,nier^ s'oled, that the 
-oldier-' \oie- were mlluenced li\ the pre-eiue of their officer-, and that the 
coiidenmeil voted lielore the Ljallow -. ' 

I- rulli the di-]ialclie- of ' lercroinliN , the lîriIi-1', re|ire-enlali\ e al Turin, 
we i;ct aiiMiher ioiiUiniiorar\ \ iew of e'.eiu- which make- no such^e of 
covniiiii.iii or ]ire--iire,' L.i I .irin.i. who wa- in l.oinli.ardy al the time ui 
the \ole. -jieakmo of ;he-e accii-,ition-, >a\- that an\one who, like him. >aw 
l.onili,ird\ in ilio-e d.i\s, wa- |H-r-iiadeil that the majority of the jieojilo of 
l.oinliardv were for the cause which won."' Kinii, in his hi-Iory of the jierioil, 
admit- the iriilh of the ch;irL;c-, luit -a\- that, in.akm.i; every allow.ance for 
the uiiwiirilr. act- of ilie one party and the disorganization of the other, the 
\ole -li"Wed an > i\ er',\ hclniiii;:; jireponderaiice in tavnr el fusion.'' 

Ilie siiL;i;e>lioii ihal man\ repiiMicaiis alistained is hardl\' -npported liy the 
liiTCeiil.iL;!' of I he \oIe to ihe numlier i piali tied. l\eiL,Mslr.a!ion wa- not a \ olun- 
l,ir\ ,iil. 'Ilie n.iiii. - were ¡ilaceil on llu' ri'iji-Iers liy the election olficKils 
and we ilo not that lhe\ faileil to eliler the pro])er nnmlier of ipi.alilied 
\oie-. r.iit, cerl.iinl., the nulliod of \otinir l'y sii^niníí .a re,L,Mster under 
the e\e- o I the prie-t offered e\ ery op]iortiinit\ for ¡iressiire and coercion 

' Sec /r iiss, III!'!. ,■ drl ns.-nniuniln. \ ,)1. 1. |i. JllO f.jr test. 

- Bolton KiiiK, History of Italian Unity. \ol. 1, p. 24.?. 

' I.I- <¡ssi-in!'i,\- (Í, / l^^.'r,^■lll,■,l/,r, v..l 1. ¡i. '»ii. ,|yitiiv from Car'n ( '.ittanoi. 

* Tlu- result wa- nn Mirpn-e tii Imii In a kiler x.¡ I'alimrsti in dato! Turin. M.iy 
1-4. oiK-Io-iin; a Cdiiv nt tlu ikvrif ior tlie |>Ulii-. ite, .Mien-romliy -.i.v- . " Tlii re i an Ik- little 
li'iulii th.ii a l.irL:e niainrity will 1" l.iunil to hav, miIoI ior iu'inioliati' amiexatinn. " 
/'iii/iiii)ii-)i/iirv I'.itris jllUfj. p. -1.-7. It -liniilil !.!■ -aid, liowev. r, that tin- i- thf .i|iiiiiiin fi 
a rfpre>inlati\ 1 "i a ^lucriinicnt in l.ivnr '<i Italian unity ami atcreiliteil tu tin- Sainyarij 

•''/.,■ ij.f.(,-lM '•/(■.• i/(7 ri,t,'o;in¡rilíii. oil. 1. p. '">. 

" Kin«, ¡iu\ III . a.lils thai the ilroul of a siiciali-l n pnlihc. .syi ciphai..., to a kin^: ,uiil aiiihi- 
tton In <re Milan mio inuri.' the scat nf a hrilliant court aKo entercil in. 

THF. nwi.IW P!.I-,I;IS("1II-:S Ml-' 184.^ 


and u< ¡)U't(.Mi.l ihat m ihr imiNt ai a,i;itaii<iii and war a \<dv can 1ki\i- ;1u- 
same ri'.í,'ularity a-> at a tiiiic ui piihlic i|uift. i^ tn prctiT.d the ;m|i. .^mIiU-. 
^ L't ihnii.t^li the cliarijc-. n{ irrcj,'ularu\ arc iiuincniii> in' .nif .<;(.i'> -n iar 
a^ t<i a"iTl ¡haï the n-Milt wa- imt -ati-iart' ir\ tn the threat maj. inf ni iho 
])cn])k-. Ule truth apjiear-. tn lu- that the Cniiservatn e- wi-lied tlie lii-inn in 
nnk-r tn a\ni<l a --neiah-t repiiMie. and tlie mas- nt the re¡iuhhcan-, iiniire--ed 
With tile need nt niiily and rea— nreil li\ the liheral in-tiintiniis ,)i I'lediimni 
were wiHinfí '" -aeritice tlie repnhlicati Inrin t'nr the -ake nt' iitiinii, ^mvided 
it lie under an alisnhitely denmeratie enn-tittiticin. ' 

At a -.ilemn nieetnii;. in the iire-enee ni the aivlilii-lmp and the ii\d and 
military nllieial-, the prn\iv|,,nal o, .M-rmn, 'it amininieed the nitieial lii^iire-, 
'i he result wa- hailed with jny liy the pnpnjaee. A iew da\s later a snloinn 
deputatinii presented the \..te tn t ari., \ll.ert... wli.i receixed the:!:, attenile.l 
liv tin i )iike ..t (ieiina. the niinisters ,,f state an.l tin .tneer- nt the armv. 
lie aeeejiled the \.ite as a ]ir..mis(,. ,,{ mnty ami siu-ces. m the striii:,L'le t..r 
Itahan treed, .m- It wa- iiii fnrlnnate that the reds ,;ill .herislie.l ;i teelin;; 
ni lunini', Keen l.etraved liy the iiasteniiii,'- nt the \nte. I'alrmts tli..iiL;h they 
were, the resultine: iealniis;, and i>n'itual dissensi,, p pre\eiite.l the i;:ll s,ip. 
pnrt whieli the\ im\dit lia\e ,<;i\en tn the Sardinian eanipai,t;ii. 

( )ii the niithreak nt' the remit ni \emce. .ill Mareii _'_', the pr. ivisi, .ual 
j,ni\eriitneiit hail immediately |irn(laimed a reiiuhlie. with Manin ;is p.ri'siilent. 
an<l had snmnmned deleiiates t.. d.raw up a e.nistituti. m. Manin exerte. Í 
e\ery etïnrt tn earrv ..nt the repiililican ¡ilaii i>i ilelax. The cities ..f tlu- 
\ elletian mainland, lin\\e\er. were iiiiwillilii; tn surrender their linpe ..i' ;i 
nninii ..f X'enetia with l.niiiliard\, dliey had jniiied in the e.iinniis-inn t.i 
draw I'p a plan i.>r an a<scnil)ly: ¡he\ imw t.ill.iwed 1 .nmliar.h 's h-a I in 
npeniii!^ rej^isters tnr a pnpiilar vnte. The ritie-^ nt the N'enetian mainland 
were iiu-nrpnrated in the Sardinian kiii<;dniii li\ the same decree \\liuii in- 
(•..rpnrateil l.nnihardy. Alarmed at the threatened isnjatioii and ma. le enii- 
sciniis nf the need nf cnneerte.l actinii hy the ap])rnaeli d the Austrian iHrres. 
Mainn and the W'lietiaii i^. i\erntiient mi June 3 is-ned a decree cniunl^iiif^ 
a representative asscnililv mi the li;isis ,,f unii crsal stitïrat;e. \ later 'Ic.Tee 
nt the (..insulta pmvided that the ])iililic shnuld he i;i\en int. .rinati, m a- {it 
the tinancial. military and cmiinurcial situatimi in ..rder that their \..tes nullit 
he the 111. .re ititeli i,!,'eiit.' 

ddie assemble met nil Jiil\ .v On the i.iilnwin.; ,1:,\-, Manin in a n.. Mi- 
an. 1 patrintic speech withdrew his ..ppn-iti. .n in tace ..|' the universal 

'Til. u..ii'.i. 1,1,,, .)„,.i(;l, ,,,■! inclü.l.-,! il! thf i.l-J,i-,-ite. .ii.l i;,.t reniaiii silent a- !■, ihe.r 
wi,-lu's. Sil- " Aci.lrc-- t,! tile W'l.nun of tin- Sni'Iitiiaii Stati--" I li.ciMiniils. f'.ist. |. .i'M 
riifortu'iaicly the niiiiiluT ..f --iKMatiiros is ii.,t stat,. I. 

- 1-iir aiiilrc<s of (ici.'.ilatioii ami the ^.iisutr ,if tin kiiit; -, e 1 1,,, uiiu ni -. ,^,,.,7, |.p Mil ,iii,] ,%o_' 

■■ l)<,riinir!;ts. /■ v/ r, -Uffi 


i'i,i;i;i>( i\\:> 

-cntiiiiciit tur iiiiiiifdialc iiiiinu \mi1i Sai'linia.' l'iiiuii wa- |ir'iniiitly \iitcd 
lu 1_'S tn »1 I'll tlu- -aiiK- (oiiditicn^ a> illuse stipiilaled li\ Ldiiihardy. 

l 'Irliisnti , had alrcaiU licrii held m ilu' iIikIucs i if l'armi, l'iaccnza, M'idena, 
and •lua-talla, with (u tru licliiiiii^'- maji irities for uiiiuir AU tlitsi.- v(iîi'-. wi-rc 
1j\ iiiaiihi II id sii:;rat;t' i^r ail uvcr i\mìi1\ -i iiic- unh iio literacy lest, lu ail 
ni illese iileluscites the lists «Aere ii|ieii ii\er a ci iiisideralile ])erii)(l nf tillie. 
Ill mie case fi ir a pern ni ni three weeks. In eai h case tlie chief electinii nilicial 
was ihe parish priest In l'arnia the sioniii^ ni the lists was tu he iii the 
pri'seiKc l'I the ma. ir and the priest. In l\ei;,i;ic> a ~j)ecial cnnimissinn ni 
cibili and a siil).,idiary cnmmiitce ni twehe were ap|)ninted tn cnllect the 
-iL'iiature^, wnrkiii;; m cnniunciinii with the ¡iriesl. In Mmli'iia a cnmmis- 
-inii nf fi'ur was appi 'inled In assisi the pnesi, hi l'arma and l'iaceiiza each 
M'Ur was allnwed In cast his \nte Inr the sulutinn must [¡leasiiii; |n liim. and 
In -iirrniiiid It wiih anv iniiditiniis licsired. In l'arnui s,,iie \nted fnr the 
fnrnier niler. snme inr niiinn with 1 uscany. -nnie fnr the l'nntilical States. 
In i'iaceii/a there was a similar scalterinL;. In Imth. hnwe\er. the threat 
mainrit\ \nteil fnr Sardinia. Ihis \nie was in each case accninpanied liy 
a scries nf cniiditiniis rc'latiiiL; In the future status ni the chief city, the dis- 
]]n-:il i'{ the state funds, prntectinn fnr the university, a.iid similar i)rn\isinns. 

The piTcenta,L;e ni the \ntes cast he tlin<e i|ualilied was \erv liÌL;h. In 
keL'^in. cut kÌ .ì(i.N14 (|iialilied vniers, _''>,S51 \(.ied fnr Sardinia alniie.- In 
l'iaceii/a "iit ni a pnpulatinn ni _'0(i,.^6fi, there were ,v,OS'' \ntes fnr l'ied- 
mmil, the seatterin;; Miles .anmuntini; tn 4''h. dhe lì,i,'ures fnr .Modena are 
lini i^iven 111 the repnrt. lile l'arliament incnrporated each 
prn\ince with the same fnrmuK'i.' 1 he union thus decreed was a shnrt-hved 
I'lH'. linue\er; the Au-triaii force- snmi returned with tlie ]iett\- so\ereÌL,ms 
in their train. 1 he peace of 1S4'', hased on the defeat ni tlie rieilnmntesc 
fnrces at XnN.ira and ( ustn//a. returned l.nmharih and Xenelia to .\ustrian 
rule,' and restored the dukes to the throne from which their sulijects had so 

' 'I'hf Untigli (""îi-nl I Icneral at W'tiiiv in a ilispatili "f I;in> 4 wnitc to \'i~.-(iniit Palmors- 
t"ii "'I'lii-ri.' is Un (líiiilit filat tlic tiiajiinty of tlir mlialiitaiits i>f W'nice. cniiiprisiiii; liy far 
til"' ;;rc, Itisi lart ni tlie ¡ijiiur ami iiiiilille class« s. anil the ulinle of the marine, a very ¡nllnrn- 
tial lii'dy, arc in I'avur of a with I'icilniont. ratlicr tlian a continnatmn nf a Repiililii'an 
iii'vernnicnt. cvrn sniiposini; tl-e \'eih tian Kipnhlic conici exist, roiitineil as it wmlci lip to 
Wilier ami tin islamU c.f the I.aynncs hy the separation from it of the prnvinccs of the 
niainlaml. Inilncl, nf the nienilers i.f tl;e esisiiny I'rnv isional frn ernnient. it i- Mtiderstind 
that the I'resiiUnt. .Si^n'-r Manin, is the only one wlio is ile^iroiis tliat the Rcpnlilic, re'liiee'l 
to tlie dimensions alio\e nuiitioneil. 'honld ho carri' d ,,n," . ¡'¡trlitvnrnliirx /'n/i.-rc [IIO.SI, 
P 5u7_ 

= f Ither votes arc not mentioned m tlu result. 

"■ Tlic decrees proelainiiiij; tlie plehiscites, th.e forma! statements of the results, and the la-.vs 
of the Sardinian l'arliament incorporât ini; the duchies in the kimjdom, hasiny the union on 
'he plehiscites. uill he fciimd in Doennients, f.tst. pp 411 to 441 

* After the withdrawal of riedtiioiit, the rejnihlir ha,l heen acain set np in Wnice, hut the 
(,..,....i ;...!..... c....>i, 

TIIK II \I.. \\ll(i.\AI. \SSI'..M!',I Il-.s ( i|- i,-v?i| 


inriii,ill\ liaiii-lu(l liitiii, An.itlkT ilirailc ua- t^i i)a-- Li-furc utiilv immM 
lie ai'liitn cd. 

Til!. Itamw \\Ti(iN\i. .\-si;Mr,i,ii:s nr 1S.='' 

ll'uvevcr laTriianciil the !'. iwit'. iiiav lia\e i-on-idereil mc re-i. >ratii 'ii ■'{ 
tile petty |iriiire~ tci their Itahaii thmm'^ ¡ii 1S4'', it ua- ohvuni-, tliat tlie 
i!lllal)ltanl■^ dl tl'.e diuiiie'. reL,'arde(l the ar^all^enlellt a^ |uirel\- tuii!|ii Tarx . 
I'.y IS.^'i, there \va- hut mie ¡larly ni Vnrtherii Italy, t'lr iinmii with 
Sardinia. Uepulilicati prestijje had ,<;reat!\- iiurea-ed after tin- dci'eat "f .Sar- 
dinia in 1S4'». only to tall ai^'ain thnni,L,'h the -iih-eiineiii ill-iniicei\ed rcx.ihi- 
tmnary atteiii]it-. in (leima, .Milan and'linni It \\a^. tiMi. lnToniin- iii- 
crea-.iii,i,dy e\i(lem that iininn i-mild iiaiic .in]\ 1]\ the ;iid of I'raiue ami the 
eoniplacency of l-.timpe and that neitlu-r I'r.aiue iior l-.iirope lo. 'rd \v idi 
fa\or on the ¡iroposal of a reimMie in the Italian pf.iiiiMila. Iliinkiiii.' union 
niiire ini|iortaiit than form. ni;iii\- of the re[r,iliheaii leader^, anioni; tlu'iti 
Mar.iii, and thousand- of their follower-, had t,'onc o\er to the .'Sardinian pait\. 
La Farina, Manin and I'allavicino. three former reinihliean-, founded the 
,Vi)i ;,■/,'/ tiiiciiiiuih- with the motto " I'mty. Iii<le¡>eiidenee ,uid \irtor rniaii- 
uel, ' which made ^^reat hea<lw:iy, e-peci,illy in the proxinci.-- niider .\n-in.i. 
'I he party for federation tinder the ro|ie. the pKin -o <,-lrH|uentl\ iir,L;ed he 
(liolierti, h;id lon^' -nice heen .ahandoiied he it- leader ;iiid w;i- of -mall ini- 
portanee in Italy, tlioiii;;h, liaviiii^- found a hKli^^ment m the hr.iiii of \;i]).i- 
leoii, it wa- to eau-e eiidle-- dillieulty. 1 he ."-^.ardinian p;irtv had no ri\.ds 
-ave in I n-eaiiy. where there wa- a part} for .•nitoiiomv. of uncertain -treiit^rth. 
and in Koine and .\aple- where the -till wi-heil for ion-ltliition,il 
^■o\erntneiit rather than for union. 

-Vapoleon'- aid ai;aiii-t .\ustri:i had heen iiroini-ed to (a\oiir at I'lonihiiTe- 
in IS.^S. l',y the liariiain m.ade there, the Xu-ln.ui- were to he expelled, from 
the .\lp- to the .\driatic, X'enetia ;uiil I .( imh.ard) were to he .uinexrd to .v.u-- 
dini.a, Centr.-d Itah' w,a- to form a -ep.irate kintjdom under ,i i'.oii.ip.arti-t 
prime. .\',i|ile> \\;is to he a third under l.ueien .\lurat, and the \\liole w;i> to 
iorm ;u eontederation uiuler the pre-idencx of the l'ope. In retiuu 
lor till-. ."^;i\o\ and .\iee, which had formed of l''r;mce ,ifter the ¡ilehi-- 
cite- in 17'L',' and heen returnei! to Sardinia m ISl.^, were to he L'i'.etl 
h.ack ti 1 h ranee. 

'I he war which h.ail heen planneil ,at I'loinhiere- h\- ('a\our and Xapoleoii 
hroke out on April _'"i. iN.-'i, 1 he pet;y prince- riiliui: o\er lii-caiu. l'arma, 
alici -Modena, and their depeiideiK le-. were completeK under Au-trian domi- 
nation. When the imitation of Sardinia to ioui in the war of Iihc.ation w,i- 

■ ei. .¡Ill,-, pp. 41. 4.Í. 

'■f' l'i.iiìi^i II i:s 

ivi.-i,-i\c(l, larh 111 f.irn rcin>c.|. lin- ri-iV,sal \\a> i'mII,.\\ci1 \:\ a IiLmhUc-- aiul 
"rilril\ ri\iiì:iiiiiii in i ach .liuli\; ihc lil.rraK r.i-c. a"iinic(l [lowcr. ami a pr. >\ i-n mal ;;m\ iriiiniiit. uliu-ji. m lach |ir. p\ iiu a.-. auihiiiiKad ilu' 
iK|M,--i;:i '1 (li ihc riM-niii- ¡nm^i.-.' Tii-caiix ami ilu- k( .nia.uiia.- i.. \\li!,li the 
MMi.M! ni 1S4S had ii-.i (.■\li-ii'kd. ¡..iiu-il III ihr -l'iural vv\'>'a. |.rr .c'ainu-.l 
\i'!"i- i inaiiikl .|uiai(rr. and -iiit iin.^s t,, Sardinia in ..rÛT a 11 ri;! ai Ka' . 
I.(.nihard\. l'arnia and Mndina, whuh had -ntrd nn.iMii in 1S4S, at .iiuc 
pnHJaiiia.l Ih. Ulli. .11 I,. Ik- a.-ain cH\-iIi\e, I tarmi ni' awakiiiini; the appn.- 
hcii-î.in .li Ihv l'.>\\n-~ al lhi> rarl\ .lalr. ( a\..ur, ihr Km- aii.l the haiiprr..!- 
ih..',iL:lit II inip.iliiii In aiirpt ihr-r ..lìrr> ^ vi. a- ninu ni aclmii v\a- v^-cn- 
Iial inilil,.,n Muai". a i..\al mniini"!. aur ua^ app. .inicd t.. (.'ach prn\ mcc 
l" itprr-. MI ilu Kni.u an>l ihc raii-r ni lialian lili.raii. .n. it heilig; carciiillv 
Mak-d ihal llii- \\a- in im \\a\ t.. prrjn.luc the .nif-ii..n ni nninii. a .|iK-Minii 
uhuii l.nili \ap.iK-nii ami I nianinl lia.l iir.nii~c.l diniild \,v mìiI.'.I 1ì\ 
.1 \. 'Il- ni the \iv' .ph- ihrni-cKf-, ■ 

' '■'■ 'CHI- ni ihf war ucci imi In- ^r.rn Uvrv. imr ilu- mail' t'\i)!analMnN 
ni the iiiK'xp. , I, .1 p.a>r (-..ndiidcd hrlwicii \ap..U'..n an.l hraiici-. jn^cpli al 
\ illalraiua ì\\ ili.' ai;rtTim'iii iIu'IT diaun i;p \ riuiia w.i- L. remain 
uilh \nMna. ulule I .. .iii!,ar.l\ ua^ (a-. lei !.. Xap.ilmn, i,, |„' m min eede.l 
''> l'I"! '" \ l'Ini- I niaiiiu-l h 1- -aid llial \ap..k..ii made vwvv t li. .ri m 
unte .ahi thw arili le a M!piilali..n ..i a \ ni ilie l...mliar.l pe.ij.le l.einre 
the ima! ti-Moii,' 1 ram-N |.i-ep!i imerly reiii-e.l i.i ;^i\e rei', i-niti. MI in 
-neh a re\ . .lini. .nar\ .Infirme I he ..iil\ \ ..le m 1.^5'' m\ uas ni the e..n^rei;al:nii ..i Milan niiewiiiL; ihe ...nipael ..i I.VIX. 
a \nle ralilie.l in tmii ]i\ llie i'. .inniiinai (..aneli' 

I '" **'^^i' I 1|\ wa^ llie -..le mm e--.i. .ii ma. le al \ illalraiua !.. 

Italian iiaiiniial a-pirali..ii \iii,iia \\a- i. he ieiaim-.| li\ \nMna. ilii- (hike> 
weretnlicre-tnred !.. Iii-caiu an.l \l. ..lena, and ihe le-aie- i. . 
l'arma ah-iie uà- leii uniiieni i. .iie.l. 

Xapolenti. nil le;'\in.i4 Italy, lia.l pinim-e.l ili.-it ih, Te sh.MiM he n.. anncl 
niierventioti t.. cHcct the ies:..raiinir ami that vie- lei^iin.iieK expre-^ed 

' TI«' provisi..iiaI (¡ovrninu-iit of Florence \\a< ai>iioiiii. .1 l.\ tli. i|..iliiv ..n .>". 

= Tlie Romagna was ., ¡.art of tlir,il ti'rrit.,r> .-.ii.l «,i- a.liMiiM-tcrp.l l.v |.a|ial Ji-- 

•■' N'apulroii, on Jitnr H. after the Latti. ,.f Maccnta. saicl. in a prorlatriatinn to the Italian 
pioiilr. ■■ I «lo ii..t ernie ainoiiß you wllli a preconi-five.! system, lo <lispi,s«,ss »overeiEns or to 
ini|t....- un will; my army will luuy itself with only two thinRs, to fidili yonr enemies an.l t' 
maintain internalion»! ..r.l.r; it will .ipposc no ohstarle to the free manifestation of your 
Irffitimate tieüires." Translation. For oriRtnal text see laiigi 7ini, S'l."u¡ .//M/ín d,il iSio 
ol ;.'M. \o], 2. part 2. doctimcnt >ui. l.W P, 

♦ Cf. aiiW. p. l.l 

■• noenmcnls, pp. 4% ami 4''" 

"This stipniation is not . .iiilaim-.l in the Preliminaries. It was the result of «uhncqiifnt 
<!ip!"t"at!C «•v'.hanEf«. 

I-: ITALIAN XA IK ).\A!. ASSl'.M I'.I.IF.S ol- 1S5"' 


should ill- c.irciTilh ciin>i(UT(.'il,' 1 )fiiri\ccl !)\ \a])nk'(in\ (k-u-i'li' iii ut tho 
ilopc lit siH-rt'-- tlinnii^'h íurci.-, the lialiaii- were ii illiielleil tu take the hi'it 
(lr(i|i|)eil li\ the l-'tìl]ieriir ami tu rely mi their nwii iinhliial re--iiuree^. i he 
prrhleMi wa-- iii> inniger niie ut hi'W tu wiu a iiiaiunt) i:. the eau-e ut iinit\. 
Init hi>\\ tu make the will m" the\ imi ' m ¡he i.e/e ni iiirei,i,Mi 
<i]i|ii witiiMi. Mie l'nwer-- were -lu.ii tu gather at /uru'h tu eumiile'e the 
rrehiiiitiarie> ut" \ illatraiua ami the pan elliiiL; mil "i the Italian- lu ile- 
leat the aiieieiil iiiethniU ui dijih miai \ , the Itahaii- ili'ternmieil tu re-url 
iiiK'e mure lu the ■! utriiie uf iiatiuiial -elt-ileleniimaliun. ' avmir re-,L;lieil 
iruiii the imiii-tr\ the heiler tu wurk fur tlu' uiiiup., wliuii tini~t he iims ,luiie 
llliiitiieiall\ , ami. uii the iiiM-teiiee ut" Xaiiuleuti. tile Sar^iiiiiail eumnii--iuner- 
w ere reealleil. 

I'.ii;;lanil aii'l llie l'.nL;li-li t ahiiiet.with i 'ahiier-tuii a- Prime \1 M'l-ter. 1 uril 
jiillii kii-^ell a- lureit;il Seeretar\ ami ( ilaiUtuiu' a-- ( haiuellur ul the h.\- 
ilin|iier, then tuuk Xai)<ilciin'> place a- miardian ul' the Italian ean-e \\ herea> 
( liueii \'i(luria, the I'rime (un-urt. and the l'une- were eun-wteiitlx asersc 
III the e\iiiiMuii ul' An-tria truni the Italian penm-ula, ihe ( ahimt and the 
LiheraN were the de\uted IriemU ^'\ Italian ireeduiii Un--ell had mdii;- 
nanth uppuscd and repnUed ihe nuitatiun lu juin ni the iwu I uipeiur-' )ilaii- 
" We are a-ke<l tu pru]iu-e a partitiun ui die peupU- ui liais." he exila'ined. 
"a- it ut' had the ri,i;ht tu di-pu-e ^á iheni." ■ In tin- attiinde. pu|u\ liar 
illiitli/ed with euinictiuti, Ihe (ahmet wa- determined un pr<--er\ mu the 
|)eaee ^A Inrujie while V'dlairama, li\ iL;iiunnu naliunal a-piraliuii-. :.;a.e 
]iriiim-i' ut íiilnre war. Siuii a w,ir. niureu\ir. wuuld eertamK re-nli either 
Ul tile end ut the lihiTal niuNenuiit m llaK ur. e'pialK t'earl'iil tu helie\er- 
in eun-titntiunal niunareln , it wuiild end h\ -ettiiii: np an Italian re])nlilH-. 
'I he latter if.u" w a- une w Im li < a\ uiir luimdaniu-.t elteeti\e weajmli 

In -iippurl ul' the puitiw uf the (ahmet l\n--ill made <hriTt appeal tu the 
ductrine ul' -el i-drtenmnaiiun Ihe ( .diiiiel. ^aid Un--ell. wa- whulK up- 
j)u-cd tu the re-turatiu!i u| the dnki • li\ lurec, win. h wunhl lie, in it- n|innun, 
iniiu-liriahle : -hullld -lU h re-turatiun he le. the euii-ent ul the ]ieu|ile. ( iieal 
I'.rilam wuiild iiut uhieet Ihe imh'ased upmiun ^\\ the peuple nni-t, Imw - 
<'\er. he elearh a-eertained, and lu e-tahh-h ihe widie- i\\ I'lt-iaiu . I\!i--eil 
snppurled the huldiiiL'. ui a naliuiial a--emliK. ele. lid ni a lair and urderh 
fashiiiii ' 

' 1 1..IU1IUI1I-. V IW ( t :i1m> aililrr-s i.t UniH'ili i" Mi.- Tuscan A5«eml>ly .it the 
ii|i<iiiiin s. -sloii / r ti.tsimhlt-i' Jil nsoryiminln. vol. ^. \> 'I'lii i'l^ (avi'iir N'aiM>li-ii(i hail 
sail! that lu- would pliail the (»'iiplv's cause li< furr the F.ui.i| 1 iiiiKrf«N am! that, humii 
wliilr. thtv hail «iniplv t.. keep the tvratit» fri«m riHirntiie Cavimr |i> I.a Marninra, July lii, 
18.Í''. ( hiatii. Mil. .(. |i 111 To tin- rrprtvnitatiM - of I'arma who w.iitcil on hmi m l'ani 
after his rcftirn ht saiil to tell the t"f>l'le 'tiat their armies wouM not force the iiju«, but 
that thrir votes wouhl Cüaronietti, la iiufslton ilalifHHf. p. 3í^ 

« Muarl J Keid, l.nrd Jnhn husscil. p. .VM. 

'Kiisscll, on July I*», wrote -i ro,,iett •'■ 1'rv;h represen! .-i e : ' ■ ■ \ 


I M. I--. Ml SCI TES 

l-.ncdura^'cil liy kt)^>(.H\ Mijiiinrt, the Tii-cai. ..liiiistry on July 15. iinmc- 
(liatcly after \'!lafraiica, and ni ,.nlcr to attest tlit-ir wishes ìiciorc lùiropc, 
i>sni'.l a (ii'ircL- convokuij^ a rc|)R-c'n:aii\ t- a»cnil)l\. (.oinijctc-iit to j,a^> a 
Iffiitiinali- \(ao a> to tin- ddinitivo t'atc ,,i Tincany. TIk- .k-crci' ua> Mf^ncd 
i)y lioth the Sarilinian roinnii--.ioiKT and tlie ¡irov isi, mal j^ox urniiK'nt. In- 
stead oí nni\er~al nianlio,,,! siitïraL;e. the deer-.' ¡tov ided lor a c|iialilied 
Miltra^e -iniilar to that in Sardinia, iia-ed <'n a'-lx low ]>ro]iertv. educa- 
tional or ])rote>M( «lualilication. In .\l..dena. l'arnia, I'laceii/a. and Ko- 
niai^n.i .a-senililie- were eoiucked nu the h.i-~i> of ,adult liter. ite male 
Miítra!;e. Ihe \otiii- \\a> not hy ^i.t^nnio a re^i>ter, a> m '4N, hut hv secret 
li.allot- la-t m |irini,irv a^^enihlio, 1 lie eleeiion niaehinerx \\a^ m the h.and-^ 
ot till- |ir. uo\eninieui^, the lietaiU of rei,'i>tration to !)■• adniini-tered 
hy the nia\nrs. | he ijcrioil h,r (-01111)11111;; the li^t- and for ilaini> to he en- 
tered ;i]iiie;ir- t.. h:i\e heeii >onie\vhat >hon. ei-ht dav> for li-t- ,ind three f^r 
claims .liter po-tin.:;-. with a|)]ie;il from deii>ion> to a lii.uhei eourt. 

Ill 'lel.iiih .It ,iii\ .lelinite infonnatiMii it i^ prohahle the \ot:n^^ w.i- 
h> ¡¡roeedure lo ihal e-l.ihii-hed for electoral .,,lk;;e- h\ the Sar- 
dinian l.iv, .if March 17. 1,S4.S |',\ ihi- l;iw ;t cani ..i ideiitilication 
ua- ne(c-sar\ i.i- e.cch \oier !.. enter the m-Iiiil; plice. A li-t of name- ..f 
tilose (|uahliei| \\;i~ jioMed m the h,dl, ;iii. .tiler i.'|>\ \\a- m the of the 
Iire-idiiiL; .illicer 1 ach elecinr ;in-\\enim t.. In- name, called fr. .in tlU' li-t. 
recen eil Ir. .Ill die I'rc-ideii! .i limited . .n wlii.'.i he wr.'te hi- \oIe. ..r. if 
lililerate. -i.t :ni..lher in, m to wrile it. lie lluii folded the .iml L;a\e it 
III ihe rre-i.leiil w h. . placed ii in .m " urn " ..r hallot-li. .\. 

i '"■ I'.rilidi lo.rei-n i ihkt k,pl a i|..-e watili ..\er the .. .uditi. m- -iir- 
roiindniL; die \..le. In aii-\'.er l.. r(|i..n- ir. .m i orhett. ihili-h ¡epre-eiila- 
Ii\e .11 l-l..rciice, that oppre--i\e !iie.i->ire- were heiiiL; ti-e.l .iijam-t p,arti-an- 
ol die ( ,r:ind Duke,' l\'ii--ell iii-Iructeil him !.. inform the pr. i\ i-i. ^nvern- 
"I'lii !h,it .iiiein|ii- I.' repre-- ,1 tree deil.u.iiioii of opnii n m a matter ot 
-licli \ Hal nilere-l t. > llie -. .veriiment . .f the . . .iinlrx w . .iild he iiii m-l lu.l ilhh^ 
er,il ( In hih. _'o ( \M,,|e ili:ii alni. .-I ,dl uh., h,l^e the n-hi !.. \ h.i.l 
re<;i-lerei|, ,ip 1 h.' ha.l heeii .i--ure.| li\ the l;. .\ eniiueiit ot a full ami fiee 
e.\pre--ion ,.| ..puii. i, \\^ ,a de. ree ..f |nl\ _" I the .kite .,1 tli,' eleciii'U'i wa^ 
tised li.r \iiL;n-l 7 i In \iil;u-i 1 r,..iie..i iiai.;ui iii ..rder t., di ..irm erili- 

rn.l..n..riMv; t.. ,|,.c..„i,t ihc ,,•. !,„i; ,„r ,„„oi- in 1,„ .lispalclios u, tlir Horciiu OtT.rc "It it 
niiicli IO I..- ,!.-Mrr,l that a rr| re ^. ntatht- asseml.Iy >1,„uM he r„nv„k,-.1 ,n T.ivanv in or.ler 
thai ,h<. «i.he. ,.f ilu- prople i„ favor of the autonomy of that country ho re«„Iarly an.l 
free y »■x,-re«..r,l, |),,. r<'st. i>. 440. See r,l-o {„ssoll to low'irv (nt Turin» iuU n 
I atl,„m,-iitnry ¡'„frr.,, .Aff.ijr, of Italy, IH«i. vol ¡^ ,¿M«|. p 20 

" /•.iW.,im.n/ury / V. r. \M1»]. p JH forh.-ti aNo „„otc, n„o oi ,nr Bo^ .. 

niK It ha.l («rn ncccv^ary to warn »omo of thf .Incal party «ho had ,hown a .tinpoMfion 
towards <listiirhanic. H'td., p 44. 

TU!-: ITAI-LW XAMOXA!. ASSl-.M ¡'.i .1 i:.s ><[■ IS.v» 


ci-iiii, rf-i;.'iic(l ()t'ti(.-i- and rctircd trdin TiiM-any, an art at which Ku--.>cll c\- 
¡)rfssc(l tl.L' ^rcat sati-iaitimi ni tlic I'.nti-h ( iiu t-rnnu'iu a^ rt'iiri'>ontuit,f the 
iiitcniiiin lit' Sardinia in leave I ii-can\ whnll\ unlettcrt-il in hiT fnmre chnice.' 
KicaMili. a native of Tn-icanv. had been a])iininted iiv 1 Mineiini|iai;ni a- 
I'resident nf the ('(jum-il of Ministers. I'.y a deeree of \u,i;n-t J, Kua-oli 
ordereil the pre-ident o! i aeh electoral college to inform the electors that 
the I'ollcije \\a- to elect a reiire-eiitative " for the -ole ¡ìnrpi.M' oí ex|ire-s- 
ìU'^ the lei:itiniate \(ite ol the Tn^can people a- to the delinilc fate of the conn- 
try." - The election- were held on A ;L,Mi-t 7, X,, conijilete otficial tii^me- 
ot the re-nlt are availahle. Imt t orhett ni a di-patch of \iti,'nst H» ■ j;i\e^ the 
returns a- follow s : 


! 'istricts a'ljaci-iu . 
F'rit'sts ill l-"liirfiice 

Tliiisfi|iialitic.l \'ntcl 

■■• 5.7IH) îj,„ 

■■■ l.liOd ;^,„| 

I.-'IKI (alinosi all MÍ wli-m wi-rr i|im1iIi,i1 I , 13 

Acconlni',' to (orhett ]iroliahl\ ihree-founlis of the entire electorate went 
to the p.. lis m .pu,' of the ettorts ,,f the priests, who, thon-li no I,,n-er election 
otticials, made full use of their rehijious power lo persuade theni to ah ■am, 
rills was more successful in the country districts ihau in the town-, I he 
archh:sh(.p oi M.irence hail -liown his disc, .uuteiiauce lo ihe eleciioii,.' Imt 
this allilude was not unuersally followed, for in other districts four ¡iriesis 
were theuiselves eh" d, d'he testimony ,,f l,i,tli liudson from luriii, and 
('orhett from lloreiice. is to the effect that the eleclious were carrud oil 
tlinxif^hout lile couiitr\ m the iii'ist orderl\ manner, and thai the re- ult was 
reeeixed with -uch h\el\ enliiusiasui as to indicate that ihe i hand 1 )iil,e lew tneuds, 'Ihe enthusiasm afipeared to h.' from ,ill clas-es, ihoiiijli. 
liirhell adds, had the \ot( heiu |j\ universal sutfrai^e ihe result mi,L;lit well 
ha\e heeii dil'fereiit as tlie lower orders had taken lillle interest in politics, 
and. Ill die c.iuniry ¡ilaces, where there wa- ,io di-like of the ( irand Ihike, the 
l)eii]ile iiiiL;ht ha\e heeii induced lo ^ue then votes for rcsinralion Hut, ]\r 
com Indili, such a result wouM have heeii wholK .¡t variance wuh the de-ue- 
of the upper .uid liuildle, - 1 lu- lii.uid 1 luki^'s c;iit-e hi'eii de 
stroyi'd f,,r illese h\ Ills jireseiice wull lile \iisln,iu force- al llic li.ittle of 
Solleritio, and the coinmoii d.iiiL;er .iw.ikemd a ciciauiuut\ of feelini^ 
w itll ( entrai ll.iU. ihe pail\ oi uniiiii wuh I'leihuout m ce h province ;;aui- 
111^' c..ur,u;e from the sireuLjlh of -nudar iMrtie-, 

Cnrheli adds that auoiiier f,.r ihe ,i]iparent un.ininiit\ is thai main 

' riirlianifntiiry I'li/'crs lAi*!"'!. !M' •'•' ''i ainl 44 

ä Iti>ciiiiu-til«. fosl. p. 45.V 

* i'aili,iMt,'iiliir\ f'm-rr.x |JMI'>|, p .s4 

« lh,<t 


i'i.i-.üiM 1 1 1-:.- 

ol t!u- !ci;itiiin-N ah^taiiu'il fnnii M.iint; mi '.iic L;rMuii(l that the rii^iii oi the 
firaiid I »like l.p the thniiic nmld nut he ali'rcti'il h\ llic \i<iv ipi a |iu|,uhir 
Ifui-litiirc. ( iri.uiidk--- I'l'ar nii \h^_■ ]iai! dt .iihiT~ kipi tncin ínMii the 
piilK. ,,r. It thi'\ M'ted. Icil thrill tM (1,1 s,, a,L;a;n-t thvir r. uu ictmn-, Ian. hv 
ciilR'hidc^. a^ lar a> can he a~i rrtaiiu'il the \'>\c ni iiniíiii re¡ire-i-iitr'l the 
ile-~ire i>ì tile 1 1\ trw helniiin,' iiiajnritx ni the iiilialnlatil- ut ilii' Uiielu.' 
l-.\i'ii the ..tlieer- .it the- rucian ariiu appear tu liaxe Keen wlmlK a^-aiii^t the 
re-!,'rati.i'i oí the i iraiid I ¡iike - 

li! litJR'r diiehii'-- the >ardiiiiaii i . immi--~ii nuT-. mi reliniiii, i'-i'l ''eeii ap- 
pi 'lilted h\ the pfi i\ i--ii mal l;i i\ eniiiieiit-- a~ dictali ir^ i ir l;, i\ erii' .r-. and decree^ 
eiiii\ Mkiii^ the piiiiiarx a~--eiiiMii> had hem at ''e i^^iied. l'.\ er\ \\ here per- 
teet iirder \\a~ eiiiiii'ied m ^rder that inahiii^ slimtld delraet iroiii the aii- 
lhiin!ati\e eliaraeler ..f the -.ute ami it- et't'eet mi I'lirupe. Tlirmi^hmit Ital\ 
the eleelimi- were onlerls and den-ne Wdiile lliere were Sardinian tnxip- 
in Mndena, plaeed tliete li\ I'm iiu'mii|iaL;ni Im niainlaiii ..rder, there \>.tre tin 
cliar-e- ui eiieri;iiii . .r di-uriler. 1' v t-r\ \\ here the viet(ir\ ni \hv Sariliniaii 
part\ w a^ iiiii|!!< -Iii iiiahle 

In I u-eaii\ the deleLjaie-, thrmi^h hirili. -lientilie, Iilerar\ ..r indn-trial 
pursuit-, were aiiiMiii; tin- eliui cin/en- <<i the pro. iiice. '■ The I' \-- 
seiiilily tliiN eleeled emi-idereil "-ell a la pre-eiilatu i rather than a dehhera- 
live lindy.' the ilepntie- having,' hieii ek-ríed mi the piati.. nil ..Í iiin.>n. I'he 
a-.iill.l\ 1. 1 171 ilele-ate- met . .n \iiL;n-t 11. \iter lii;:;li ina-- in Santa. 
Croce where .Iniiie ii.-p.irat i. ill w a - ill\i.keil i..r the ilelil.eratimi- ..i the 
a--e'iil.l\ , the deleL^ate- lliarelled !.. the l'ala//., \ee.ln.. where the I lall "í the 
' ni'P"' t eilt., had lieeii i.tepare.l i..r their -illiiii;-. The er..w.i- e.. Heeled 
111 the -treet- L'leete.i tluin Willi wilil ellt hii-ia-111 a- lhe\ pa--ed. |irerede.l In' 
ministers of state, and followed hv the Mnni.-ipal ..I'tieiaN ..f l'L.reii. e. I'.an.l- 

|ila\i'.!. 1 nud, I'he -e--i.iii opeiie.l at 1'» \. m. with an adilre-- 

read liv a- I're-i.leiit "I the tnnneil ..Í Mini-tiT-. esiiIaiiiiliL; the 
poütieal '-itnalimi, ddie eklest nieinher \\a- i-Ieete.l pre-i.K'iit. the f. .iir x.ihiil:- 
e-t nieinhei- w eta- naiiu-.l -eenlar:.- '' an. I the tt-iial |. .niialitie- .if veriliea- 
II. Ill ..l ]i..wer- aii.l ad.'ptioti ..t' rule- were earried mit. 

Mie method ..Í \..tiiii; wa- a- l'..ll.iw- i-aili ilep!!t\ wa- tjnen two -mall 

' 'I'l't- «iraiiil DmKi li.i.i ;! hi i.n-r ..f lii< s..n on .\n){iist 4, l.nt it uas t.>.. !aff to 
alTcct tin- r--tilt 

•Corlietl forwai.l. .1 n leltiT siLiiifl l.y llu-in |ir..|i'siini: .iK.unst i-haiyc, of .m.i. luu.r.t to 
the «III .Ivii.etx r.iflniiii, vl.iry l\,f',-rs l-'MI«)]. |i. J70 

»CorI)fll t.i Kiis-clk / iiH,imint(iry Pafcrs [JWH»!, p 54 

•Their nanus nrr «¡ven in full ni I.e itssfm!'!,;- ,/.•; rii,}i,iiinriilf. vol 5. p. 657. "To 
n.-rrnlincs (•\cr niiinlful ..f tliiir past, it v. fttiol a.; if three i-entiiries anr| a half had 
hern hriilneil; for when the clerk read the r.ilK, ii.iiiu- atl.r n.iiiie raiiK ..iit ..f tli.- mcii «ti.. 
h.iil mad.' I'loremr tnat " I'hayir, vol J. p I.'J 

"('orient 1.. Km-mü. "Mik-'.-^l II. / ,l'/IJm,•Mf,l>^ /'iif.-'t j.'MI")!. p 5.i 

'rill-: riAi.iw x \ i k i\ai. ,\ssi:.mi',i.iì:s ih- i^?'' 7\ 

halN: Olle hlack, liu- nxiwr wliito llu' hlack -i;4^nilitil ap|iri.\.ik \~ liicir 
iiaiiif> wtvc t'aik'd m aiiihalictual nrilcr, <::wh ik'|jui\ aihaiu-cil lo tlif nrii. 
(lr(ip])c(l in tlic liall ri.-i)if-i'ntiiii; hi^ \:'W- aiiil ilr. i¡i|n-'i llu- ili-iarilc'l ImÜ iii!m 
aiiiitlur iirii. llu- i'( iiintitiL; \\a^ i\i<uc m iìiiIjIu;. 

(In the tifili ilav <pi' tlic ^c^^i^n a !(.■>. ilntn 'ii ti.r ilu' 'ktliri 'luiiicnt ut' tlio 
HiuiNC ni' I.íirraiiic \\a^ mir. hIucinI ami rd'crrrcl in all llu- i . iininiitc i.'> iiitn 
whuli liu' a~-fniliK nwi^- dunK'il. 1-aih (■"niniillfc iiaiin-il a n|iri-^rnlati\ f In 
confer iipnn tlie re>(jlutiiin. which \\a> a'lnpioil. I'Ik' a^^riiiMx , aiii r a iK t; .icil 
indiiiim-nt ni' ihr nii-ntk- ni' ihu duki-^ atid a >tatoniriit ..i liu' aK-nliui' iti- 
cninjianliiliiv ni the Nn^inan llnti-c ni' l.i.rraiiif. ami ihr ilaüan ik'~iti'> ni 
'I'li-i-aiu . iinaiiiiiinn-l\ (k'lrcrd th.r An-iind .nrraii'r d\tia--t\ i" he ik-pn-cd, 
ami (kclarcil that the <l\iia^I\ mukl in.-,rr he i-ilhiT riialleil nr rr.ri.r.i in 
rcinn a.i;am nwr lii^-caiiv ' 

\l ihi- --atiK' -v---inii ni \uL;n-t If) a rc^nlntinii wa^ iiitrmiiaan ínr ihr aii- 
m'xalinii ( jf 1 UM'aiu in the l\iii;;ilnni ni \ ulnr l.inaiairl 11. It \<,a- uiinrtvl 
nil \tiL;ii^i J(t. anil wa-. ailnjiU'd withnut a ili~-i.-iitin^ \ ■]ct.-- In the diirhii-- 
ni l'at^ma and Mndi-na iMcli a^-cinliK a- tt tiii t pa--i'd ^miliar decree^ de- 
thrniiiiiL; tlu'ir diikc^ and asking inr iininn with Sar'linia 

The attitnile nl" .\a]inli-nn had imt hrci rhani;ed li\ llu- \ nie, I'liaMc In 
attack the principle •<{ p(i]iiilar -nwri'i;.;ii!\ . he alleL;ed thai the \nie had keen 
due In prr-.-iirc iricii Sardin:, i,' tn the nininciilary entlni-M-'ii ni the eiiinimn 
accninpaiiv iiii; war, and wa- tint the cnnl i xinc'-^inn nl the pnpnlar will, 
lie I'lirther a-^erted that tlu re \\a^ ample rea-nn tn liehe' e llial in-iany 
reallv wi.-lted ind.epelldeiice. and thai the \nlv had lieiii diu iint tn (k--.ire 
inr iiinnii with Sardinia. Inii in fear nf ihe retnrn nf \M>irian dnniinaiinii 
Mthnti^h the I'.nii-h n pre-iiiiali\c'-^ in ItaK refuted tlie-e .lUe^atinn-.,' in 

' 1 inciimetit". /"• .(/. |i 45". 

- Tilt' re were- twci aliiti-iitions. cine liciiiK iliii.' t.i n rlc-irc a li.niajiartUt kiiiKilniu. 
T!ie .liu'al party , ^ortci tliat llu- wln'Ii- ino-, i-nu-m luel l»i-ii (lin-ctcil t'ruin Turin, tliat 
I!otui)tnpa«ni, tin .Sanliniaii i-oiimiisM..nir. .iltli"iii:li ^ciit for purely military pnrp"^' s. Iia'l 
at once liei-'inic tin- chief (¡Kure ni llu- pr.n i-.i..iial i;.n crìiiurnl. hail iomentcii the revolt aKain>t 
tlu- (irand Diikc anil hail tnil lo urn .ivir the I i^.aii troops tn the Italian cause lliroiiuli 
I'it'ts (if nmnry anil free ipiarlers. I'lir initial ri-\olt, hortrver, appear* to lia\e lieeii spon- 
taneous aii'l lioiir..iiipaBin, iii>.|eail of fallinn in "itii the oriL'inal [iiirposi' of l<il■a^oli to elTert 
an ininwiiiaie iitiii-ii uiili Sanlinia. aiipear- to \\3\f e\erteil ev-ry etïort t-i forre ilelay. a 
Course m whirli lu was Mippo'teil hy the Sanliniati RoveriMneiit, which on his iiii|iiirv. in 
strnrtiil him tliat tlu iiiitiatne slioiilil not C'lmc from the Tuscan Bovernnu-iit «hen the rma! 
commissioner was at its head, I. e . í,rjcm/'/ci- i/c/ ri,iiiri/ímcH/ii. vol. .?, p Ixii. lor a 
|ir< SI ntation of the other side, and espi-cially the Sardinian plot in l'arma, sie Manpiis of 
N'ormanhy, ,( TÌ<u1ir<ìli,<>i i>f lli,- Piii-c ■•/ iru/cim (r.i>ii f/ic c/inrCtVr ,•</ Ur <îl:f>'l>n,' N'-t 
matihv ua- tlu- liritish Ministerat I'"lorence. 

* Russell on j'ecenil'cr I.' wrote to Hud« ui at Turin asWini; for tlu- truth of the ■.harte-, of 
terrorism and Sardinian awency in the iluchies and Romagna, and for proofs, fiirih- r than 
the r*-corded vtiie« of the ;4ssenih1ii's nf ttti* «^tisfaçtion of the t^eople and the tran^uiiltitv i-f 
llic coiititry ( riiWiiimcHiiifv Pafcrs |2fr*i], |i. 2i2). To this Hudson answered on Itecemher 

'''= i'i.i:iiist rn-:s 

tlu- ia<c .It \aiMiK',.n\ niipuMiioii \'ictnr l-jiiamicl was fdrccd to delay tlif 
"111. m In ail m.lrrinito imiiiv. 'Ilic iimvi^iniial i,nivcrniiunt. .if the (liK'hie^ 
fn.lra\..n-,l t.. iciiuiit ilie inii..n l)v inniiiii- .-, .'.ea-iu- <<{ Central Italv 
cinip.i-c.l .It" l'arnia. M.. «lena, and R.ima-na. which were lieiiee!. .rth uinled 
iin.ler the name ..1 Ijndia an.l. l.y eleetni- a^ re.^eiit a prinee (U' Sav.iv, I'.n-^iie 
'" ' '■■'■■'^"■■i""- III'. !'■". «.-i^ inreed t., retire hv tiie -ii.p. i-itM!". ni \ap, 
wh.i wa. Mill h.ipm.; t'.ir the eMahlidinietit ,ii the pr. i\ i.i. in> .,i \illalranea. 
whuh had n.iw heen einlxMhed in the Treatv ..i Zurich. 

I l'I iiM.i'N l'M;i;t.<(-iTi,- .li- 1S(,() 1S7II 
Ti(.uaiiy and liiniliú. l.S()() 

Xap.ile.m wa^ IhimIv eixleax .,rin- f. -ecure a I'.uropean Cm-re-s m settle 
the .| .11 the r-,tli..,l ..t' re-t.irmo the .luke- and the I'.ipe lu their 
''"'"""""^- ■""- 'i"l ""I -atiMv the lirilish I al.iiiet, .\s a s,,I„ti,in ..i' tile 
diltutilty prescMte.l lu .\ap. ile. mV l.nrd j.ihn K,nm-I1. , m latinara 
l.\ \Xun, prnpii.ed the in;mer he iettici l,\ .iiLither xute .it the "llalian- 
iheniselve-. .in.l J, relented hi, pmpn-.d m the - l".iur I'.mits- tu the hVeiich 
i.n^ernnieni,' \\\ ih,. plan ( ,reat nrilam and l-fance were t.i iiiMie the Kni- 
nt Sardinia t.i .• i^ree n..t t.. seti,} tr..up> tni., Central Italy -until its sc^ei-d 
st.-ites ,ind pr.ivmces had. hy a new v. ile .n their as~enihlies, alter a new 
ele.tM'i. s,,I,.„,,,I\ de.lare.l their w i he- as tu tl.eir lutiire deslmv." dints 
did kii-sCl c.inier Xap.ileun w h. i cuul.l ,1.. „., k-s than accein the ¡imp., -al 
with the re-ervat;.iii. huue^er. that the vute sli,„d,l he liv universal siUÏrat^e.- 

Mu- I'.ritisli Ictt the in.itt.r ui suiifa-c va-m .ui.l Kuss,-]] 
lia. I recuintiien.le.l that the C. .\ eminent ut' Tu-c.ui\ the \ iew s ,i| 
'■''■■■'"'•'' "" 'I'l- 1"'"" ' lùisscl! nia.le iiu uhiccti.m t., the I"reiich stipulati, m 
ut Milïr:i,L;e luit wa- entent t.i lea\e i! tu the si.nes theinscKcs t,, the ni.ilter ,,l' lirsi mipuri.uue heinij. i,, his nnn.l. il,.,t the electiuiis 
-h.iiil.l lie carnei .mt iin.l, r .ircunisi.inces tree if.nn ,:iii\ lepr.Mcli ,,i intmn- 

J.^ tlial tl,r ,.iM,Mi,.,.,.i, ,.t icrr,in-n l,v Sanh.iia »as ir„,lv uranut.i.u an.) „nac'narv. tlial t! ,■ 
h!s,-aii \.,to l.a.l JK.ii >U-ar aii.l explicit, tlial llu- i'ic<l,n,Mit.'se tr.„,p.; l,a,i Im ,ii .rni|.Mliiii,Iv 
r.valle-l Ir.iMi the .Inctiies aii-I R.,ina;;na. aii.l tliat th.- l'i<Mtn.,iil.sf .lanv ha.l lhcrfi.|i..i, 
Kroatly itUTense.l II,- ;,ttr,li„,,.l the |.,, Sanl.tna .|„,,tl. f. impelar imlÍKiiation al the 

''""' '" ^'"•"' ' Il .'Il iIh' v.i,|,(irl,rs ,,! anii,v..t„,„ I,,.| I,,,.,, p „.! l' w..mM 

r.iu (,(• iiisohcnt, lie a,|,lci|, ¡Itil.. p. 44-1 

' DiK-iiinonls. l'IIS!, p. 4'i'> 

» Tlmiivciu-1 ilcclarrcl tli.u ilu l"i,-t„!i ( „.v rriiin< ni uiij.! ,i,,t .In.m ,t. If ,,f il„- „i.,r:,| 
re.p,m>ll.ililN ariMiiu tr.m. ilic ir.Miy .a /, irteli tlie prinnpl,- ..| universal sitiraiff. 
winch ciHtitmcd its ,.vvn lemtiniary lucani.- als., ihr foini.iali.-n ef tiie nr« onU-r ..f things 
in Italy. . («iiKmrc ilcs ii,ux mciul,s, 1SW1. p KM 

■iRussrll t,, Corlxlf. l-Vl.rnary (.. /•,„/,,.»h ii/.,r . /'nf. .,, Mi.,,,. ,,( jtah iNr^l \„I „7 
i-Xk,], p .;<■ 

'ITSCA.W AM) l-MIl.l \, 

<lati(jn or c-nicitinn.' Tavdur, wh-i hail rc>uii:f(l ntikc as I'rimc Miiii^tcr oi 
Sardinia, hail I/cl-ii imliiicd tn-vanl- an a>>cinli!y clcctcil l'\ (|iialiliccl iran- 
chisc a> in Sardinia, Imt at once pcrct'iNcd the vainc ni l)a>ini; the vole nu 
the limadt'^t ^auction i)u>>ilili,- and ,t,dadl\- ai'i|nit.'>(.-f(l m XapnK'on's \ ic\s - - 
( )n iH'hruary _'4, hv urotc tu La harina, hi> rhict cnadjulnr m tlu- work ¡..r 
annexation, recommending that he propose univer-al suttra^e as hi^ ov\n idea, 
and "show at the same time that it would not luue all the dra\\haik> 
generally feared." ''' 

The ihief ohjection to holding the new M.te came from Kica-oli. the ln'.ad 
<ii the I'li-caii !.;o\ernment. Rica-oli ;;--i-rle<l th;it tlu tir>t ele'iU'ii had iieeii 
legal and deci-ixe. lo lioM anotlu-r eleciiou would, in hi> opinion, -er-.e to 
.-trellgthen the argument .•lgain>t tlie former one. l\ii-~ell an-wered with .i 
warning any reluetaiue would, on the ei>ntrar\, amount to .'ilinisMoii 
thai the alleg.ilion- aLi.iiii'-t the lir-t \ ote were true 

While this (li-cnssi(,ii w.i- going on, .Napoleon, repeiiiing of his ;i-seiit, 
again [iropost'd a ot leder.ation under the pre-iileuc\ of the I'^'pe, the 
("irand i )iike to he restored a- ruler of luscaiu. Uoin.agna to hu a \ h anal un- 
der Piedmont, .and .\u-tria to .act ,a- su/er,uii o\er \'enetia. Mie Ireiuh 
note ended with a \eiled threat in i,i-e lln> arraiigeiiRiit w;i> not ado], ted, .a 
threat doiilitles-. n~ed to introilure .a new mention of Sa\o\ and .Xue .a- loin- 
pin--;ition for .--uch union .a- ',\,is gr,anteil liy the scheme of feileratioii, < 'a\our 
eollseiUed to communicate the pro])osUi,.u ,,f the feiier.ath 'ii to the ■-e\er,d 
.^tatc--. liiit with the coinniem that although Sardinia wouM do it- utmost 
to meet the view"> of "^.ajmleon "it could not, e\en at the ri>k of heini; 
•ah.andoned liy hVance, dem- tlii' principle of ]io]iu!,ir uih mi which the it.ili.m 
throne repose's." d he j^eople of Tuscain .iiid of l.tnilia. into which the 
former duchies of l'arma. Modena aiicl Roun^iia h, id united, imist decide 

' Ku-^rll uo'lr Ici IIiii|s"|i I'll Iilim.irv 0, "So i^ir as llrr Maic^ty's ( io\friimtMit i< cnii- 
ceriH'il, nur \ir\vs «uulil he ^ati^tie(l il the actna! law nr |practice ni TuM'aiiy, MihIcmi. Parma 
aii'l Kiiiiiauiia \m ri ■•''-itm.mI. We lia\f iii'ver ad.iiiteil nniviTsal sinïraue tur niirsfhi's . , . 
it tliat suttrane is iiruiioscd l>y bVaiicc we slvmUl kasi' the ditferont states aii<i (irovinces to 
iliriilc fur tluiiiM-Kes, Imtli as t.i wlii^ -liimlil \>v eleclcir'i and as to the mode of (lection. 
We i.Aw chivlly in view an election not i .irried l.y intimi'latMii n ir partaking of the «■xeite- 
nuni of the first onthnr-t of the national f' elini; for indeiiendoue " /'■!(/.. ji. Mi 

•On lehniary 1'' I'avonr had written " \V r lielii\c tlu' l.etier w.c, .'f arriviiiR .'it the true 
senlinieiit '1 lie Tils. an iieople u.idd In to an a-^eiid'ly el.eted hy classes which 
represent ".ealili. int' llitieiiee. and nropi-rlv Hnt if the Inipifr i^ ntuvillinK to rrrngni/e 
any authority save that «¡f universal snfTrane, we «on|<l also awri-e witliont hesitation, sin, i-, 
after all, vve do not «is'i to lia\e I iiseany nnited to iis, if the majority of all classes, rich 
and poor, rural and iirhan, do not delinitely wisli n " L'aN"iir to .\resc. rr.inslaiioii. 
I"or origina! te\t see Cl:iii!.i. •■ o!, .1, p. Jll, 

Translation I'nr oriainal test vec /ini. vol. 2. p.irt 2, iloeiinii'nt no 2liO. I'Vhrnary 2'). 
I avonr wrote to \ii;ra "they will, jierliaiis. adopt the means of nniversal and direct sulTraKe 
■e- the one of whirli the res It may he least eontestcd." Tr.iiislali on from l\iriiaiiuuli< \ 
I'., I. ... 1 ><,!<.l ,. !I 

i'u:iiiS( rii:s 

Uir tliciii-t'Ki-- : wliattvcr ilinr (lrcÍÑi,,n. ( avriiir pri iini~(.'(l. ¡t -honld It tl- 
^|. •(■(■! CI 1.' 

I" lili'ik -Aiw mnlici- ili|iliim:inc inaiiiMi\ rr^ ni' Napiilrnii. iiri.-]iaraii"iw t'.ir 
till- Mile were m.w hiirnccl. Ihr t-ltrtinii^ were called in Im.iIi lu-canv and 
l-.nidM ii'V Manh 11 and 1 _'. Ilic prcanililc ni the durian deircc ci inn\(i- 
eatinn recites that althi iii,!,di the dn-ian N^seinliK had, ,<u \\iL;n-t JH. \iited 
;inaii!nnind\ i-ir nnmn. it \\a^ iciund expedient tu conMiit the I u-caii pople 
'lii'''ll\. with Mill lei^al NTtii-, and in tlii- way di--i])a!e the d.uiht in iùimjie 
■'I- tn llie .Mniplete IreedMii <>i the tiTiiier \(ite and the liniine-> nf the 

'i;ili'ii;ai will, \h-(.lnie inanh 1 Milira-e Í. ir all .)\er lwent\-iine. whether 

lilefale "]■ nut. w Im w efe ni eninvim-nt di' ci\ il ntilits and had resided m the 
eMniinnne ínr -ix ni'inili-, w a- e~tahh-heil. 

Mie vHinu, a- m ÌXr'K wa- m he li\ -ecret halli.!, ca-I in the esimia - 
Mie p.ilU were tn he ..]ieiiecl ill tlu' eliiei Inwii i>l' each district fnr the two 
d.i\-, in. Ill S \ M, III (i e, M, I he ni,i\r.r- ,iiid aldermen were put in eh.arue 
.11 llie dr.awiiiL; up ..i ¡he e!eet..ral li-l-, which were !.. he ha-ed mi the ]i;iri->h 
reL;i-Ier- imt were t.. include tliL-e ik .n-( '.adu .lies whi.<l i;.. in 
1(1 re-i-!er lluin-el\e- l'Ile m.Iiiil; wa- t.. hi preside. 1 mer hv Tue c .innii n 
e.. lineili. .r~, twi. ci were ,al\\a\- tn he present. The f. .rimila- ínr the 
\"'e. 1'. he wntleii . .r printed . .n llu' hal!..|-. were " I'liinii wilh the ('.>ii-ti- 
tiiliniiai M..nanh\ ni Kiiii; Xien.r hin.iniiel " and, " ,Sc|iarate Ixiii-ilnm." 
i here wa- nnl\ hailnldinx nr "urn." dhe v..Ie a|ii)ears t.. ha\e heen 
ineaiil !.. 1k' -e. rei. Imi it is ¡ir. .h.ihle ihe v. iter t.. scle<-t hi- h.allnt 
irniii niie nl twn leci pt.acle-, a- wa- the cii-tnin l'i the lime, and thus the 
-ecrec\ wa- -.iiiiewhat inip.iired Snldier- were tn \nte at their stations. 
Mie'd h.illi ;-lM.xe- and i..rnial ininnie- ni the vnte. drawn up li\ the 
elecli.m nliicial .and .1 llimii^h the -i\ eral ,idmini-trat; ..liicials 
1.1 the Supreme ( ..iirt ..i ( .i--,iii. .n at M. .r.'iuax were t.. he receive.l li\ the 
cniir! ,ind ihe î \ .immiii.. e.l in inrmal piihlic -e--.inn in the ])re-eiice 
ni llie M ini-ir\- 

Ihe pr. .\i-inn- in h'mili.a were [ir,aclie,ill\ iileinii'.al. I;irini h.-.d ..hiecte,! 
|.. -iil.nniini',^ i!u :ilterii.ali\ e ..i ;i \ i.xariai in K.. inaiali, i i.. p. .pulir -ntïrat,H', 
nil the Lirniin.l ih.i! it w.a- a .|iie-tinn .it ihe -ame time cntnplicatt'd .and nn-\ . .i- n..ihmi' w..iild in.lnce ihe pc.ple ..i i\..m.iL:n;i t<i \nte i. .r ;i 
reliirn nl ihe | le^.ile- ' The i..rni!il.i ..i the .pie-li..ii -iil.mitle.l in .dl 
p.'irl- nl hmili.i wa- ihe -anie .i- n-e.l m l'ii-can\. 

< )ii March J. ilu- .l,i\ .alter the dei'ree heen prnmiilL:.ile.l. I'.. .iicnmp.aLjni. 
"'"' li.i'l lic(n .iciniL; .i- ,L;..\ernnr L'.eiier,il i>i I'li-.aiu. .aL,Min re-ÍL,'iied nliiee. 
i lure wa-. hnwiwer. iin dniiht ..i the re-iilt I wa- nlninii- that the \ nte 

' l>ix-iiineni-. /■'.((, |., .-I'H 

■-' TIie*i' apiLMf !.. l.c the ciiuixalciit of mir (Irrtnia! .li-lrin^i 

' Zw.i. \'A _'. ..'art 2. 'AivwnMr.'.'. •.•.::'. 3,'-') !) s^H }' 

s w< t^■ A\!ì XU i;, i s. .o 7.^ 

winild lie mi-rclv a ii'itrratinii 'I an uiiinu -ti' Mud dr-^irf. hi Inith ]iiM\n!n> 
tile Ijalldtinj; tnok jilacc in jiiTÍect tran^iuillit) , lin- \(iti-^ di' i n^canx were 
ciiuntud in^-nially in puliiic auiiu-nce and tlu- re-nlt (.'inln lUicd in a iTpiTl -ii;ncd 
1)\- all tlu- inini-UT- and made piiMic b\ the Supreme (nun ni' t a>>atiMii. 
lile eonri aniMnnced that "i the ,^Nii.44ò \^ ea-t, iheu were .iod,?/"! í.ir 
iimmi. 14.'L'5 í.t a -eiiarate kini,Ml(.m. and 4. ''4'' were vmkI.' In lamlia. 
where N"» per i.eiitiim ni tlm-e i|nalilied had \"Ied. tlu vnie ii.r miMn wa^ 
e\en m^re deeiM\e.-' I\i\al di,uiiit\ IvA the tw.i ilepir.iii' in^ earrxm- the 
(liticial re-nlt nt the \ n!e to present ihein-ehe- I'l '' Kiii.u "n dilt\-rei!t da\-. 
|-'arini led the depiitati"n fnmi I'.imlia I he\ wne reeei\ed i<\ the Kni'^ 
-landini; í .n the thmiie. -nrrmindeil li\ the imhle-. the -tate r( .nneill. .r>, the 
lii.uh i)ll;rial- l'i the er^wn and ni the arm\. and the whnle ma^i-iraev. The 
snni])tiiini~ eereniiiiiy \\a- repealed inr the I n-ian depiilalmn. The \ > ite- 
were accepted and li\ iwn royal ilecree-. i--iied nn the --ame da\ , the province- 
were deciareil in he an integral part n{ the !<mi;diini " in \ie\\ ni the re-nil 
(it the iim\er-al \iile held in the prnxince <i! I.milia i nf Tii-can\- i the rr-uh 
lit w Inch \' a- a general m 'te ut the p' ipnlatii in I" nnite with mir Stale. " 

.S'(/: "V and Xicc. IS'iO 

!la\in,:,' tailed to tree \ eiielia. .Xapoleoii had lieeii I'l'rce«! to relmi|hi-li li;-- 
claiin t'l Sa\i'\ and Nice, I he reln-al oí the people to iarr\ ciul the term- 
agreed on li\ the two |-.m]ieror- at \iHairanc:i, aiiil tiie movement ior 
union m Tii-eaii\ and iiniha. .ua\e limi an o|iporliimt\ to exact the old proiii- 
i-e a- the price oí hl^ aci|uie-cence. on ihe L;ronnd that the t \\ o jirox iiu'o 
were the einmaleiit oí \eiietia Caxour \\a- iorced to \ie!il the matter and 
the treaty oí cc>-ion wa- -iL;iied at dii"iii on March _M.' 

The treaty, howexer, diil not ])ro\ide for nncoiiditional ce>-ion. ('a\oiir 
had already comprehended the full \ahu' of the plelii-ciiar\ mediod oi Xa- 

' Uucuiiunts, /"CÍÍ. P 52'). TliL' i)"ii;i!ati"M nt Tiiscanv. ,in-..r(linu in the leiiMi'. ni ISí.I. \ 
l.H_'fi,."-.ì-}. .Sl<ilisu,a ¡1,1 /ó,-,/N' ¡iludía. l'n|inla/iiilic, l'i lisiiiiciit" wc"'Ta!c. \nl. 1. p. \\ji, 

The aiithiiitiiit> ni tlie reliirii'- 'liil ti"! escape attack frnni tlie papal histnriavs. I lo 
HeaiiUnr in í.'lli.í i/r riiiva.uon ilis i íuí.v l^niilili.nii.v. p. ^'>>^. ipintcs Cnrli'tli. a fmr.icr 
sivrelary nf CaMUir aiiil an nlVuial ni tlit- I'leihimnicM pnh.e at the time, a> -a\ini,' that m 
lin l'iiMail eUctiniis the- otticials. who 1 ,,il lien .arefiillv ilin^rn l'nr lh> pil^|l-^e. lia^l -.un 
tu it that atVirrnative \ntes »ire thrown imo the urns tn mver the al'-|i iitinns. a^ «ell .i- 
a ini.icinw- nnnil'i r nf neKati\e vtes in nnler t.i leml plaii-ihility t" ihi- result, 

- Docniiu nt-. ,",,'/. p, .s.!,V The cin-iis ..Í l.xi.l L;i^,■^ the |>niinlatinii nf I iiiilia hy pr..\iiio . 
The pnpiiiatinii nt r.irma an.l l';.m ii. .1 «a- 474,,"'W. that ni Mmltrna. Kenj^i... ami Ma--a uas 
M1..W ami that of Kmnaiina 1,04(1.591. 

' nncninent-. /'.•.<t. p .s'li» Therp is 110 dotihl that tlic idea of a cession of Savoy in ; 
for inrei>;ii assistaiue was an ohi one In ll*^ì,1, it is saiil. the Maz/inian sncirty of I..1 (,i..- 
Miie Italia ol'fercd '^axoy to |-'raiu e am! the Sicilian pnfls to I'liKlamI m ntiirti for aid. 
if. ( liiiil.i. \n| 4. ]< \ii IMP- wh,, refers ihe ass, rtion to (' raiitii, (Voitt ¡l,-ll' iiulc- 
pendi-ììza italiiitìii^ vol .1, p. 401, 



j)o!c' n. Ill' li:i(l rtxirtfd tu it tu circumwiit \';qii ilcnti in Ilalv. IK' now 
a^'-ain uiv.ikril it V> li'.t,ntiniato in tht- i'vo n\ [■.mn\n-. a traii-actMn v.irt- tu hc 
rfpufiiiant to it a'- wull a> to protirt liiin-cli a,i;ain^t the rrrtani attack oí Italian 
patriots aj^aiiist a cession of Sanlinian soil. ( »n (■a\iair'> m-i-tcncc, Artulc 1 
III the tiaat\ imuidi-d that the annexation -honld he etïecled ".itliout anv 
loiistranit of the w wlie^ of the population^. 

.\s the eiHniny- plehiscites afe at tlie ^rnn? time the ino^t fanidiar in-tanees 
ot a territorial ee^-^mn suhordinated to a ])opular vote, and the oiie^ most 
lMtterl\ aiiackeil. it i> advi.^ahle t(j ,L;ive in .-otiie detail the i)revion-. history 
1 'f the territories. 

1 he two territories heiii^ eonti^'iions, and the cession haviiif,' been prmided 
lor III the -ame treaty and under the same stipulations, the custom of coii- 
-ideriiiLj the tuo r"L:ionN ;is identicil ;uid the ¡ilehiscites in them a> one is 
peril, iji- n.iiural. litis collectue treatment i-. hii\ve\er, i|uite inaccurate. 
■| he two retjioiis. ilitfereiit ]ihy-ically and racialh, h;iil a wideK ilitïerins 
history .111(1. to contem]iorane-. the re-ult of the votes which in the one in- 
.--tance arou>ed such w «ouder and increduht\, in the other ciu-cd 
little -iirpn-e. 

S.iM.y. lhMUL;h 111 hi-torv as often .a part of l' a- of I'r.uice. lies 
on tile western sl,i|)e- of tlu .\lp-. It i- a iiioiuitaiiiou- re;,noii, the willevs 
opinniLT on I'"r;uua' .and .'-^w it/erl;inil. The duch\- ua- com¡iosed of two di\i- 
-iiiii-, ( hainliiry .and Annecy. l-,;icli divisiuti liad for it- a cit\' of 
the -.une n.aine. ( )f the three pro\ ince> of .\iinecy. two, Chalilai- .ami |-"aii- 
ei.UiiN. Iiorderint; on Lake 'leiie\,a, h.ail heeii included in the neutr,alit\- of 
Swit/erlanil when, in 1N1.=;, Savoy had heen jjiven hack to Piedmont.' i he 
chief tie- of the-e provinces were with ( lene\ a. the 
c. ' lu- of -iiuthern ."^aNcx were with I'r.uice. The people \\ itc 
In neh in hi'W(.\i.r, a^ were iho-c ,,f th,.. rest of the dnclr. . The devo- 
tion of the Savoy.ird- to the church :uid its hier.irchv (.ne of the chief leri-Iics ,,f the duchv. It i- s.-ii,| that there were im ire prie-t- and 
nioiia-lic order- in Sa\o\- than in the re-t of It.iK put tn.^'ether. 

.^a\(i\ w.a- thu- di\i(led from Piedmont hy l.ani;nat,'e, cu-toms .and economic 

'\\lii-lli(r till-, miitrali.-aiinn w.-i- ii; .ailcr to Ih-ik lit "^wit^erlaml or l'icliimiu ua- in 
l.siid a mailer "f Mtt r o.nir.,M.r-y. Ilio I'.riti<li .ndviTiiiiioiit siiiipdil.d tlic Swi^s claini that 
the iic'itrali.' «a- M fr, if et Swit.-irland «mly. 'Ihc Frencli and Italian view ua< tliat 
tile m iitrah \\.i< at tlie ropie-t of Sardinia, and a- a refoni[H'n-e hy the I'..urr< the 
<•<■•¡ ..Í ,1 |iart ..f lur icrrit"r\ t(i (leneia llic lu ntrali/atidn wa, iK sired !)• ean-e these 
tH.i iinum. (s uere en. -ed hv the .'Sitnphm and Creai St Bernard and had nn ni. an- ,>f 
military < (ninimnu .ni,,n uiili Tntin, wliieli was thii.s uith.nit the me. in- ni deíciidmi; from 
I'reneh auLT, -mo,, ih. -e t^^,, routes ,iero- lier territorv !iy thi pr-visjon of !,-i',5 v,.^ armed 
1riio|)>i of any Power were to he allowed to tr.ivor-e tlie region. In ca-e of l'iedmo'il h. ini; 
Invohol m v,,ir. h. r troop- were to withdraw and the Swiss troops were to ji,,liee and 
defind Ihe m iilrali/ed t( rritorv. 

s A\< >\ AM) NUI-;. 1SÍ4.) 

/ / 

intcr(.->t-, aii.l \<y tlic intensity et it> .lev. itii.ii t., the church. Lut :i imiro \ital 
clciiu'ut .11" .HfÙTfiuc ra.f. rcli;,'i. .u .,r lati-^ua^'c. ua^ the r.i!i\ icti.m ..i 
the Sav.nanl- tliat they were ,L;.i\erne.! aecnhuj: t.. the p.ihtiral e\i,i,'eiicie> 
1.1 llie cahinel at 'l'urin. rather than aec.r.lni,:,' t.. iheir ..v.u ile-ires. aii.l 
tra.hti..n>.' The Sa\..yar.l- re-^eiite.! the laet that ilie a.l!iimi-.trative .»tVi- 
eial-. were l 'le.hndiite-e. n.. Sa\.i\ar.l heni,:: allowed t.. n-e t.. |)..-iti..n> ..1 
iiiip.irtauce, aii.l that alm. .st "ne half ..i the taxes were sju^m ..utsi.le ..1 the 
(hiehy. 1 he "i|ue<ti..u d Sa\.i\ " was a,i,'itate.l lu e. iiiteiii|..irarv 
as that ..f ••aii..ther Ireland." iiiis ieelin- iiaturallv streii};thene.l the svrn- 
patliv with IVame m hisi,,r\ tiie i.e..|>ie ..i Sav,.v ha. I ). laved their 
l)art. illere had alwa\s heeii a .1 iriuant I'ivikIi pariv in Savi.w The 
nationalist ni..\eiiieiit ef 1S4,^ lia.l ,L;a!\ ani/e.l it int.. aeli\iiv. \t that time, 
the liherals, li..we\er. lia.l heeii .iniete.l hy the e..neessi.,n ..i Ireiuli ,is the 
iillieial laii^ni;i,t;e and the c .iiservati\ es h.i.l lieen restr.aine.l l.v .Itstrust .,f repul.- 
liean l-'raiiee Ihe ni..venieiit 1< .r aiinex:itii.ii li.i.l ai^am siilwi.le.j uiitil l.X5(). 
when e\eiits in 1'raiue L.M\e new life t.. the i'reiuii partv I'he S,iv..\ar.l 
e.)iiser\atives were rea-sure,! hv the ehaii,i:e in.iii repuhlie t.i etiqiire ami ha.l 
lieeii estran^'eil fr(.iii Sardinia hy i ;i\.iiir's ;icts ..i \H?{) when he caused the 
supj)ressi(.ii of ecclesiastical pruileiies aii.l cl.ised the cniveiits.- AH the 
journals, democratic and coiiser\ alive. stipp,,i-te.l the iiiovenieiit, as .h.l the 
fireat clonies of Savovard expatriates in Paris. I,v..iis .and M.arseille-, 

'Ihe events of 185'» l.y which i 'le.liii. .iit was int.. the kmi^.lom 
•of Xortherii Italy intensified the feeling; ..f isol.uioii. SaMiv, ii..t lieiiii; 
Italian, was reluctant t.> enter ..ii a war for n;itioiialitv,-' The couse- 
'lucnce t.. S.a\.iy was the suhject of ciistam iliscussiou. I'.veii the a. 1. '.iti. m 
of I..inihar.l\' alarme. 1 them. In Julv. 1S.=;'». after N'illafranca. a petition 
was drawn ami sent to \ictoi- l-'.m.anuel .askini;- wtiat was to he the future 
of S;iv.)y in ¡his Italian kiiHi.loin,' 'I'he address hecaine the 
intr point lor propa.^anda which w;is stremi. nisK ..pposed hv the .'-^;ir.liiiian 

KS\ii,il („iiM-, x.'l, ,i. p. ,\W; also Trrsal. p. .liO. 
_= Francisque (Iriv;,/. '•I.,- i.l.l, incite .lann.xion ,!e ISCll en Savie et <ians le conit.- de 
\io-." h'rrui- .c.'i.'r.i/,' ,/,■ dr.iil infmuiti.nHil fuf'Ht-, vnl. ^, p, ,s7.i. 

■'On Fcl.ruary 'J. 1S5'». .Maniuis I.o.n i.uMa. a ilci.uty fr.,m .Sav.v. speaking; in the <,ir- 
<l.n..,ii ClrnnlHr ha.l sa„l : "f.tte pn.'.in.e s-.cnhe se. re^^s.Hir.-es p,,„r annuler s..n inllii.n.e 
<leja SI munme .lans 1 Flat." T.v.i,,/. p. l.U,. ,|i„,t„ii; fr.ini ,ltt, d,-l ro'lamcnl., sul;,lri„; v,- 
leuis. Jn.i s.-s,,,.,. |, f.5.' The R^.nian . v.:,., Mainiani. va„i .<a\..v lelt ahanctoned a. 
.\ria.lne i.n the clitts .it .\a\,.s. S.¡ii:t í,,-iiis. v. il. ,i. ji. X^'K 

'■■Sire . . . Ks actes .niaii.s .U- v.iiie i;..ineiTiiii. nt, ¡es has. s de la jiai^ .|ni a el.' M«n, e. 
l.r. ..-lament la f.'n.lati.n .lune nati..nalit.- iialienne. n. ttemcnt de.s¡,„-e par Ics .Mpes ainsi ,p!c 
par ie l.anfi.He. les m.e.irs et la r.ace .le cenv ,|ui <l..|vcnt en faire panie Ces d.-ii;nati..iis. 
Sir.-, evehient la Sav,.i,-. la Sa\.,ie nest pas itali, nne. elle ne jicMt pas Tetre, rpu-l est 
l'asenir .i-i h-i e-l r.-s.rve, • ■ I!, .., " I.'.\nne\i.m .le la Savoie à !a F'rance, 
^■.^>/.-.-,i/,- ,{,- dr.^l intcnuilv lutl ,fit''!\-. v.. I. .Í. j. ...Sll; Tr.'u,!. p, l.s.s; X,,,»/ r;.-«i.f. p M2. 



i'!.i'.i;i^( Il ì;s 

t:ii\ (•rimirili, ' '1(1 ilic ;ilarni at ilu' pm^jx/ct nf lo-s di" pulitical ini])' iriance 
\\a- a'Idfil ili-.lrii-l ni «'auiiir'^ l'iinlnT |iiili«-\- tnuard-. ihi- chiircli.'- 

( hi ilir , ilirr liaiiil tlir lilirraK. ~ii|i|)i.rirr-. "f tlic |M-rnrli iiiiMii in I.^IX 
were iMw ¡Il LiiMP mÌ uni, ,ii witli liai\, \',liiili, mi 1er Cavur ami tlic rexnlit- 
ti'>iiar\ leader-, \\a> far mure ¡in mii-iii- than the l-'ni)iire with it- eulliv itínii 
l'i the elerieal-.' Siirrccl lo action liy the t,Tci\\¡nü^ rntiiMr- ni' iul;! itiatinin 
fnr ee--i(.!i. Il the la-t iiMutli ni 1S5'I the hlieral- nr^Miii/ed, Their prnt^'-rani 
was ¡(ir a mi'nii with Sw it/iTlaiid. it' nnidii with Sardinia wa- ini|i( i--iMe. nr, 
if iiniiin \\ilh Switzerland iMiild imt he iiianaL^ed. then l'( ir an indein'iident 
diuliy under a hheral iiriiiee. Ilu'v held a denKHi-tratMn (Hi lannarv _'", 
ISfiO. when a criAsd nnnilieriiitr, aci( irdint; tn the s\iii]>athies i\i the his- 
tdriaii, fi.iin 4()i i tu .ì.i'Oii,' met at ( hainli<'r\ and -W(ire allei;n'aiu-i.' I'l Virtcr 
i'Tiiannel and \<< the iliiKiii, 

Smh a|i]iear tn he the I'aei- a- to rai-e, lani;nat,'e an(l |Hililic (i|iini(iii in 
Sa\(i\ at the niieiiin^ oí the M-ar iSdM. The eit\' and eoiintv of N'iee were 
m a far (hlïer.nt -itnation. It IkkI had a hi-torv a- xaried a- that of anv 
liorder ciiw In ilu' earlv da\ - it had lieen a free eity and in allianee with 
the several Italian citie- of its vieiiiit\-. I.ati'i', to escape the co\etoiis hand 
of the ('oiiiits of rro\cine it had plaied itself tinder the protection of the 
Counts ot Savo\ I'xcept for the perio'l of aniiexaiioii to the tirst |-'reiicli 
l\epiil>lic.' it had followed tiieir fortunes and. with the senili^,' up of the 
Kmi;(lom of Sar(linia under the Savoxard princes, Vice liecanie part of that 
kiii^doni, Net thoii!;li its historx had heeii varied there is little sur^i^estioii' 
that Vice wa- .anvthinj: Imt Italian and it is ¡irohaiilv this fact which led 
.Vapoleoii, in his tii-si pnhhc intiniatioii of the I'Vench claim to the two re- 
L'ions, to hase it not on ii;itioiialit\ , e\ en thont^di in Savov he liad a clean 
case, hnt on the claim of halance of power and limits. There is 
some mention of a I'reiich party in ^.'ice, of wliich Cavour made the most in 
his defense, tint it is not coiniíiciiiü', 

''flip '■!( rical (' iir/;V>- i.', ,t .llj'rs i\as ■.i;-|h-i1(1c(1 cniitciulim; 'li.Tt as ttie [udple ,,f 
Oiiira! Ital\ bad vnte.l ter Pi'ilnimit. tin- Sav(i\ w rrc i'iuitlc(I t.i,> on their own 
f.itc / r,s,il. \K 1.'5 

- In llic elcrtioiis ni IS.". Savcy witli few es'-cptions bad Rone solidly cU-iical. Cavour. 
v\rilitii' oí bis pa-sam- tbronyb Sa\oy on bi< wa> to Plombières in 1858 «ays. " \nbody hissed 
nif on the -tre.ts. T can't expixt more" Tran-lal'''! from (Vii,;/,;. \ ol d. p _>.;i. Cavo'ir to 
Santa Ko-,i. Jui\ I.Î. IS.-S 

The Savoyard liln'rah wrote li\ely broclnirc- sayin;? that bVaiu'e wa-; not the France of 
I7S''. li'it the I-'rance of the ("apncins and the Cbonans. " I.cs intérêts (le la liberté priinent s 
niurits (le la nationalité. Chi libertas ¡bi patria." .Vui'iií (,'ciii.v. -col. .i. ji .Í4'i 

* Tbe («I,-,-».' (/(• .S'(¡:',TiV, an;i^eparat¡st, puts it at .Í.OOO. rarluiincnlai y Paf-ris I26J41. p. 
20. Crixa? credits this statement Saint (ienis put- the mnnber at 4(t(1 .sflO. p. .1.-2; Tir.uii, 
p. ]('S. appears to crclit the sniallir fignre, 

■ rf. (III/,'. I'p 4,i -t.s. 

s \\ < >\ AXi) xit i-;. is(,i) 

.\!th()iiL;li iluTi' liad lifi-ii ]n.TM-iciit niiii'T- ;i< tn a cc--inii, tlif ilr-t ]iiiMic 
ititiniati(.ii (li tin- i-kiiiii i.f 1 raine wa- ^ivi-n liv Xaimli-. m m lii> aildre-- ..n 
till' n|,eiiiiit; ..I iIk- K-^i>latr>f cliaiili.iTs .m Marili 1, IStiu.i 1 ¡k- ,|„ 
amnM'd iIr. a¡ii.rflirnM..ii di' ( ,reat l'.ritaiii. l'ni^ia. K'u-Ma aii.l \u-tna. Pa- 
^'i-jit i'Vaiicu lur-clí ilare \\a> ii^t a fMiirt m l'.ur. .|ie w liicli did ii-i leel 
itselt threatened l,y the traiiMer. l'acli leared that XapMleMii ua^ planiiiiii; 
tn tdlli.w the Kinî-teli- oí hi^ mule ii elailll- tn , le -],>yv< •,( the \]\>> 
were t(. he rea^-erted. \\li\ wm aNn tn nel^imii aiul the Khmer lhi> íear 
wa^ iiMt le^-elied li\ the íact that the ee-~niii would L,'r,e hraiue cniun.l .if 
the ¡ja>>e-. 

S\\:t/er!aiid. alread\ alarmed at the ,L;ni\\th nt' the new Italian km-dnin, 
\\a> immediately eoiuenied uitii the ellert ni the ie-Hn|, ,,ii the iieiitrah/ed 
pnw ¡nee-, Xa|inlenn had at hr-t |irnr.n-ed these prnvnuev tn Swil/erLiiid. 
At niue there came r'nuii Savn\ a \i,-nrniN ]iriite>t a^ain-t -m h dwiiunilier- 
meilt. a pmte-t carried tn Xapnlenii hy a dele.uatmn "i liity-lise iirn-iicial 
and iniimci|ial (.■nuneillnr- <>{ Savn\,- Ihi- wa- made n-e ni lu Xa|i .lenii 
a> an e\eii-e tn aiiandmi the idea. XaiinleniiV eiian,t;i- i<\ ]i..he\- wa- made 
the -niijeet ci niaiiv and repeated prnte-t- liy the Swi-- ' invernnient whuii 
thereiipnii iii-i-ted that the ¡lenjile nt Xnrtherii Sa\ny he allnweij tn \n;e 
nil the alternative ni iiiiinn with Swilzerlaiu!. '!'.. -iippnrt tin- demand peii- 
tinii-N with miinernu- sit,'iiatiire-, whether real nr ial-j i- cniite-ted. were 
drawn tip in the ninety-nine cninnnine- nt l"aiicii,'iu- and ( liaMai-. a-kiii;.^ mr 
the (»piinrtiinily to vote fnr stieh a union.' It i- a--er'eil that ('axmir pn- 
iiioted t''e iiKwenient in nnler m alarm the part\- for v. \i\ and fnre ■ a ...te 
lor !■ ranee, rather than he di-rnpted.' 

I he Swi-- mnxement wa> intimately hoiiiul tip with the eonoini.- iieed- 
of the northern provinces which dejicnded on freedom of trade with deiieva. 
l-raiu'e understood the importani.'.- of this question of a tariff and on March 
11, definitely |)ronii-ed that there -hoiild he in-tituted a trade /one with 
t iene\ a. 

The Treaty of Turin was tinallv -ií^ned on March _'4 The [irc-eiue nt 
the treaty ot the claii-e coiiditioiiiiij,' the cession on the ])opiilar cnii-eni is 
ii-iiallv credited to Xapnlenu ; it i- not stranile considerine: his ilevotion to 

' Cf, lldCiamiits. /-ii.íí. p, 538. the l.itwetii Ki'--rll ,iii.| ('..■aI,- i> m 
i-liar tliat I'liijlaiul as well as tîie t.tlier lùiniiican Powers lia. I fur m..iitlis lin-ri lean' il of 
such a claim. 

-As these cciiincils hail ju-t het-ti rtncwv.l within three moiitlis. tlu'ir altitii.le t..w.iriU 
auiu Nation t.> I'rniuo -hould I'ive s.iinc ¡ afioit .>f j.Mhlic opinion. It miLst be reni:-:)il)ereil, 
how (Mr. tliat they had l.<en elotcd not hy manhood snlTrayc on a tas-pavim,' ipialiCi.-a- 
tion of five francs annually in the communes an. I a proportionate r.ite in tin- onvn-, 

• Documents, fost, p. ÍS2. 

* Saint (jtiiis. I). J54. 


i'i.i-:!'iS( iri'.s 

ihr pi iiiriplc. It ;i]ijicar->. lii i\\ ex cr, tliat m ilii> instance Xapnlo'in, tlii.iiL;h 
;^i\iiil: a---urani !■- in ilu i'ii\vtr^ thai ii'i cnn^iraiul wniM he u^t-d.' \va^ 
aciiiali\ I ip|ii i-id l'I tin- prc-rm c ni" \Uc ■,iip';iatiini in ilio tfcaiw \hf rca^'iii 
iiT llii-, 11 ha- l)f(n -iij^m'-U'il, wa- thai Ivii^ia'^ ae '|ui(.--i.i.'iu-i,- tniiM he 
iniiiiti'cl nil niih if ihi-rc were iin iiK-iitinii ni a ]in|)iilar \c>U'. and Napnli'iii 
ii(.eik'il kiiN-ia'- ^iippnri.- ( criainh- in the niVuia! aniinniu'finn!: ni ¡he -ii;n- 
iii;^' ni thi' trralx' :n the MiDiitriir im nicnlinii i~ made ni the \nte. iinr i^ it 
referred In in the Sritiiliis Cmisiil!,- nf I 'ninii,' li i- apparent thai llii-^ 
elai'-t' wa- iii-erted and in-i-U'd nii h\ ( a\nnr.' 

I he lreal\ had iillerh di -ri-,i;arde'l ihe dann- <<\ \\\v sw;-- ( in\enimeiit 
and ni thi' iniiahiiani- ni Xnrlheni Sa\n\ Idure wa- In he iin iliiril aher- 
nai:\c I' ¡he \nie fnr i ranee nr Sardinia. The niih, pmieeiKPii In Swi-- 
miire-i- wa- the elan-e perpeinainiL; the neiiirahi'. nf the Xnrthern prn\ - 
ilici-«. Ihennl\ plniei iinii nf the niiiinnl \ w a- the eiail-e nf . ipimn m \rtirlo 
Í). liy wllich tlin-e wi-hni-; in pre-er\e >ardinian eili/eii-hi]i iiii-ht ha\e a 
\i'ar'- time in whiih In reiiin\e ihem-eh.e- and then pmpi'ru in Sardinia 

The lrea!\ left the nietlmd ,,i ¡he \ nte In an ai^reemellt hetweetl the l\n 
-ii\ erei;;n-, Xapnlenii. \ ieldini; the pniiil ni pnpnlar inn-iiltatinn. next ap- 
I' In lia\e made an i.l'inri in ha e ihe \nte taken imt h\ niii\er-al -iilfra^e 
Imt 1". the pi 'X i-iniial .11 niiiiiui|iai enuiu'ils alreath in e\i-leii(e 'litis wa^ 
likewise the ile--:'"i' nf th; ''.¡Klers ni the I'Tetidi pan\ in Sa\n\ Ilii- i^. at 
any mie, the ■^tatonu'iit of (¡riva7 who t,'ive< aiitlmrity." lie add- ihat it wa- 
nn ill'- detliand ni the penple the:il-el\ e-, pre-elileil In the liiipernr nil \pril I, 
that tile !in\eriiments. with cninninii acfnrd. adnpted niii\er-al -iitfra^e 
I'liwltw. linwe\tT. writiii'^' tn l\it--.ell frnin l'ari-- nii \pid d. -a\- thai tlu' 
I'Tnpernr had prn|i(r-ed universal sufYrape in the Imhu'' 

' III iraiisiiiitiiiiK the s|)cocli of March I to tlic IVciich rcprosentatives aliroa«!. TliotivincI 

-a-d. " I Iiasti'ii to add that the Rnvcrnmom of ihc Fnipernr lias im wisli to hold the Kiiaran- 

let.« which it demands except with the free assent of the Kin« of Sardinia and cf the popu 

' ' ' 11. tliirifore. wliidi will lie niailc tn it will rrmain cm nipt from nil violeiuc 

■^.linl" I'riiin a translation in nritish l\ìrlt,ìm,-iilar\ fafers. Affairs of 

Mal>. INU. Mil. 0/ liii56), p. 5, March M. 

• Grivai in Hezmc tu'turalc i/i' di.nt iiUfrmttionai fuhlk, vol. 3. p i?" 
' ll'iriiments, post. p. 6H, 

M"f. C.i ours speech in Ihc Chanil'cr uf Deputies. Do.-iinirnt- 

^ Oriva?, in A'iT «i- >/i'»n'rii/c df droit íiií.Tii •fiiuiii/ fiihli, , vol. .Î, p. 57«, cites the Journal 
i.V.t rf./iii^j of March 16, im) and the Cmitrifr des .lipes to further snhstantiate his «t e-- 
mri't lie rrtieals the folio« in« i|iiotatioii taken from Chiala. vol. 4. p. lii. from an in 
111,1,. ;•. 1 .• ,„rf, /„(,,.,„,./ of March 30 resarditiR pleliiscile» ; "tin toi principe (la •■■u 
rrait devenir ponr I'Kiirope. par une faii««r extension. !a cause de 

' ■"• ■■ '■ '!•• n.ii'LTis incessants. I.e stifTraee universel tient s'apiilti|ner scnlnnrnt à I'intp- 

ritnr dn pays, mais mm servir à modifier IVxercice de la souveraineté rlans les rapports a\cc 
r. ni pour un accrois-enient dc territoire." 

''il. vol. 4. p. Ixxx. Cavour to I" d' \'e«lio, -Npril 6, 1860 //.,,. .; 

Ih.i.Mi i|iiotes [tianchi /.d ^<>/i/i,/i( >42, "eependant nun 

SA\ ( >\ AM) .\l( i:. i,<,,i 


< )!i M.iivli _'5. ucrc lici.l ihc i]r-\ paii.anniit.irv cKrti-iK „f i!,,. nrv. kiii^- 
'1-m ,.f liaK. TlR. citi/ciis ,.f SaN,.v an.! Xux'' v. .toi ,,,r tlu-ir .k-|..itir. a> 
It iin tivatv lia.l l.vrii nia.'k-. T., ilu' pmiiM ,,f the Imicli -. .^ mmiciii . 
< av., nr aii^v.^ml tliat a- tlir :nMt\ ha.l n.,| hirii raHiK-.l ih,. inlial.iiaiii- wrra- t!ir K;;i-. ■¡he dirti, m- ;n tlir ix-t . .! Ita!) .i;a', c a.l.k-l icaM .n 
I'.r llu- o.n..Tvalur an. I Sa^,.^ar.K t.. ui>!i ¡.t ^q.arali.m, ulictva. 
l!"' ra.luaK u.iv .Imhi ..f tliar, Tlir , Uri.aU una- alni..>t 
.■nt an.l ilu- ( a\.iiir nnni-!r;, i-n.l..r^nl li\ an . .vrru lu-lnnn- niai.intv. Of 
Iti.' .■i-litccn .\v],xnw- ikvtol ni Sa\..v all l.nt tu., uiia- c. .n~n-N ati\ ,• auniA.-i- 
tinni-t~.' ( )ftln-r t\\....ii.' Iia.l n. .t .Ir. 'aia-.l li-ni-clt ati.l lli.-.,tlu'i 'Aadi. .Milo. 
It 1- that ilu- \,,tc rrpiv-rntv.l tlir u.^rk .,t' a ]...v,rnnl ..r-aiii/a- 
II. .n. i..r thr Ircn.Ii partx li,,.l n.,t |„rii . .i-ani/cl. ;,, ,, .i.,'n tlioir appi-al 
'" ■'^'•'I' •""• '" !"''H1I llii- «Urti. .11 ÍKva^o tllrv lia.l iMt lla.l timo l. . ,K-,ol..p 
■•' ["-"I'^' -' All l.iu ta., ,,i il„. Sr..var.l .Irpiitn- n-l-ranu-.l t-min t .kni.u 
tlicir xat- ¡n thr Snl,ali>iiU' I 'ailiaiiunt ..n tlu mntiinl that a^- ihr m. te .,ii the 
cessi.,], ha.l hoi-ii .Ic.Tc.-.l ;.n,l a^^ ¡he 1 loiirh .liara. I. r, li...liit.. laiiL;;ia-o an! 
o.iiiinciTial ia-laii.,n~ ..t' Sa\..\ Kit n. , ,l..i!l,; ,,! ilu- ..utcni,-. thox th.,u;4lu it 
th.'ir .IniN t,, al, -tain i;-.,iii \.,i.ii- ni tho Italian I'arlianirn- until alter tin- 
flr.-ti..ii I Ikiv ar._- p., mi. i,, ho ..h-or- o.l. h.iuovor. ali..nt tlii> .■loot!,.ii. I ho 
>-utYra;;o was n..t unnormal hut .m a tax-pa\mi; .|nalilioati..ii an.l ihoro ha.l 
hoon tiiaiiv ah-,tonti(,n- diu I . t'ailnro |.. roali/o tho -igniti, an. o .,f the \nio. 
It I- o-pooially intoro>tin,-. li..v\o\or. that lli.,n..n, ,.i the oliioi' o..m!mines 
III ( hahlar- an.! mar (¡ono\a. had .i;i\oii a Mito ..i 272 t., 11.' i'..r tho niii.,m-t 
oamlidalo, an.l P.i.miovillo ha.l l;. .no i.a- amio\ali..n h\ .^," • i.. Ih.S.'' 

' 'ii M''"'! '■ \ i' '"!■ I niamio! ali-.,lvod tho inhaliilanl- ut' Sav.iv and \io>- 
tr..m ilu'ir alloiiiamo, iii~i-tin-. Imwoxor. tint tho 10-.M..11 ilopop.lo.l ..n tlioir 
iroo iiin-ont.' Mio l'ioilnimito-o i>t'tioia!-< woro rooallo.l an.! roiiLiood !>v na- 
tivo Sa\.i\ard^. 'I'lii- ua- t.. roni.ixo all siiL;iri-'-ti..n ut' diro.t pros<nro ' , ilio 
S, tr. liman l;. .\ oni. .r- a.tíaiii^l aiino\ali..n Ilio appoaraiua' i>f pi rt'oct liou- 
trality. hnwovor. wa-- attainod a^ tho aiip.iintmonts, .save in raro in>taiK-es. 
wort' (if kiinwn !oador> nf the linuh party, wlii.-o iiaiiu's occur «m tla- list nt 
thdso wh.i had hccn rccniiiim mli.! i.i Xapnloitii ho tiio Savnyanl dopitlatioii 
ill Paris a~ hoim: fi,ondI\ t.. ilio aimo\.'.ti(,ii. Ihi. was n..t tnio, Iiii\\o\or. 

iii'ii sans pi-iii. tain itiM rcr Us iliiix tlaiisis tie la saiutinti ilu r.iilciiictif it ilti v.itr .|i , 

' .S'.iiii( (Miii.t. |i. .Wl: Thayi-r. p. ¿14. It slionltl pcrhapn W meiilinnfil lliat hail in 
I'l'hriiary callcil tn tho Senati thr chi« f pr.) Sanliniaii ililci;atr frmn .'¡av,,» in ..r.Iir t.. vi^,- 
cviilcnrc of rikwI faith to the RmptTur. 

* Tretal, p. ¿51. 

" Only .WO had voteti out of 857 reRistrred, however. Trfsal. p ¿55. giv« thr 

electoral diMrict«, nf which there were f»>-' -• ' -- '' • r< ->< • •■ 

l)ecn »1)11 liy the French iiri,iiii»f of a roju 

i'i.i; n i".< 

III i .: lii.iii- llic prnv isK iiial L;M\i.-niiir ap]iniiilc'il i. ir l!u' cilx ail'l C"Uiit\ >>] Nici.', 
i..r lii^ naiiu- :- -il;iu-.1 in ili<,- ]iri>tc~i aL;ai!i^t tlir ia--ii'ii t" I raiii'i'. a<li!ri.--cil 
liy ihr nuinui].alit\ m Xirc tu Xirt^r liuaiincl mi .M.irih _' 1 . I hu -\m.1u> 
III liir 1 1 'iiMiiniu- wlin wiTi- a|i|iiinuri| i iHict-r^. anil -n|i|i"-fil!\ iiainc Sa- 
vii_\a!i¡- nr \ìiiii>. wire tini miin\-cil lui! wcrr all- Ani in rrlaai llu-ir noirci-'-, 
I 111- i-niiiiii',nial iniiiuillnr-. wlin were tn aiij tiif -\iiilii~ m carrxiiiL; niit the 

\citl'. \V(,Tr 1.U' h-il nlliriT-. 1 lu \ Inn Wc-ri' IrlailUll 

I;iiiiH'iliaiil> nil iiiMallatinii, iJu- [.rn\ i-imial i^n\ crimr., |.ri « !ainu-.l die 
pli-lii-iitr. '! lie ]irni.laiiiaiinii ni' l.iiliniii- ùwì ilic ]ilrlii-,ri:i' ii.r .\ u c .nul 
11- ili-init inr \]inl 15: ilni in Sa\n\ \\a- Iim-iI im- April _'_' With tlio 
])i;lilua!inii n| ilicM- iniTi'- llir -,|nrtii wlnrli < aMnir liail inrr-rcn iimk»' in 
iIk' Sariliniaii ( lianilur I lir ililïiri iirc in ilak' aii'l liir liable in linMiiiL;' 
tilt' Vote ill Xicc wrrc till- linci l>a ■-(■■- ni ¡lu- altack^ mi llit- t;n\ (.rnniriiK ( .ari- 
lialdi in Ili- fatiimi- iiilc-inilatinii. , m \]iril IJ. at'icr iitlrrK rfiiiiiliatinu t!u' 
<'f<~iiiii ni lii> native iit\, liiltcrl\ • ritii'i/i-il ilu- iiii-i-i-iiiK lia-ic uhiiii iliil 
in.licil ui\i' a riilhiilnii^ly liruM' jk n.l fnr liir i-niiijiilatinii ni tlif li^t-. aiii! 
urj^'fil (itia\ , Maiiiiaiii nlíi-rcil a : nlnlinii |irn\iiliiii; inr il ia\ ami aNn inr 
a iiiiimiilti-i' ni jni|nir\ in In- ^ciii li\ ilu- ( liainiicr in watch the cniiiliui ••{ 
tlu- \(iii-. i lu -'■ ai I Idilli nel It- were «let cat cil. ( a -, ir in -i --tin l; I liât partx iccl- 
iii^ \va> running; inn liliali m \icc tn make ikia\ ail\i-ali!c, a ilcicii-c in all 
pmlialiilitx' iidt alln^'ctlicr ili-iiiLiciiiinn- ! lie imie •>\ lailmnw' iirndatiialinii 
\ a- alsi> <a\a^(.'l\' critici/eil m llic < liainher. alni the in-luf nt ihe attack wa- 
ailiiiittci! li\ il'c L:nM-rnnicnt ' criaiiiK 'licrt' cniiM In- nn ilc!eii-c "i it- nlier 
lads III iientralilx . I'\cr\ jilira-e hail hceii iranieil with the piirpi'-i ,,\ \n- 
si-IetiCf nil ilie iiK-\italile cliaracUT ni ilie ce--inn aiul the ilc-ne ni the Kiii'j; 
iha! •! -hniiM lie carrieil niit iiiliniii- hail cxpliciih iiriji'il a \nic nt alli'iiia- 
tinii ni the lrcai\,' Malaii--cna. the -muIu- "i Nue. wlm-c iiaiiic. like that 
ill lailiniii-, hail .ippcarcil mi the prnicq .<\ ilic JNi "\ March, in hi- iii.ani- 
t'e-ln puMi-licil nil \pnl S. u-cd laiii^^c a- .ami ¡in i-a!inc\.iiinii m 
»iiiu- a* ni 1 jilmiii-. 

!!\ tile ilei ICC- nl ll'C L;n\cniiir ami ni the -muIk- the pnll- were tn he npciied 

in facli cnniiinnie ni Vice ami ii- ili-lrut mi Siiii<l,i\. Vjinl 15 ami nii Mmiilay 
the Idlh. irmii nine In imir 1 lu < m,, wa ■ In he le, w riticii nr pnnleil halli it"; 
willi the wiMii " >e- " nr " im " \11 iii.ile citi/eii- nver luenlv-niie. lieiimfxinR 
tit .\iee l>v hirtli nr iirii,'iii nul In mi; m the cmnniiiiic inr the l:i-t <i\ months, 
WiTC liivcn ihe riL;llI tn \nle I.aiitiulc .i- tn ¡he pcriml ni ilmnicile was 
allinsi-il ll,n-e aua\ fm-.i the eitv hut kiinwii tn he Nu;ni. aiul reniniiiii; tn 
votf 1 he I'niiipilalinti >i the !t-l> was eiitriistei! t a emulili icc in 
fach cniiiimitie cmiipn-ed I'i ihe -muIic .iiul imir ronncillors. This 

1 »;»ir PriM-knintinn iit' the Oovcriinr Rr«rin nf the Ci'y anrf County ui Nrc T)oriimrnt^, 

S.WUV AXl) XU I:;, lS/,() 


C(imiiiiiu-c \\;i> all-|)ii\\(.i I Xot oiilv ucrc it- dcciMcii- t.p in.- linai, hut ilic pnni-inii ua> iiKli;.k-il that the loniniittic -hmilil. uitiiMiu uailmi; 
ii>r a])|i!Hat:iin-. traii-IiT the oM hM- the iiaiiii-- ot aii\ whn wire 
klitiwn In ha\e the ri^^ht ic the \i.te in ihi- eleitiMU, wherea- .^ther^ ueie l>> 
present theiil^ehe^ lielore the ei •iniiDtlet-. This pi'i n i>ii m iiattiralK L;a\e 
ri-e [>> ehar-e^ ..l iiarti~an-hiii whieli were iin.hahK \\i.-\] iiienleil. l^r ii wa^ 
111 thi- \\a\ ma. le nnl\ axi ea-y tdr the cnininittee tn iiiM/nhe ireiaii >\ni|ia- 
thi/er- withi.iu a|i].lK-atii m and to m-i-t that the anti-aiine\atii imq- mu-t 
re.L;i^ti'r m per-i ni. 

rile Ireiuh -..venmient ha.'i -enl a i'. .niini--ii .ner tn Xue. ..- well a- (iiie 
I.i Sa\..\-. 1.1 wall h nur the ina liininar\ ari-ani;eiiie!iN an.l t.. ^ee that the Iranee were pr. .te'-ted, a niea-iire i\ Inch tli..;^h -iirelv 1< -itiniate. 
ha> al-.. Inen made a -nhjeel ni reprnaeh. 

1 he \ wa- helil ill Xiee an.l the diMrut nil the .la\- app..:ii;e.l. ! he 
nliieial IÌL;iire- are ..'3.74.i ati.rmatn. i- v.te-. Imi neL,'.aiive, ainl .■li ) \.iid, llu 
re-nh- were n\ .,rw heliniii^iy Inr liaiiee. !.\eii the -nl.iier \ nte lia.l 
t. ir li.'in c h\ a larice majnrits ' There i- -mall w..ii.'er that there ha- heeii 
.see]itiei-m a- In the return-, and, iildei'd. lluw mn-t ha\ e heeii lampercl v\ith. 
it the a --erti nil i- e. .ri i\ t in law en /n. / 4 nmre \ . .te- w ere ea-t th.iii I h en 
were \ nier-, an a--ei"ti(.ii ma.le m the 1 taliaii 1 hamher nii M.i\ _'.^ li\ l.aiiieiiii- 
kaliandi. and lint ilenie.L I lie niticial return- iiatiiralK i]n imi ,h.iw ilii- ili-- 
erepamy- Thi- i- ilie nnl\ -iieeille acaii-aimn <>\ the kind. Imwiwcr. ■- 
it iicee--ary !.. enii-i.ler it a- ]ir.weil. allhnii;;!: ! ii-ni,iln. in w ri'nii^ ni llie 
¡ilelii'-cile. repeat- llie -tateiiienl a- t.. I.e\en/i. and .a.liint- that the . liar^e- 
ni.ide li\ I .aiiieiili-Ualiaiidi aii'l the .itlier npp ineni-. were i..r tlu' iim-i part 
true. I'.iit. he add-, nil the ntlur hand, it i- tieee-.-ar\ t.i a^n-e that in the 
la. e nt' -neh a unaiiiir'ty xi \.iie- it i- tint pn^-ihle t.i adiiiil that tlin-e illieii 
sélleme- alniie wefe |inwerl'nl " Ii it were -n," he -a\-. " thn^e pnpiilatinn- 
uere -.. iitterlv enrnipted a- tn make ii- aliiin-t ;,'' tluw were t.irn awae 
frmii niir ii.itinii " ' 

I he pniiit • made m deiein e ni the \ nie ni Xiee 1)\ ( '.i\ . .iir .a- i "re- 1. lent ( ¡i 
the t niiin d m In- -everal -peei he- lieinre the .^anliman p.irliaiiieni are ..t 
\ar\in;^'^ eniiehi-uciu'-- ' 11k |ii(tiire nl Niee a-- a hreiuh eit\' lu- ailerwarcN 
adimtted tn ha\e liecii e.Éiitrar\- tn hi- nuii enin ietimi- 'I'lie iiii|(rn|iriets nl 
the art- ni I nimm- he aekii. .w li (li;ed ii. .in the lir-t I he arij'iiiieiit w liat- 

' ihr tiüiins rívcii mit on April JX iravc 12(K> for iiiiloii ami ..i.Ii ISii .Ti'.iiiist IlnniiiipnK. 
fest. p. .^07 Arrorctinu to llif eensiis cif l.'i'^S llu- total ;io|iulatioii of tin- city ami county of 
Ntcf nmnl.i rn! .' Of tli<-sc liJ,4.'l u.i. m.tlr S"(.i(i.t(i, ,i (/,•/ A'l-./ii,. ti'lutlt.1. Popo 
la/ioiif. (ViiMineiilii fli'Ka .iiiliilii -tali Saidi, Jjiiii.m 1. IK.'íS. 

' Doniinctits, /"«if. p. ')M and tabli on pp. 4i.< 5. 

■I l-Hsinnlo. p II.V 

♦ Dotiiiucnls. t'usi, pp 4.15 -44." 


i'i.i-.iüsi iTi;s 

ever pressure the civiliaii> were under in Xiee. the -.ulilier-. wliu wi-n.- wd m dUc 
MrL;,ini/;iti..ii lnii urn- scattered tlin)Ui;hi 'Ui the Itahan ionc^. had hieii under 
))reii>cly the nri¡i,i.-uc intliuiue, nanielx. that ..f their Itahan ci 'nii)ain(iii>, 
merely -u^u;e-t- tliat their ultìcLT^ had exerei-ud ]in.'>-.ure. The ni)|>(irtnnit\ 
1(1 le~-en iha'ir term oi -itx iec with the arni\ fri it n tht- elewn \ear> re'unred 
by >arihnia tu Úw >c'>en reijuired by Iranic. nui-t, h.i\\eM.'r. h,i\e plaxed a 
jireat jiart in their deei-ion. A^idv ir. mi thu \i.!f df lA'\enzii tile repr. ^k lu-^ 
inii>t .liten heard are that l.nhnni-, and the hi^hnp exerteil all their el<ii|neiK'e. 
tile lii-h.iip a---er!niL; that it \\a> liie wil! nf ( m nl that the\ \Mie fur uninn, 
ami iiiM-tiiiL: that it \\a> aK(j the desire ni the Kin^. With a ln\al 
and t athiihe ei .nnuiiiiii\ the-e aii^imieiit^ ina\ lia\e had j^r- ; weight, luit 
eau ^eareel) he re^ariled a^ retidet-uii; a \iile 1>\ -eeret halli it N.ilneless. 

There 1- priihahihlN that the lieiuh uli'er- nl' de\ eh ii)iuent ni the eU\ a- a 
]ilea-ure ,L;ri.iind and ihe pr.i-peit nf niiier lieiieli'o trulli annexalinil plasc'd. 
tluir part au<l a leL;itiniate part. The a^ertinii that there were Iri-nrh 
triii'p- III die di^lriel at the tiiue nl the \iiie -eein-- uillnnnded. In \ie. i 
the appareiii enutent ni ilìe pi ipiilalii lU ni Xiie with their iate. and the 
^careii\ nl |irnni tn -nppnit the a--ertinn- ^n linth made, it i- ari,,MiahIe that 
the--e have heeu e "Mied liy the ^e\eral I'nw er- and partie-- wlin^e inter- 

e-.t- were in\nl\e . . tnn ea^ih ('redite<l li\ thn^e w hn di^lru-t uuner^al 

^nilra^'.e and the dnctrine I'i natiniial -id i-delermiuatinn. 

I lie \ii!e i>i Savny \\a- held a week later than that ni Xice. Ihe ])rn\i- 
^iniial L;n\erunr ni I liainliery. iii a iirnilar ni rather uinrc ^eeiuK uniieutral- 
itv than tlin-e ni l.uhnUH, had aiiiii .iim-ed i -n \pni 7 that the pnlK ni Sa\(i\ 
wniild lie n]ieii I'll Snnda) , tile J_'nd, imu, N \, m, t,i J f, m. i,,r a \nte nu 
the 'ine-tinn : " I )ne> >a'.ny w i-h in In- nulled tn iM-auee:" Ihe ~nlïrai;e 
was t; i veil In all eiti/en> n\ er lweut\ -niie. Imni lu Sa\ n\ . nr ni Sa\ n\ard ]iar- 
ent~ niit lit Savn\. wlin \\ere in enin\nieut nt ei\il ri^lit- and had ii\ed in 
the I'dtuiui'iie inrn\er -i\ iiini di^ ' Idle renistratmu lists lia-i'd nu the census 
tind tas li-l- were In he drawn ii]i li\ eniuuiiinal enuiniittee-- eninpn-ed ni the 
sMiilie and. the inur -enmr m.-uiKer- ni the ¡^'innta, and were tn he pn-.ied l)y 

\prd !?, .it l.ite~I ■' I'll the ''ill llii- pim ! iin.iiii .n wa- -iippleinented h\ mie 
wliniK unneutral in tniie. addre--ed in the svudus ni the di-triet nt ( ham- 
lierv. .ir!;il.i.,' llieiii tn explain in tluir -nhnrditiate- that the ilinue wa^ 
lln liiuj;er hetweeti I r.itiee ;iud Sardinia, hut helwicii I'r.inee and .in nnkunwn 
fate. Ihe luteudeiit Uegeiit ni laueii^ny i>>ueil a simihir iiianlar pnintiuj; 
out liiat there was uu i|iicsti<>ii "t miiÌdii with ."-^w it/erland iinnKed in this 
vote .aui that a ue^iative vote would iii^t aiUaiue >iu!i a d( -in- ! he x.irimis 

'. n-iimcnts. foit, [>■ 58.S 
• r.y a l;itcr iirmlitinatioii, it \va> i>r(iMilcil iliat agiiits sIkimM \isit ull Ikuiscs m tlic com- 
mtini' in or>Ur in outer tlio iianu' of all the iiilialiitaiils not on the ci-nsns and tax li>l-. 

\\ I |^• AM) \1( i:, lS(.n 


Sardinian uliiciaK -nil k'tt m .'-a\u\ ii-td iluir nillui'ncc aNu t'^r an,.i.".--¡tiMn. 
if (inc may indite Ii\- the m-\ì<>u ni ( ira^dia. tin- r.i\al c^ innn-M. iiur .if ^_■,\\\- 
I'atiim. wliM wniti- i,, ih,- ^uxcrnnr rvi^^ciit ut \nn<.T\ liri;L;i;;L; liuti l'i in-tfiut 
the pc'ipk- til .uni' an ciitlm-ia-Iir vinli ir-^-nunt tu the iiiiMii ' It l^ ^an! that 
tliccimilar i---inil hy the l,'i i\ rnii ir nl' Aiinecv, in urder tu reiuiii ile the elei tut- 
■ if ( Iialilai-. and !-ane:L;ii\. iieniiilled tlieni to ^uli-t'lnte I raiu ,■ cf .nur 
tur the -inijile aliiniiati\a'.- .Mu-t "i thr-e i-:renlar- wen- nitended tu earr\- 
'•utile >nL,':;e-Iiun that tlie xute \\a- a mere lurm and the ee--iun ,i furei;"iie 
eunehi-iuii and yet the_\ wariu'd aL;ain-t >ta_\in,u iruin the ]iull, un that aeeuiiiit. 

i he Clinker', ati\ e-, tliruiiL;h then' d']inlatiun lu .\a|iuleuii, iiad iirutc-tid 
a.L;ain-i a |iu|inlar \utc ui an\ kind. When the ¡irm lain.iiii iii rea» hed them 
they were a^jlia-t at the new- uf tlu' iiru]iu-ed aduptiun t>i manhuud -iitVra.L;e. 
and ]irute-ti'il tu Xapuleun that they had nut the time tu wurk with the ma>>e>. 
tiiat the -\ lidie- and the red>, w hu were well ur;;ani/i'i!, w unid ea>ilv uff^i't 
the new admini-traliuii ui Sa\u_\ard eun-er\ ati\ e-> w Im wuuld he withuut 
tntid-, arm-., ur time, at.d wliu laeked leader- ni esi>eneni'e m direetiti!; prupa- 
lianda. ' They i-etnrned a; un. e fruin l'an- and -it ahunl íurminL; euinmittee-, 
tliruii<,diun.t Sa\u\ tu prejiare fur the \ ..ii ( ii, \|,ril IJ the central eummittees 
wliieh tlie\ had tunned at < hamlier\ and \nneiw -elil eirenlar- tu all tin- 
-Midn- uiiirniL; hel|) m -eeundinL; the j^u\ i-rnur's elfurt- fur a hii^ \ute fur 
annexatiun ;ind |iiuini-(d m |)ariutilar tu -,nd ireiieh liai;> tu all the euni- 
miuie- \Oiere wanted, and nr^ed imiun ni all parlies in -npjiurt (<i anne\,itiun 
I ulluwniL; tin- ;id\iee, ni -ume plaee-, iiutalih in I ari'nt,ii-e .and Maurunne, 
the twu |i,iriie- tn-ed .and wurked tu^rilur fur .iniie\.iiiuir ' \,,i ,dl the 
r.idiiMl- wire willing tu i;i\e np their de-ire fur the liher.d It.ih.m rule, huw- 
e\er. Tile red newspaper, the (fi/rv//,' (/,' I ,i S,i:-,'i,-. r.ii;ed. 

1 he duuht w;i- .i- tu ( h ihlai- ,md i-'aneÌL,'nv, Tin-\ ati\ e- -.inl 
It w.a-\ tu pl.i. e the-«' ]>ruv inee- ¡ii .i pusuiun where intir- 
esl- \>,unlil nut he harmed li\ .mnex.itiuii tu kr.iiiie d'huiioli th,. jniperur 
had .i--iired the .'^.ivusanl de|iiilie- ,i /une wuiild he granted, the .Swi--^ 
.lL,'ent-. were Imi-i!\ -uwiie^r .ImiOiI- in the initliU ut the pe,i-,tnl ■ a- tu the 'v.iltle 
ut .V.apuleun'- wunl, w hirli ■ .1- nut \et emhudied in duiiitneiit- In 
an- WIT tu the eun-er\.ilives' pie.i tu -end ,111 .ii^enl lu euntiteraet this. X.tpulcun 
sent Senator I.aily tu e\])lain the I'reiieli intnitiniis a- ti» (hi> zone, lie .ir- 

> (»"rifar, op. fit, p. 582. kìv< s tin- tr\l 

' Tr.'sal, p 258. f.riva/ ni.ikes tiir spmc «latnneiit triviriR the article. .\'o trxt of the 
"ritiinal can I'c fmiiul. Tlic Circular dì ilio Intenilciif Ki-Ki-nt of KauciRny. 17. v. in Dm-u- 
mtnts. ('iisl, p, S"I. (Iocs not mention ¡■rane ft ri>iii- as a pnssitilf form i>f voir, thoiiiih it 
(tive* a«itranc.- that the 7"ni' i* inclmlcd in the vote for I'r.iiicc This ua. itiiii¡ iii-.irv a- 
the promise of the ?nn<- hail Iieen maile previously to the it. 

" Tn-sal. p. 2."!1. 

♦//ili., p. 260, 


rij:i;isi iri-.s 

riM-il i.ii .\]iril 4 ami wilh hì> Miitc tra\ clk-il tlimu^h >a\(iy uulil Ajiri! _'S, 
t,'uiii.ii parìn-nlar altiiiUi.n tu C lial»lai> aiid lau(.-ij;iiy. i;\ itvw ¡ilTc 1k- wa- 
i\'i.'(.'i\ l'i! \\i;li ilu- i^rcati-^t iiitliu-ia-m.' ]ic \^a-. ai \Miii| li\ a f;r.iii|> 
(M lii.i^nu'i i--> !.. iii-|n-ci ¡iu- iK'i-iK .'i ilir l'.imnrx, ni which thf Sa\..\anl dcim- 
i.niiMii 1.1 l'an-, ha.! -|i.iki'ii, ani] i.. .Iraw ;i]) ]iriijt'ii-. nii ,i ^raiul -cale ñ.r 
tiiiiiKlhii^ tlir iii'inin.ini iia^-i- a^ ihcy ha.l <lc-iri'il. This iiii--i..ii, wiiìi ihc 
many md'.RaiiRiits wliuii !. ..lúrcd í.ir Kiiinii with l'VaiK\-.- went íar in 
ci.miura.t the Swi-- ]in .|.,ai;,aiiil.i. m -pite (.1 the Swi>- iiinnex which \\a> 
ijii.rleil 111 l/e jileiitiail ill the iii.rlheni iirii\ nue-, 

I he Mile liiiik ]ilace mi ihe JJml ami J.inl ui .\|iril. (iin;rar\ lu the 
a-.>ertiiiii cnniniiinl\ inaile, it ,i])inar^ that thiinj;li JTetich tnHip- hail lueii 
sl;itiiine.l 111 liiiih Nice .anil Sa\'ii\, ami had Keen ci>n-t.inil\ ¡la-.Mii,:; ilinm^h 
uu their wa\ iruin llal\, where they hail heeii kept -nine time .liter pe.ue had 
heeii --i^ned, llie .intlii ailK •- liail t.ikeii care tu reilii.\e them heiure ih. \.it- 
m^". ■ lile \iile ¡~ -,iid \' ¡ia\e laken place with cnllni-ia-ni, dlie elect, ir- 
ci tin- ciiiinir\ di^lrict- niarclud in ¡in .ce^-i. ui. the -\ndic at the head, c,irr\ - 
ini; l-reiuh ll.i.u-. hle-'-ed liy ihe ]irie-l-. llie pruce^^inii lieatniL; drum- and 
crviii.u;. " /'/;v /./ ! i\nUi\ ii;\- Í l'.iiifri\'i:r." ' In ihe Imwii- iIkw marched 
li\ iraiU- ,111.1 ir.iierin' :i -, Ihe wniiuii, tm., iiiaiK' kiinwii a^ well .i- iluw 
'.i-iild, ¡heir de-iie I-ir ihe iimi.ii, 1 r.'--ai. ci iinnientin.L; mi the accuiint- in 
tlic ji'nrn.iK ui ilu' da>.. -a\- it i- .ili\imi- ihai the xuie nv,!- ,i tremendi .ii- 
iiMltimi li.r I ranee an.! that it w,a- a relÌL;imi- a- well a- ;i ]iatraitic \iite 
Idle Sw:-- jiarl;. in the nurthern priAiiue- made iiu ^i.L;n, ,\t I'.miiuw ilK, a 
Centre nl .^wi-<^ ai,'it,iiii .ii, the wa^ withuiii di-inrliaiice .iiid ]iarticnl,ii 1\ 
^1 ileum 

( In April _"' the ( mirt ul .\ppeal uI < h.iiiilicry, wlu.^e diil\ it \\a- In -aTiix- 
the \(.te- ui the wlmU ul S,ivii\ and tu add them tin^etlur. iiulili-lied the 
utHcial result III' ihe \ute' l.V'.v^ had \iiled fur iiniuii wiill I'rance ,ind 
unl\ _'.v^ ,iL;aiii-.I. 71 li,dlu!, \eie \.iid.' Ihe sulduT \ule. c.iimted ^ep- 
ar,iiel\, re-nlied in (i.n,^,^ iur Ir.mce, JSJ a,i,;aiii-t the .han,L;e m -mer- 
t'ii,Mit\ and .v( \uiil' Ihe aiili-,iniie\, itimi ]i.iil\ elaiiiU'd llrit ,i!l .ih-ienti m- 
sliiiiil.l he cuunled, a- nei;ali\e ll ,i|i|)e,ir--, hu\\e\er. e.icli cuinmtinc kept 

' ri,,(,i/, [. :<<4 

- lor the ar^;unuiiK ii-cl !,y lIu- I'nii. Ii nii--inii, ver (.aMiiii> s|>ecch In f.irc t'le 
( liainlii r, lli.cuiiiciits. fost. ]'\' 440 ,t .,,; 

■'Saint (ii-iiis ami Tri'-s:il iii;rir lli.ip the l'ii'ilin.inli se >|ifr- u err no Iiiiil'it in 'lii' u.:; 
trv, ami the Sa\i.\ar.| militia ucre a). un iliarnul uith tli. kecpiiii; i.t ..flrr 

* p J74. 

'■ i iiKiinii nts, fiisl. pp, 4J7-M 

'Tlic total population of Savoy in 1S5H was ?4.'.fyi,'i fli thr-i- 2(..\775 were in.i^s 
Slali.'liiii del A'.-i,H<i tl'lltilui. 

' Trésal. p. 276. .^c^■or(linR tu .Saint (unis. llii:> sdIiIut vutc wa.s rciHTto.! later ,iiiil sliniilil 
he a. Mm! t.i tlie ..Ouial r.MiIt 

A\( )\ AM) \k !■:. IShO 


a cari'iui li>i ni the rcaMHi^ idr ah-tciuitiii. wlailitr thr(iii^:;li illia'>>, ali>cncc. 

iir UIIW lllillLHU---^ 111 Mite' 

I here i- nil fa--(.- nl a ]iU;lii-citL- muri- ciKTurtiiallv aitaik<.il li\ w rilcr^ than 
tiiL-^i- M'tr il' Sa\ii\ ami Xu'o. I lie luaiii indu tiiirMt ail'> aiut-il a'^ani-l tin- 
\iiti-- III Sa\ii\ anil Xui.' i-- tlir -aim, nanirlN. that tlU' ^uli- \\a~ a mere turni, 
the ee^-iiiii lia\ inu; ln'tii alriailv iliteiiniiieil nil .iiiil the treat \ -ÌL;iieil ( iii\ a/, 
line ni thii-e altaekin.i; it at len,L;lii, -a\ - that In -ay the le-Mnti ile|ieiiileil mi 
the \i-le 1- riilieiiliiii> inr the treaty \\a- -i^ne.l mi Mareli _'4 ami all the 
iminiaK -¡inj, e "i th.e ee^-imì a- iiie\ italile. 1 'raiiier- Inileix- a--k- wlielhei 
the Iwn inniiari'li- wntilij ha\"e turn rn ¡ha treaty ii:hl the \i>;e lieeii neL;ati'.e. 
anil an-- \er- .XC Stnerk -a\-~ it i- evulent that the re--iiiii wa- iim emiili- 
tiiiîial nil the ]ilelii-riie rrniii the rea-nii- ^i\en ii\ the I'miierni- n.r the ees- 
^illn, nair.eK . that it \\a> heeati-e ni the neee>~it\ ni -aleonar lini; the i .nutier- 
timl nl' niaintaiiiini; e(|inliliriiiin.- <iriva/. in-;-i- tlia' there nm , have luen 
a iiart\ ai;ani-t annexaiinn inr tlu- emmirv \\a> imleil im- it- lii\alt\ and 
there \\a- at lea>t a re-|ieitalile iinni.nty in Mareh. IJnw iniili! tlie\ ha\e 
ili-a|.]ieare(l li\ \]iril. mile-- it wa- heian-e tlie\ l'eli tlu- In i|iele--ne-- nl am 
i.]i|iii-itiiili. ami that the ehniee \\a- between a I'raiu-e whuh wanleil them, and 
a I'ledmmit which wanted them im Inniger- iirua/ a--rrl- that < avmir du! 
what lie emild ]inhiuall\ In hrniL; it a' uit li\ hntli aiiiimniment- and mlliieiui-. 

jxnnard de ('ani. Umirueni-. 'I'ri''-al. Saint tieni- and Heimweh all deleiid the 
\iite nt' .'~^a\ii\. the l.ilUT -a» mi;, hnwever. ihat it i- In im jinr]in-f tn nnder- 
take a pruni "whirli will imt vitande the ii|iimnn ni the L;alln|,hiiiii- m the 

I ripie Alliaiiee." 

The ari,mnielit- nl the i ip|iii-itiiiii are im dmiht irne in p.irt. < ertainl\ the 
(il'tieial- had dmie all in dieir ¡in.ver tn i^ive an apjiearaiice nt the iilevitaMe 
to the les-inii. .\- tur the lreat\. it wa- e-pi'eially prnvided it -hmild 
imt lie xadid until ralitied 1>\ p.arhament. and it wa- nnt ralilied until .alter the 
\ntiv Xapnlemi. \ utiir k'niaimel and ( avmir .dl ^a.e re]iealed a--iiraiu'e- lluv wnvM ahide liv the pleln-eite What their cniir-e wmild actitallv 
]ia\e lieeii iiad the Mite lieen ,id\er-e i- a matter fnr -pe.iilatii iii. imt drri-imi 

' .Sil 111 ( (..-Pirt, )i .î'i4. and I r.siil. p, 27ii. luit tli^- Milimtarv .ili-linti.m- .it M" Saint ( Itius 
nives till' l«illi'\Mni¿ aiialy-i- 

4'>ll) alisti-iittoiK 
J7ii'' aliMiit 
1J54 iiiliriii iir ill 



«lit of wliiil. .37 wt-re (rom olir cuinniiiif. li.ilí nf whn li w l^ m S« ■,l/«Tlaiii| 

»Grivaz, Hez-ue i/.-m'raU- de droit inifrnali.nal ruhlu. vnl. }. p 44^. /'ni.íi.r /-.i./.-rr, vol. 


!'!,K!;!S( ! ! KS 

it 1^ iin-,il'lc thai ('a\iiiir wi.nM liavu -(.-i/cd tin.- m|i]i, irtuiiitx i.. alianilmi the 
tr(.-ai\. i \riaiiily Xaii. .le iii. the ihamiHMii ,,i p.^pular -i,\ rn",-m\ , t.. whuh 
tuie Ile (iweil hi- ihniiie, umild have heeil m a iio-itimi Niitìicieiitlv eiiiharra>>- 
i'i.U It i- n. itewiirthy that the -jienlK .harue- mi ]]re>>iiie am! ei ir- 
nilili'.ii which were m, freel\ ruhaueeil in the Italian ( haiillier ai;ain~t the 
\'ite ..I Xiee wei-e luiI v.r'j:vA a.L,'aM:~t the viv ni Sa\ii\. Ihcx. \\,i, n,, iliar.i^e 
"! inaiiiiiiilatiMU oí the halli. t- ..í any ])re-Mne (.ther than ni.iral, Snr- 
¡inMiiL;]) ennni;h. liiere \\a- -carcelx any attack i m the ¡irdclainat:. .n^ i-.-neii 
in SaM.\ a- uniKnitral n..r etlii.haMs .m the nn.lnnhte'l arli\it\ dl' the iirie-t^ 
i'"r iiiiii.n. In the tinal .lel.ate- d .\la\ J t 27 ni ilu' i the iact ni 
ti" I'reneh nati. mahl) ni Sa\..y wa- ailniitte.i li\ l\atta//i ami the uther 
eriti.^ Ili the ^..\erniiienl, ami (i].]» .-iti. .n t.. the ee"i..n \\a- l>a-e.l i .n wh.illy 
(lillerent qr. .und-, nainel\, th. .-e «.f ln-l..rieal elaim- ami -trateiiK- \alne. The 
in.i'^t -inriied attack- . .n the eundiu-; ..f the v.. te are t.. he i..iinil ni Laurence 
< )li|.hant'- article-, in. ni Savi.y n. ilu' l'mirs which wa-. ..t' c..iir-.e, 
111 -\iii|.aìh\ With the l'.riii-h i .. .\ ernniei.t' • . .|ii>. i-iti. m t.. the ces-ion, Oli- 
phaiit ha.l l;..!)! t.. Sa\..\ t.. re\i\e the waning re-i-taiice tu the ami 
t.. |ire\eni a \..te l'.ir the " l.lack-nar.l h'iiipen .r." Ili- eviileilce ..l' lack ..t 
Heed. .Ill 1.1 the \<.le m Sa\..y i- lar^i'ly tri\ . .1. .ii-. a- e\aillinali.>n i.|' the 
I iiiirs ani. le- -h..w-.' imr are hi- j^eiieralitie- ami iniereiice> wurtli -eri.uis 
ci iii-i.Ieraii. .n. 

It i- a|i]iareiit lr(.ni the aliiii.-t unaiiiimm- character i>t the \(ite ii.r I'raiue 
that -..nieth'iii^ than the eNhi>rt;uicin an.l ar-umeiil of the Sa'.ovar'l 
i.tticial- \\..nld l.e iiece--ars t.) account t'or it With a -ecret hallot, corrup- 
tion. iiiani]iiilati..n an.l imminent laiii^er of i;eneral calamite \\..iild he iiece — 
■■•ir> lo i.:-\oke -neh a re-ult a^ain-l the p. .pular inclination, i "ert.iuilv 
there i- n. . nee.! oi e\])laiiiinL: the \i.te of S.i\.i\ ii\ corruption. pre--ure or 
niainpiilalion. The truth appear- to l.e thai m S,i',o\ the alreadv exi-tin;; 

' >cr tin l.i.iiilon Vni.'.-.i. April _'.S. l.Kiiii, I lu' imi^i ...muuiiin ar«iinieii' iiia.K- ii\ 
t llipliam K Iliat tlif otVicials not mily (...ste.l their nuii pr<iclaiiiati.iiis tiriiiivj miieii. but u..uM 
II'. t allo« aiiti-iiiiic.n p.. stirs to l.f posted. He als.. cliari;es lliat I>iiu;li avMits «ere carry- 
in« 1.11 — wliidi was to l.e experte.', ami was. it iii.t a.. ...npaiiieil hy threats or 
ItIIktv. a leiiitiiiiale activity — ami that the /tal of the authorities in -ati-f> ini; their . i;ri- 
.•sity renarrliiit; the presence at the p. .11-, witlioiit registration tieket.s. of two stranye iaiijli-li- 
men. himself and his lonipanion. showed that the vote was not froi —a conclusion which is an 
apparent ».Miici/iii/iir. He makes no sngKe.-.tion of iiiilifary coercion nor of direet hrihcry. 
Oliphaiit's efTorls to stir np an opposition were hopele' s, as he himself admitte.I. " Tin re is 
not the sli^htesl chance of a row," he wr.ite home, "the people are like sheep." It i- eviilmt 
that, apart from his opposition to .Vapoleon. he was sorry to have a chance to ridicule the 
workinRs of uni\crsal .sniTrage. Oliphant gone aih enture ami " coiiy." as well 
a> a political purpose, and was determined to lind it. " it is treat Inn to have another 
ohiect than churches am! picture iiallcics." he wrote home. It is interesting to find that 
(¡arihaldi's interpellation of .April 12 and the plan f.^r hreaking the hal'ot-hoxes and forcing 
another election in Nice were attrihnted to him. Margaret O. W. Dlipliant. Mfiiioir nf the 
life e/ ¡.¡turfiiii 0'i}-hant and c¡ .UUc Onrhart, his .'í'.-rV. vol. i, p. j4') c; .;i.;. 

''\i\ì.\ ANI) X.\i'i.l".>, iNi) 


l-'n-iuii |);irt\ hail ln'cii f^rc-ath ^ircti^^thriu'd li\ tlu' t.-\fni> which noi-iiriiil 
iiiiiiii'ihatt'h hfiorf ihc plflii.-citi.'. Alri'ails --martini; uii'li-r C( inveii iii--ni.-^> ot 
a iht'tcrcnt urij^in. rf^cntiii;^- ailiiiiiii--iratii m traili riinii. thi- -iidiK'n aciri'tiun 
(if iiiilliiin^ ni It;ihati> whicli had inmc tu l'icilm.itn thrmii^h the vnlr- i>i 
Tnsiriny and l-'.niiha niadi' tlif Sav^xard-, nc\fr ■.■nth\i-ia^tu' hmt ihi- llah;'.i 
war, fcarínl ni luin;;- innijik-tcly snhnKT,L;(.'d in the new kin^doni, llic Ircnch 
|)rcinii>c oí a /uni' and ni capital in carrN niu thr mali-rial dt'\ clnpiiu-ni^ whicli 
Sa\nv -n --nrclN- iK'cdcd, ami which ha\c ^crxcd in dmiMc her wealth. mrni-lic<l 
the ccniininic arL,'iuiK'iiK In i!ic -irniiL; Sa\n\ard naiiniial pridc. ilu- icar (.1 
di'-nicinlirrmcnt m' the r.nrilu-rn ¡im'. incc wa- -iHìicicnl ni a pairiniic aru'ii- 
mcnt. Icar n;' ('a\nurA anli-clcncd pnlii \ nmlcd llic nnhlc-. law\cr> .iiid 
pric-t-. whn, m that ^niiii .\ hat pairiarchal -niiciy had urrat inìhuiicc n\cr 
the peasant^. It i~ ^tL,niitiiaiii llial altliniii,di, Icn \car-- lau-r, i ippnr!iinit\ In 
c'scapc irnin hrciich alli\i;iaiuc prc-cnicd it^cli with the |- rati' . i-ri;;--.ian war, 
there appear- In ha\e lieeii im nin\einenl ni -mh a nainre. 

.VíVíYv ,:iid \,if!,-s. L'elfi 

Ihe re]i'.;lilican^. the Ljrnund cnt finiti under thein m Xnrlhern and ( 'entrai 
Itale li\ tlu' \nie-, ni 'l'ii>caiì\ and 1 imlia, had liirneil in the jirnviiice- ni the 
Marehc^ and l inliria which were -nil under ]iapal rule, and in the kinijilnm 
ni the twii ."--icihe-, where the I'.nnrlinn- -nil reiiKed a cnn-litnlinn. In cnii- 
iiinctinn with leadiT- M.a.'/iin'- .iL;eni-. Un-alnin I'lln .and I'ranci-cn 
('n-pi. plaiiiieil .i re\nlntinn in >uil\ wln.h. earl\ in April, had he. nine 
an npell revnlt ni ^iich pmpnrlmn- a- in induce (.anli.d'li In put hinisell' 
at the heail nf the evpeilitinii in n- aid 

It 1- iiniiece^-ar\ In enter here >n the lan-^led weh ni diplninaiw which 
fnl!,ci\eil i,r nil ihe ]iictnre-<nie ad\etilnre nl' < larili.ddi'- Ihnii-and. ( )n 
.Ma\ 14, h.iMiii; l.i'.idi'd ai, ' i.irih.aldi, t'rnin Saleim, prnclainied him- 

-eli I ìict.ilnr "nu the nuilatlnii ni tinted Clll/Cll-, .Uld llic del 1 1 icTa I inll - ^ii 

the free c. .mimine- ni the I-land ' ' l;\ the end m |nl\ ih.e whnje i-laiid, 
W'lh ihe exciptinii ,ii \le--iii a. w,i- m lii> hand • 

1 here were iniir ji, lille- in .'--!c;l\. aiUniiniiii-t-, repiihliciii-. .'^ and 
I'.nr.rli.n -\ mp,ilhl/el-, 1 )e-ire fnr rnitolloliu , which wa- l.iiL;el\ cle-ire fnr 
frei-dnin fri'iii dnimnatinn, w;i> a pnjitiial ir.adiiinii Illiieracv 
\\a> hiuh and, except fnr the hrief ¡iermd in 1S|,><, ."-^iiilian- haii had im expe- 
rience in -elf-i;n\eriinient.' The streii^tli >n ilu- new party fnr iininn with 
Sardinia \\a^ iiiii-erlain, ilimij^h it was evident it wa-^ fa^t increasin:,' with 
the sucii'sse-- in imrthern Italy 'ihe plan nf the rejiitlilicaiis was to ilclax' 
tile (lecisinii (if the i|iie-tinn i'\ ihe imliiical iiinire nf .SiciK iiniil K'ntiie .ind 


i'i.i-:i;i-i ITI-:.- 

Xaplfs were tree, 'ih.iHi^li Imili Sanliiiiaii- and rcjuiMK-iii^ had >i1|i|n iricd 
tlir cNiudiiiiii. (lanl.alili wa- a rr]iiili!u-aii al licart, aii<! ihr rc¡)iilihi.-aiis l.mkoil 
I III the i'\|]cihiii 111 a^ lh(.'ir nwii. 

• ■a\Miir, lhri,n;.;li fear ni" a rc|iiilihc oí -ninluTii llaly, a- will a> I'.ir dipld- 
iiiaiir via-.iiiv. \\;i. aiiMiiii- f. .r miiiU'diau- aniicxaiinii Inr lhi> |iiir|i.i-f 
hr wished a \nlf In hi' taki'ii at c 'Dcc. fiarilialch i'|i]),i>i-d ^luh ac-lmii mi the 
,L;n>iiiid ihal it wmild inlii-rtic wiih the I'xpi'ihtu ni in .\a¡ili.->. 'his ih\ÍMMii 
ni cniiiiM'I la-tid thrnimh liiiif. the n¡inhlii-aii- in ihrir i)rn|ia,L;aiida a^am-t 
iiiiinii rariir-tl\ ai>|irahii^ tn the aiiru-nt Su-ihan 'in\c ni aulnimiin. ( )ii Iniic 
-'.^ danhalih yuldid -n iar a> in ¡iiihh-h an i-Iahnraic i-lcctnral law. c-lahli-h- 
-.U'^ im!\fr-:il -iitlra^r. cM-lndiiiL; nnl\ rflÌL;iniN nnlcr-, i-nndnnnrd (•r-minaN, 
and iImm- nndt-r ii;inidinn-nt I'nr rnnu- and niisilrniraimr-,' and nffcriiiu 
alhaiiiT with Sardinia, a -nlntmn wlmh appealed in {■ram-r and ( iriMt I'.riiain 
whn l> pri'fcrrcil the aiunii,.ii,y ni Su-ilv in tiiriluT iininii- 

rnparaiini,^ inr the \,a|inliian cxprdilinn wrro imw iin^liT wa\-. On 

JuK 22. (.anhaldi nanird lirpiaii.. an a:;rn! ni Cavnnr. a^ prn-di,-tatnr ,,i 

Sh-iIn. and a- a linai an <au-rd ilic Sardinian mn^litnlinn in hr pmclainu-d nil 

\ni;ii-t ,v On \n,i:nM _'n, (¡anhaldi landed m, the mainland and hr-aii hi- 

trininpiial mar. li in Vaplc-, which hr .■nurf.j mi SfpteiiilHT 7. 

In tlun- had hem far k--. di-^rc inr niiimi with Sardinia than in 
Sicilv' and du- n,.inhnn iilaanicn cn.ild he cnnnicd ni, tn nppn,,' it vi-.r- 
nti-lv The frrhn- fnr antminmv wav strnn- and tn thi. the rcpiihliraiK^ad- 
dri-M'd tlii-ni-tl\c~. Ihr diplninatic rcaM.ii. i,.r (■a\nnr'< dcdro Inr iniine- 
diaieaniifxalinii wen- nKTca-in-. whiK-thc repnhlican pnliry n{ .Udax' appeared 
In he L;ainiiiLr headwa\ with ( .anhal.h's inereaMiit,'- -neceases. I'.ffnri- tn fnre- 
Mall (ianhaldi li\ a re\nhitinn in Xaple- were futile. The arniv and civilian- 
were de-eriin-- the ilmirlMii- m va-t nninher<. Imt the jienple were Inn ener- 
\aleil h\- I'.mirhmi mi-rnle In -nr. iiarihaldi's reeeptimi mi enteriii-j Xaj. le- 
nii Seiitemher 7 wa- niu' nf wil.l enthii-ia-m, lîmirlmn-, repiililican-. n.i- 
tiniiali-t-. jinliee. nalmnal ijnard- and elerieals, all jnined in the denmn- 
^"'■""'" 111'' M't"rie- nf the I'ledmmit irnnp- nxcr the ¡lajial \niw< and. 
« trnimph- ,,\er the I'.nnrhmi- -nmi di<pn-ed nf all re^i-taiiee. 
Manned at the -n.wtli nf n'pnhliein pre^lit^'e. l\iea-nli and the nther Sar- 
dinian lea. 1er- .hi (ax. air inime.liale annexati.m hv a .leclaraiinn ..f 
paiiianieni Teinpim- a- w.i- tin- -.iliiii.)n. C.avnnr refu-e.l t., ahan.|..ii hi- 
1>. ilie\ ni h.!-inir the title mi a p. ipnlar v. .ted 

' / ,■ .i.(r,-»i "/,■,■ ,/,/ ,. •.>-,. r.i.'i"i,'/i/<.. V..1. 15. ]>. mil. test 

= p:iiKlamI haii. however, Mijiiitiol that slu- al.i.U- l.y a p..|.iilar \,,tc in N'apKs a- -he 
ha.I in (■.■Mtral Italv \ .llan.ariiia I.. Cavour. .-Npril 4. 1M(,0. (7ii,i/,). ,nl, 4. p. cxxxv. 
■' //'!(/., V..1. 4. p. cxNxv, V'lllaiiiariiia to Cavour. 

' It was im.povol not onlv that parliaimiit .Ic Iar. that all nf Italy helnn-,-,! to the kini;- 
•::: : ::: :::at iiar;iar.Uii( -ii,.iilii mii r it- p.iwtr i.i tiif Kiiiu xv'... -m.imI.I I.o a ■!ir- 

su IIA AM) \ \l'l,l'.<. IS(i) 


'l'lir --itiiritiiiii \\;i> lirmi^^ln t" a licul li\ tlu- iiiiTfa-ini: ariiti'nc>^ n\ ilic 
-tni^L^li- in Sicily ulicrc I kprcti-, thf ]in i-dictat' t, \\a- Nsorkini: \<>r a |ilcli:-- 
citi- ami (iariNaldi qip' i-itii^ it. Ucjircti-- rf-i^ncil ami the ■-trtii,''L;l(' \\a^ 
taken li\ Tawnr tM l'arliaim-nt wlurc 'in McImIut _'. aílcr ann. .nnnnL: tlif 
^itnaticn in >!cil\ ami .\a|ili.'^ ami the rcM^lt in l'niliria ami the Mari lu--, 
hr laid hi- ]m,|Ìi-\- nf p.iiinlar r. iiHultatiun hcfnrc llic (lianilH-r ami a-ki-d i"r a 
\(itc lit lontidtiu-c' dluTe cniild he n.» clearer staienient ni reiimhaii. >n ni 
title li\ cimipu'^t iir dexntiim [,, the principle I'i ~el t'-iletenninali' m than tlii- 
made li\ la\iiiir. After ]iri'tracied di-cn"i(.n the -n\ ernnienl A lull pa-^ed 
the ( haniler !i\ a \i.te nt' _"'(> fi and the Senate li\ a v.. te m" SI 1_', the ..pp,,- 
^itinii heniL; lart,'elv I'mni the clem aK, alth<in,L;h ihi- measure meant the ;inm- 
hilatinn ni the re\ nlutii 'ii. 

(In I ictdher ?th. Murdiiii, the new pT'i-dictat^r I'l Sicily, WDrkini; w'.' the 
ant' III' 'ini^t-, i~~ned a ilecree cunviikinií the e'ectnr- nm fur a ]il(l'i-cUe hnt 
tir chiiii-e ilelet^ate- in a repre-intati\ e a--eniMy. hupin.^ h\ mean- '>f the 
ilelav ciin-ei|liem mi tin- metliüd \n >iave ntï annexation, 1 he primary a-- 
-emhlie- were cninnkcd fur • ictnher _'l. The attemi)t tn interpn-e an a--ein- 
hlv wa- repeated at Xaple- hy ( ri-pi. the leader ni the repnhlican-, I'alla- 
\icimi. the NA-apuhlan pn ¡-ilic tati ir, wa- f^r a plehi-cite. (lanhaldi -nppurted 
('ri-pi: I'allaxicnio re-i^med. dlie next iiKirnni.i;' the cit\ wa- -trewn with 
white di])- marked " N'e- " and iiieimiriaN ^npjinrtint; Tallax icnm were -ÌL;ned 
hy citizen- and Xatiunal ( Itiard-. When (larihaldi -aw the -treni;th n\ the 
popular demand fnr a plehi-cite he yielded, Alnin-t -nnnltaiiei in-l\ new- 
was received nf ('avdiir'- \ ictory in ])arliameiit, 

l'allaxicinn wa- re-tnred to nl'ike and, on ( )cto!ier S. ¡--ned a ilecree call- 
iiiLT the peo]]le of the Continental provinces to meet in prniiar\ a--emlilie- on 
( )ctoher -1. the ila\- alread\- --et for the election, m Sicily, in order to accept 
or reject the follnwinj,'' " plebiscite 'A " The people wi,-h\, iniiled and 
iiidix '-ihle, with \'ictor |-".mamiel as ( 'on<titntional Kin<:. an<l hi- letjititiiate 
fiescendani-." d"he (|nalilicatinn- for -ntfrai,'e are thi -ame as llm-e of 
northern Itah', for here where the rate of illiier.icx- wa- far hi-jher than in 
the north, it was even more to onni a literacy ipialitication it a real 
e.\prcssi<in of the popular will was de-ired. The rate of illitiTacy in Xaples 
was, liowe\er, not -o liisih as that in Sicily, where oidy one in ten could read 
and write, 

tatiT niilil .ill ll;ili,ni .|M<-.tii.ii<. were -ctlle.l To tlii'; ai;ivviT''il th,Tt ill'' ■.Miip.-itlii'-^ "f 
lili'-rnl lii'HK uiiiil'! I"' iarrilurd »■; «ell a>^ the Iceai lil'crty wliirii he ul^lio'l In l.,- t!i'' 
iîi'irparalà'- in iiii.iiii' ill nf tlie iiidcpcndcnrc .■f tin.' liatpn. (Cavour t" Salwisiio'i, 2, 
l7iiii/ii. Ml], 4 p, J.Ì I " I am a s'ln of I.iliertv, an'! it i< t'l lu-r tliat I o»i- all tliat I am. If 
it 1)0 i'fi-cv,,ary t" put a mí! upon hir •-tatiie, it will not he f'lr iin- to iIm it, ' lie wri'tc aii'I 
airain, "The parliamentary roaii i-i I'umi^r, Imt it is more secure" (Tai our to 111'- C'l iiite<s 
.\::a-!j-i,: -'r Ci"— -irt, ¡'^'■i p "^ ^ 
' [nicunients, f-osl. p, ('2>', 


i'i.KiüM 11 !•;> 

llnimiL; lu í(.ri->tall a dciuaii'l lera idchi-^citc m SkiIv, .Morilmi, .pii (Jciulter 
'', cnn\,,k<.-(l ilif Sicilian A.sM'mhlv \,,r .WjvciiiIjci ''. luit < larilialdi, liavinu 
\ii-lclid m Xaiili-^, aiiaiiiliiiu-(l tln' ])1 m ni' iIr- a^M_•Illlll\ m .sicily ami caused 
a ]ir.»laiiiati..ii --Hiiilar in úk- W-api pjitaii oiic u> iic i--ucil i1k-i\- cii ( ¡ctoljcr 
Ir. l!\ tlii> |in>claiiiatii.ii tlk- a-M'iiiMio already convoked ínr ih-' Jlr,t were 
In ca-i thcir \ntc,. lidi i,:r rcprc-ciuatn c> a:, lir.-t ¡ilanncd, Imi .;irccllv oi- 
llic i|iu>nnii (,i uni. .11.' 1 hell, unwilling' that the royal title -lioiild be l)a.-,etl 
wholly oil a ])lehi~cite and without iortiial recognition ol hi> a^enc\, dari- 
lialili. on ihe >a!iie day, ¡->ik-d another decree aiiiiotincin.i; the uiiiiju ot the 
two Sicilies with the con^tiiiitioiial kiiii^doin of \ ictor iMnaniicl.- 

1 he \ole-. were held m hoth .Naples and Siul_\ on ( )ctol)er _'l, Ihe result 
wa- o\rrwlielniin,L;l> lor Sardinia, althoii-h the conditions Mirronndmg the 
\ote ol X.-iples and the cniiiiiu' ¡iiov ince> were attacked with hitternev. 
hy liiose opposed to the result, ,ind lo >,,ine extent with reason. Ihe ipies- 
tioii ol wheiher order or ;inarcli\ rei^nied in the city oí .safle- wa- a matter 
oi contro\er>_\. Disorder and violence of party feeling were to he e.\[iected 
a? a lei,'ac\ iroin the lîmirhoii rule. Altlionj^h the Sardinian troops did not 
enter Naples niitil Octoher _'". an. I \ l-.m.aiuiel lia.l, fr.mi Ancna pr.iin- 
i>ed t.i ilefeiid the n.^lit ol the ¡icjile !.. le,L;al]y ,in.l freelx inanifesl their will. 
It wa- iiie\ii,il.le that the authenticity of the \.)te, taken a- it wa> under Sar- 
dinian aii>|iice-. ■-h..r.l.l he c..iitested. In at least s.inie .>f the coiintrv |)arts 
there apjiears t.. have i.eiii .lis. .rder. ( )n I ictoher _'7 h'.lliot rep. .rtcd a 
nu-nt 111 fa\or ..i the IL'urlLUis, ;ili,.iu Iscrnia. It w;i- supp.irted chietly 
h\- the jicisants smh alieiiipts t.i res', .re the 1 '..iiirli. .ih i\ere l)ein<( iijnored 
hy the iiress ;ni,l oncealed hv the an;h. iritiCs. ■ Ihe lepuhücaiis had hecn 
■'.■•'' a SC' er- M.),v hy 1 ';illa\ icm.. who had suppressed the political cliil.s. 
.Money ami ships h.i.i heeii si_iit l.y Sardim.i. It is a-scrf'l that the .•nitlioii- 
ties cl;i|.])e.l the reacti. maries in jinson, tluis deprivili«; the jilehiscite of \aliie. 
Iiitri,ii,aie was everywhere. The classy-, were quick t.> make the most 
ol the ojipiirtnnity'ered them hv an inlerre^iiiim ami it was ,l.)ii!itless the 
disire to rest. .re .inler ami prosperit\ winch won the snp]).irt .if the several 
¡larties t.. the ciii-c of annexati.m.^ 

I hat there were siii^uesti. .n an.l intimi, there is n.i .L.til.t. and the 
"it^'''i'"l "I \..tI!l^ wherehv the ele,t..r must his fr. mi .me ..f the 

1 I MUMllKMlt^ fi'St. p. (l.i.s. 

- ¡Nil., /•..,(/, |i. (,,ì7. 

■' J\irli,iiii,-nl,tr\ /'.i/Ti-.c, .XlT.iirs of Italy. ISr.l, ■,,,]. ¡,7 l.'757j, p. l.U. 

Milliot, the Hritish Minister at .Naples in a <lisp,ati-h to Lon! .!,,!'.!; Ru. -dl -ay, tliat 
••iiiaiiv wi.iil.i wish antoiiomy if seeiir,' fnmi the return of the lîoiirln.ns, l,i:t are .ililin.d t.i 
vote in eith.r the alVirniativc .'r the negative, and. to escape continueii .lis.irKani/ali.iii.'manv 
uh,, are s,par'.ti-ts at heart will '.,iv,' the aftlnnative vote." I\niuimcnl,tr\- /'„/-.t.,- I.'7571, 
p 11.- 

lia-ki't-- uìkWv ilu' l,■^l\\^■ iii-]n.MÌnii ilniil,ili--> aiilcil in !inii,^iii^ |iri'"iirf,' \ct 
IM rcu-rciuii iMiild ;n-cuniit f. >r ¡In- alniM^t liiianiiiii .u^ rt--;!l:.- 'Ihr li'^nirc<, a> 
aiiiiiiuiufil liy ilic SiiprciiiL- »'■■uri .m Xi ,\ i-ihIht .i, wen.' 1 ..ìnj.oi, > ,.,ir- iCv 
MiiiMiiaiiil I11..ÌIJ a-aiii-i, w Inch, aci-Mi-ilm- i. , li-nrr- ii tw ar-icù t.iilic r.nti-h 
l'orcioli ( )llni- ruiiri-ciiU'd a vntt.- uf 1'' ¡kt l'cnt. •■( tin- i)..jmlan.iii, a IÍlíiht 
only -lÍL',litly lr-~ than iln'-o i,t' ■r!i>can\ and i-iniHa. ' 

I ln' Mile ..t I lie ma in la I id |ir. .\ ¡nia-> \\a> |>t(--;nicd li\ ! 'alla\ iini.. i,. \Hii ir 
l.nianncl, ..¡i In- fütran^a' into tin- city Mr arkni >\\ !rdi;cil it Ia a ](r.ula- 
inatMii I', tin- Xra|»ilnan and Suilian |)f..i)K> uIikIi read. " linuT-al -nltram- 
lia> ,-i\L-n nir tin.- -. >vffi.i,L;ii |). iwcr t'n-i.- n..lik' \<V"\ mrc-.' ::n 1 ni v:v r. >\al 
decree uf anf..-\atiijn <n ! )fci'inlicr 17 the pltln-cite \\a> aL;ain refi rre'l i^' a- the 
lia-i- 111' tnlf. 

I he re-nlt ol tin- |ilel)i-cite in Sicily \\a- eiinally den-i\e. there ha\ iiil; I'eeii 
4,^J ().->ò _\eas and iii)7 nay ~. ' Ilio re-nlt ,L;a\e ri-e to far le-> di-en--ii.n than 
did that .it Xaple-, lia- ^ieil_\- had heeii inu. h niMve cMiliiitlv di-]>M,(d t" 
innen, a- Sirdiinan uh ■ had agreed in Xjiril.'' Here. t.M.. de-ire t'^r a 

stillile nrder had w 1 m n\er the ■ •■mt-. 

' I ll!"tt !■! l\!;--rll: ■■ 111 iait. l-Mtli -h uf tlio .-iii! iUv niaiiiu r in wliicli it i^ 

to I'l taken arr u.!l i-aK';iIateil t < ^ii'uri.- liit , arrest jiussilile majority for tlic annexation, 'mt 
not s.i u, 11 iittid to a^ctrtain the real «islu-s of tin- country." He admitted, however, tha' tile 
antievioiiist- l'y lar the stroiii;. st in miniher«. i'crliiiiuritliiry I'al'crs |J"57|, ¡i. 11? 

-l'usinât.', p. l,;,i. <|ii,.tes >ia,;7.-. p. l.T. to tlie ittect that .Î.DdO Neapolitan woiiim pre- 
sented tlìiiii-eKc- at the I'.IU lo \ ole f ^ T iHiioii. There i< no evidence that their \ot,. «.i- 

■ " .XccordiiiH" lo .-111 an,-il.\si< pulihshed lurr of die \i,ie- i;]ioii ditïrn ni mcckÌo'-. in uhi. h 
appeal l„-i> heen made to ll^a^er^al s-UÏraKC. the \ .tes .civrn lune ln-.n in i.he f,.I|.,uin.i pro- 
poriioii t.i th.' iio]iiilation of the countries: — 

In I'raace in 1.S48 21.28 per cent. 

1.S51 5,VI'> ■• •■ 

1S5J J.i,J5 •■ 

Tn-cany 2117 " 

I iiiilia JiKf» ■■ " 

Xaiiles 19 1; 

Though the miniliers '.vho ha\c here laken ¡un in the vote m.iy he <Mnsi,l,.ri d rath., r Miidl, 
the prop,.rti. .11 oi aliirmative to ne).;ati%e votes amounted to no less than ''''21 per cut., 
which is .u'-ialer than in any preceding instance, except in the I'.inilia, where iliey .iiiioiiiiird 
to i/i).(>4 per cent, of th.- votes reci rded. Ida. .it t.. Lord J. Russell, NaiiK -, XoMiiiher In. 
I'ar'iiinuiiliiry /'.ifcf.v [275"1, p. I'll. 

I he popnkiti.iii ..f tile Xe.ipolitaii rr.Miiccs in l.^id uas 'i.7K7,2.S0. S.'titislim <!,■! Regno 

• I locnnients, fi'st. p. (j4'). 

■'The formal niimite of the \ote of Sicily recites that many votes were declared void, 
throii^;h improper phraseolo^;y, and that the votes of I'stica and Mandanici were thnwii oat 
heia'se there the populace had voted "without reyard to ahv or m \." Dociiments, f¡>st, 
p. (»44 The popnlation of Sicily in ISdl was 2,3')2,414. Staíistu¡¡ ■/, ■ h'ciiiin d'lliUij. 

"^Chulla, vol. 4, p. cx.xxv. 



'I"lu' unimi. liciwcvtT. ilitl ikjI liriiij; onkr al ■•ik'c cither in Sicil\- '.r in 
\'.i|ilf-. \ticT ilic union tlu' antoiiiiini^N. tlu' rcactionarie--. ati'l iho rcpnhli- 
i-an<. till- |irit--i> and ilu- roinnant- ot' tlu- llnnrhnn ])arty in SieiK- kept np a 
iunlîirtin^f pnijìajjanda. I\i\,alr\ lor pulitical pluni> k-il t<i ri\alr\ liciwcc' 
the Ma//iniaii> and liie ( iankaidian^.' i'.ri.i,'aiidat,'c tlnuri^lR-d. I 'intiraiidn 
was (lili'cnlt and tlic .^uMTiinient had made ii^clt nnp^piilar. I he chmax was 
reai'lifd witli the re\nh of 1X66 and ihe attaek en I'.ikriii.i. Since tlien there 
has liccii practically no ^eparati^t nin\enuiii ni an' louseqnciice. 

I'mbna and thr Mar, lus. 1Sj>() 

The nnrot in the >nnthern part di the peninsula liad -jiread into the 
Marcho and I inkria. ilu' ]ia]ial iroo|i- were akoui to ^Ujiprc-^ it. ( a\oiir, 
alarmed al the lepuklnaii ihre limi ni aliali'^ m ^■•lulleni llah. had adii]itcd 
lile policy Ol the mihi. try iiariiripatio'i oí l'iedn'.ont m the liheraiioii oi the-e 
States, tort'sialled the ]ia¡'al troops ky sfudinj.' a 1 'iednionle>e force to occupy 
the provinces and al ihc --anu' tiiiu' iiiurpo-e a harrier kelween ihe " l\ed- 
sliirts "'and Rome, (hi Septeinker 11 the riedinoiite>e ariiu- crossed the iron- 
tier, on the ISili the ))apal forces were cnisheii at rasteitldardo and. with the 
fall of Ancolia, on tlu- _"'ih. the two pro', inces were in the haniN of \ ictor 

Over each province the Kinj,' on SeiiUiuker IJ, appointed a C"nmii>-'-' ( >n ()ctolier Jl each coinini~-ioi i i- jiroelainud ;i p!ikÍM'i'.e 
for Niiveinker I and ^ m In- province, on the i|iie-iion oi miioii with ihe 
constitutional nionarih\ of \ ictor {■".manuel.' 'Ihe pro\ isioii- fur the rej-i» 
tration anil \ote are almost identical in llie two decrees. Manhood siiffraj^e 
was estahlisheti as in the other provinces, with the usual (|nalitications of six 
months' domicile and no judical inahilities. The commis.sioiiers made no 
pretense of neutrality, hut in supplementary decrees nrj;ed the union with 
elo'juence. i'ut the union needed no iir;;iii}.;, and .ilthon^h there were ;irmcd 
.Sartliiiian forces ilirotij;hout tlie jirovitices títere is little doukt kiit that the 
vote was a sincere one The result as proclaimed .villi f;reat formality hy 
the chief court of cadi province was, in ihe Marches l.í.í.rs.^ for. and I.JIJ 

. I r. ' '4. The llritiMi liiintstcr at Naples wrote to Lord Joliii Rii.iiell on 

\iiMiii)>('r III tiiiit tilt' iiivasiiirfs inci<lent tt> aniu'xatioii wore itifHr\ilt to carry out owiiii; nut 
• nlv 111 lilt ,Tt'al forniptiiiii of the roiintry, tint at<o to the faot that althoii^îti Ilio deverai 
larlies hail comiiromi-ietl on unimi with Sardinia in onler to gel riil of ihe Boiirhon«.. there 
was no Kt-neral desire for llie »iiiTe^s of i!;i .min \utioii aii'l the palli'- ■ •: ;ilrii !•. .li . ulnv 
He «|<rak< of the hitinilialioli of the am ' ihr proviiu'ial i 

matter of «onie ttinmciil /'i»r/iiim.iifiir\ '"' ■■ \'' 

■ Ilocunieiits. fost, pp. OSS and ii.Vi. 

' 1 locimients. r"i'. IM'' ''^7 and Wi.'. 

r.MiiKi \ \\i) ¡ill-, \i \ix'i liiv. 1 

Si ii I 


.•i[:;nti-t aiiiicNaiit'ii. and in Inili'-M. 'ir.u40 i..r. and .ìSil a^'ain-t.' Ilk' xmc- 
wiTi- ronnally prt'seiilcd u> tlii' .vin;,' ui tin.' same iiianniT a> tlm^c ni Xajilc- 
and Sicily and llu- pruxnui.'^ wi-rc ini-nr]Mira!ol in the kin^ \uili tlu- -anu' 

(ardiñal Xnl'inflli -..ULjln Ky fiicr^i-tic ]initi'-l- id awakiii the Calliiplir 
i-nninni- ni liic uitcivM^ <>{ tin- ll..l\ l-'atlK-r. In ,i li-ttt-r m' XiAcinluT 4, 
hv -aid it ua- imt a <|UL-.tiiin oi tin- imiditiiMi-. -^nrmiiiidMij; the \uw. iiut tlu- 
\<iti' it-fit. lie c-ondiinm-d tin- pdlitio nt Sardinia in scfkiii},' tu iniriidui.-c 
a iprnii.-i])l'.> eniiniMitly rt-vilinidnaiy and di'-trnctivc of k'f,'itiinatc scivcreiL^iis.- 
I'.ni inni-li a- this arî^i!ni>ni ajiiicaltd tn Austria ,Mid I'm-Ha. ii wa- nt no avail 
aj,'aiii>t the nvi-rwliclniiiiL; tiMiinnnv ni tlio vnte ii>cli. llu- ¡irutcst di l-nnl 
Jnliii kn>Ncll was (.t aiidtlur dtder. ( )n ( )itdlifr J/~ he had u > .11 the addratidn 
(It the Italian ¡latrints hy (leteiidiiiK. ajíain-i tlu ¡irdte-l- oi \ii-iria. I rano-. 
I'rus-ia and Rn^-ia, the aetidii nt Sardinia in -uppdrt di tlu Su-ihan and 
L'tuhrian expeditidii-, taking; the f^rdinid thai the ¡ledple dt the K'dinan and 
Xeapdütaii States were the l)e>t jiulijes of tlieir own iiitere>t>.' lie rei|nind. 
hu\\e\er. that that i'idi;iiieiit >lidnld t)e clear and tree frdin prcs->iire. In a let- 
ter to Hnd>oii oil |aniiar\ Jl. he >a\s that the \dte> di Naples, .'• ., Ciiiliria 
and tlu Marche-, ca-t hy niiiversal suttrajje. had no jjreat \aliie in the eve- 
di the Ilnti-h j;d\ernnKiil. a- the\ were notliiiifí lint a idrinahtv idllduin}; 
npdn act> di popular in>nrrectidn. or of sticce--ful iina-ion. and dui not 
iinplv 111 thetusehes an\ indepeii<Ieiit exercise of the will of the natu. 11 in 
whd-e name the> were },'i\en. lie. Iniwe\er, wai\e(l further o'ljeclioiis, should 
repre-entatives of the several different Italian states convoked for I'elirnarv IS 
li\ a d'-IiUrate act con-tiliiic those States into <ine State. " When ilir 
foriiiati'iii of the State shall he announced to INi Majestv," lu vvroi. 
i~ to he hoped that the < Idv eminent i<\ the Km;.,' will lie pri-|iared to -ii.,\\ 
that the new monarchv ha- lieeti erected in ]iiir-nance of the dehlierate vote- 
ol the pcdpli- m ltal\ and ili.ii it ha- all ihr .lUnlMiic- ni a jjoveriiiiicnt pre- 
pared Id inamtani nrder within .iiul icl.iiidn- di peai e aiul friend-hip with 
ont." * 

< 'n leliriiarv IH the first Italian rarhaiiieiit met m Inrin. and. on Felirnarv 
¿(1 >;ave the sanction «¡esired hy I.or<I John ' ■ 1. \ ictor I'.m.nniel wa- 
voteii Kiiifi of Italy !iy a vote of 12*J to J in «nate and _"'_' 1 ■ 1 ii tbr 

' Documtnt». fast. pp. 667 and 670. The population of tlir .Marcii 
8&U)7J. That of I'niliria wa!' SU.OI'A Slatislua del Kegno d'Italia. 

'.-fri Ai; •.•,»■ ¡iiflomaiùlHts. WA, part I. y ''.V 

* Parhamtnlary I'afers (¿7.^7|, l>. I.',^ 

♦//W. A'Tair» o' Italy. I*>I. %nl. (.7 |¿S<t41. |i. I. t avour in a littir to V/etjIi 

frnm Turin. .March l>i, chose to construe this a» a (juettion -.f llie t>rimtplf ■■( ui, 
fraiic ami not of the conditiont >tirronndini{ the vote, tbiil ■ 


ri.i'.i'.isi I ri-:s 

ChaniljtT. 'I'Ir- I'lyal titk- wa- «k-t'Iarcd en Mariii 17 to lie " X'iriMf I'.niaiim.'l, 
Kiiiij 111' Italy, liy tlie <ìracc nf (iod ami tlic will ui the naiimi." ' 

Tiu' m-\v Uiiiijtlciii was rvcci^nizeil l)v (¡real llntaiii within a inrtiii"lit anil 

r I'liwiT-, thiiniili ¡)riit(.'-tin^^ 
livcrsal .-nlïraui', innli] iln nu 

i)v I'ratuc sninc llin-i' niunths lati-r. ! lie ut!- 
tin- lack i)i validity of a -;,•, crci^nty ha^-cd on r 
k--.^ than I'l'llnw.- 

l' curtía . i Si l'I 

t'aviinr dii-il i.ii luiu- ii. INid. \'<\ h\- ~iatL-^man-li!]) all ni l;al\ had ln'i-ii 
united sa\e k'niin- and \i'nctia: in the inrlhrr nin\inn-n! tnuanl^ Italian 
Mnit\ the piilii'v he had made liis nwn wa< nnde\ iatin.L;l\ inllnwed. 

I'he liirei^Mi aid nei'e"-ary tn î,'ain N'enetia came in lSfi(). when I'liMiiank. 
in nrdcr to dhtain Italy's support aj;ain>t An>tria in the S; hle>\\ ii;-l InUiein 
matter. ]irninised X'enetia tn the Italians.' ( )n Inly 5, after the <leieat of 
Ki>tiif;<;rätz, Austria, acce|)linj; XapnleimV niedialinn. ceded \'enetia to hint 
with the inider>taii<lin.ii tliat it should he handed by him to !tal\. Xaimknn 
then induced rnissia, without consulting' Italy, to si<;;n a separale armistice 
with Austria. Italy was thus forceil to sijíii one also, a hitter dis.ippi lint- 
tnent. for it meant that (iarihaldi imist e\ acuate the Trentino. 

'\']\v treaty hy which .\ustria cedeil \ eneli i in I r.uice sif^ned on .\u- 
.i.;ust J-I.' it is said Xapolemi endea\ored to insert a cl.iuse proNidiii;; 
for A plebiscite to carrx out the t.icit uiulerstandiiij; as to the niakiii}; o\er i^i 
the kingdom to I'r.ance. hiit that the .\ustrian ICmperor ajjain refused, ;is he done in the ease of Lombard). Kicasoli. now i'riine .Minister of lial\, 
was bitterly opposeil to acceptinj^ X'eiietia as a f¡;ift from I'rance. K'.uher 
than suffer such a humiliation lu- ¡«referred to continue the war lie was 
inijuccd. however, to si;;n the .imn-iiif ■ 'ii the b.i.sis of uti possiili'tis. but in- 
sisteil I'r.ancc apree to liie stipul.itioii ihai X'enetia should come to Italy 
without ilisho'iorable conditions and after a ()lebiscite. This wotikl enable 
llal\ to b.isi^ ln-r dann oil ibc w ill of ihc peojile. .iiid not mi the generosity of 
I Tance, .\apoleoii, accordili};!)', pro.iiised to cede \ eiietia to Italy under 
ilir iisiTK .iiioii of ilie "consent of the people duly consulted," a reservation 

'/.iiii.iir/ii,-.t. 18()1. part i. \>. WW /c asst'mt'Wf del risorsimcnlf^, vol I. pp. 

'On the a4*imiptioii In N'iilnr f'tiianncl of the litli- ot " Kin« of Italy ' m 1.<<)1, protests, 
rcsirvinK tlieir riKlit«, were issued l)\ the Diikc of .\Ioilena on March .'0 from \'ienna. hy the 
nuches* RfK«"' <>f Tarma on April 10 fnmi Swit/crlainl. anil hy I-ranci« II of iln' Tim 
.Sjiilic* on May ft from Rotnr. .trt-hi-rs (fi/>/i'»i<j<ii/Mi'.f. IRftl. part 1 

'The Trentino was refiiseil a* hein« comprise«! in the territory of the (¡crmanic ». ,.i,i.,i- 
eration. It is s.iiil. howiver. that Hismarck made answer that what could l)C stipulated 
lu'foro war mi«hl hecome possihle diirinR or after it. ami iirRcnlly sngRcsled that the people 
should ilcuiand a plehiscite. I.e assi-mhlfc ,/,•/ ri.vniininilit, yol, 2. p. 1. «pintiit« frimi (iviiova 
di Ktvfl. la Ci-.i.ri.'iii- ilrl t\'>\cl\ p ^ Rryil was the Italian commissioner in Vcnetia. 

* Doctimcnis. fosl. p. (j/*' 

\'ì:\T.TI.\. In.', 


which the Au-tnan I iii¡K'riir. im-mi^isti'mly fiinuj;!!. allowcd to lic iiiciitnMic 
ill the ]ircainh!c of the treaty nf ¡icacc ^iiiiicd hctwccii Austria and Italy on 

( )CtnlnT .v' 

I hi I )> teller !''. ' H'licral Lc!"ciii. rcprc^ciitiiifí Xajiolcoti. I'cniial!) dchv- 
I. led \ eiR'tia 'i\er t" a ci 'iniiiissioii rejiri'-entiiiii the ])ro\inee. The deluery 
occurred at ei;j,ht n'clnck ¡n the iiii 'riini:^' and iimler condition^ whiih imiiit 
to a de-ire "n the jiart oi' the lun]iir..r I'l jire\eni ".'ly ¡»nhlic deiii' in-ir.iti. .n 
I.cIm 11. after a --tatenieiit of the d.e\"ti"ii of Xa])oieon t<i the nL;lii ot >eli- 
«Icterinination. declared dial \ eiietia w.i- now iin-tre-- of lier nwii dc-tinics, 
in order thai the \\< pie -.hoiild freeK expre-- their wi-he- on llu- -.nhiecl ><{ 
the annexation ,,{ \ riietia to the l\nii;<lo!n ..f Italy. 

Xcci.rdin.i,' to nnder-tandiiiu; the \ote w.i- to he taken ni.der ihr direi.tioii 
"t the Wneiiaii nninuiiial liM,h\-- \\iih.,iu directinti from the Italian 5;oveni- 
iiieiil. < )n the -anie day of the deli\er\. iiowf\cr. a ro\al decree \\a,> ])romnl- 
;.;;ited coiuokinji the electoral a--enihlie- and )iro\ idiiig iiiinnte re;j;tilatiiins 
for the coiiihict (if tlic v(ite.- Ihi- ,i]i|K:ired to he a denial of tlie ai^reeineiit 
with Irance wlierehy tlie innnici|ialitie-' wire to draw np their own regula- 
tion^ and accoriliiijjly called forth .t |it'ite-t from l.elceuf. The I'rendi 
were, however, satisfied hy the eNi>lanatii'ii that llie decree was iitioliicial 
•11 character and wa^ nieaiii rather to -er\e a- a model which the nuiilicipalities 
r.i;;ht follow, than a-, a form imi)o^ed. I he decree wa-, of^e, followed 
minutely. 'I'here was no fnriher interference hy the Italian government 
I he adiniiiistratidii I'i the \-ote wa^ in the hand- of the mnnicipal olticiaK who 
•ere those elected in the previous May. while \ e"etia was still in Austrian 
.laiKJS." Tlie pro\i-ii.!i- .if the drrr.'i- arr bindlar t" ilio, e ..f die previ""; 
j k'l>iscitc< 

The plehiscile \\a- litlil .11 ( ictoU-r _'l and 22 witiioitt event. liiere wa> 
no doiiht of tlie resnll. ( )m of the (»47..Í15 voting. 6^' voted " vv " an I .vi 
\ntes were \oi<l. The result was such a forep)tic conclusion that the fait 
tliat tile ])riiviiice had heen erected int" a military di]iarinient a few da\- 
lief.ire the vote iiad no >ij^nilicance as atìectiif^' it. 

I he result was ¡inlilished hv the l'élut of \ppeal -ittinj; in -pisciai sosiun 
111 ilie f)ogcs T'alace,' and on Xi.vemKer i tlie votes were formally |iresentc<l 
to till' Kin^' at Inriti hy di legates from the mnnicipahtu'- lir received the 
deleijates in sHHf. accepted the votes, and hv decree, " in view of the 
result of tile vote of the citizens. " incorporateli the provinces of N'eiietia ami 
.Mantua in the Kin;;doni "f It.dy.'^ 

' Ilix-imu'iil*, /•iiJ'. p. (M. 

' r.>ocitmeiits. /'Oí/, p. (Äi. 

' /.(• .Isscmhli-f del risi^raimenti', vol. 2. p li. 

• IVK'imicnt», /><',«», p. 694 

'• l»iicmnents, /•dj». p. 7ul. 


ri.Ki5IS( !Ì!:S 

■ ine. 1S70 

^^ '"iir \r;trs wi-iit l.y iii'li.n- Kcìhic cniild hi- adilc.l !.. ihr Ii.ihan 

llliic'l: uiianli-il hy I-"r'IU-1i inii.p. an,; pr. .tciUd li\ an ai^rrciiuiit l.rlw (-(.il 
Xaimk'on and Itaiy, ilif ri'iii]".ral l'iiwrr \\a- -cnirc \'>r iln- iniu iicni^- 
11)1- "])iiiirtiiiiily cainc. hnwcvfr. with \hv i rain..-! 'rn--iaii war ..í lS7ii 

I lu- ItciiiI: tini.]!^ wvvr wiili(hawii in Jnl\ i )n Srjiitmhir !1 < un^Tal 
t'ailitrn.i in n.ininaiid m' tlu- lialiaii i^rcc^ cnina-d ihc papal u'rriiMr\ w i;h 
-i\ty t!iini~and nu-n and adxanct'd wiihniit Mppi.-iii^.n im the wall- ni k.inir. 
liiTc llhiT wa- a --hiiW i.f rr-i^ianic. ihc l '^ .pr \\;-hniL; !" appesir !" \ irM i.iil\- 
!" i"rir. \ liicaidi ba\int; Ikcii made in ihr wall-, hr "I'diTcd ilii.- n--i-tanci- 
to ct-a-t-, and nu Si-])1i-iii1k.t _'(>, ('adema, i'^llnv^'d 1,\ th..n-aiirl- •<{ K'..inan 
I'xili'-, inarchfd ni!.> the citv. 

( adMfna. nn tlic day ai'tcr hi- rnüancí'. had i--nid a pruclanialit .n \<r<nu- 
isinj,^ ihai llic 'pic-ii.n -f I'tninc -MMTtÍL;iit\ -h. mid hr .Irridcd h\ a (ree 

\-í»t<v , . f 1Î1.. >i,Ii-il .1» -.,,» . .■ Í.' 1 : . Il, I. 1- 

\-(>tc "t the mhahuanl- .li K'unir atui i!- |.rM\ince- 

"■"- •■' ""■ Niu.iiMi.iiu- 111 iMiMie ami u- ¡iruxmce- Ilio Italiar.-. wi-llin;.; In 
frivf everv appearance mÍ in ed. ini. liad ordered !hal m ea. h pr. u nice and 
nuninnne inniüa- dmnld he ereeted. whieh ^hmild iia> e ehar-e nl' the ailiinin- 
-iraiKni Mt ilie iilehi-eite. Illese ,L;iunla- were l.i lie e.pnv.iked In the tndiiar\ 
e.iininander- plaeed . i\ er llie prn\ nu'e-. I he nnhlarx .lìtìeial- were In niereh 
lend !lK"n- iiilluenee tnwai-il ihe e-laiih-linuiil and pre-ti^e "l' the «,nunta^ and 
ti> aid in fiiun- them a edniiiKm fiirin.' There were in Ivmi. tliree parties: 
those loyal to the pajial -rnverninent; the re]inliliean- w hn were -till niindfiil 
c' their -iiece-s inider Mazzini and 'lanhaldi in iNtS. and. the par!\ I'.ir 
union with the Kintidi^in of ltal\. Ihiniediati K .m I adorna'- entranei' the 
repiiliiieaiis at oiire hecaine aeti\e. ( hi the next da\ a -real as>emhl\ ealled 
l>\- the reiinliliean leader- ntet in the ('.ih-enni and eleeted a i^ninta m' !'.iri\- 
two persons, which wa- -nper-eiled. h..wtver, l.\ another and -nialler .me. 
,-ippointc<l on tlie -aine (la\ hv Cidoriia i 'r,n tic.dl\ all ol' the eii;hteen n.une- 
< .i.l.irn.a'- i;inni;i h.el hem Muhi.le.l ni the i'. .rt\-two -eleete.l In the re])nhli- 
e.iii- hill the repnhlii-an leader- h.i.l heeii omitted -' hi -pite of it> ori^dii tiiis 
•ceond ¡minuta did not evlnhit the i|nie-.ent ..hedieiicc wliieh was, perhaii-. 
espeeted. hnt pi. .te-ted ,ii^.nn-t h. .ih th.e a.hiiini-trativ e olììeial- and the w..rd- 
in^' of the vote for the plehi-eiie whieh wa- -eiii i'r..m 1 h.reiue.' The fornmla 
whieh had eon! lined .i 'jnaraittee of the imlependenee ..f tin- \'n]ic liavin;; lieen 
ehan.ued to ii-e.l 111 the ..ther iilehiscite-. the vote, In ;i deeree of Septemlier 
-"*. was li\e.l Ini- ( »eti.her J, 

' R.itTiii'lc I'ailiiriia. I.,i lih,->,i:ii,iu- di h'uma. p. ¿32. 
■-■ Iiiiciiimiit«. /.iMi. PI». 705 ami 7tKi. 
I'ispaiehe» ..( Mr. Jervoisc to ICarl CranvilU-. Dociminiti. p. 5.(5 1 l.-rcnct was at tliat 

!<< i.\!!-:. 1870 '''' 

I 1r' mpIc \\;i^ III 111- li\ iiiii\cr-al ~iit't'ra:;c. Ilic li.>t ni ;ui.Tiili!r'l \'iUt- 
wa- !!■ In- iiinii-lici! Ii\ ilk' iuK>i- aiiil li\ llu- i)rc>iilciicie> oi Knuw. Mir 
liirtlur ])ri.\ i^ii iii> <>i \i\u dciTce arc >iiiiilar tn ihu^o ni tlic niluT j)U-1)im.uc~. 
It appear^ thai tlk' liallut.- witc to In- ili>triliuU'<l licinti.' the vniiiig. i)i)>>ilil\ 
tn iili\iatc tin,- iiitici-iii KriMLjln ai;ain-t tlu' \i)ti.- n! .\a|)lf> aiul Sifil\. 

I 111- Imal i"i-,L;i^tratii '11 wa- ¡Jiii in ilif liaiul- nf a -¡ncial I'l iiiiiiiittci; "i 
t\\i-l\c wliK'li wa- t" apiMiiiu -tili-i ..niiintti I--- ti> ]iri.'^iili.- at tlu- n-L^i-irati' ni 
li( Mitili all'I tlu Ti- \LTn'\ tlir ilaiiii- "i' tiic rti;i>trant> aii'l iiiriii-li tlinn \Mth 
ccriilh aii.'^ a> tK-cti if-, Kiiiic wa- «IniiU'iJ iiiln ~ii. 'Ih i"r li"tli ifi^i-tratinn 
ami \"ti'. In the prii\inii'^ ilir \ "tr \\a^ tai.iu in rath rnmniunal lu-a'l'|iiar- 

'lluT',- are twn ^tnno with, re UTiiut tn the \"te "l' l\"ine The Italian 
xer-iiT. i> that the vute \\.i> a >p(iniaiieiin> esi)re>^i<iii ni natmnil eiilhii,~ia-iii. 
rile (iu:ccttü iitjhiíilr of I'lnreiiee ["r (ietnher .ir.l i;i\e- dwpai'he- cnnlam- 
Íiil; JiecnniU^ "i the \nte in the ilillerenl t'>uii^. The liiue ami ~i('k. it re 
pnr;etl, were lienii; earned tn the \ntiii;; plaee^ in \iierlin arni Rnine llie 
traile^ineii anil erail^iiien were iiiarehin;^ with hancN .iiul ila^- tn the pnll-. 
In l.ahriea the pnlK "pened at '' n'elnck. I'.y 10 nMnek innre than nne-lialt' 
nt the ])i)pulalini! had vteil. In Terrai ina the Xatmnal < Inard aii'l all the 
eit\ ntticial-- marched, in a hn<l'i in whieh ilk' e'er^'\ were rejire-eiited. 1 : •■ 
nr'liT wa-- ]iert'eet, the ei!thii-.ia-in inde^erihahle.' ( a !"r:ia. writing irnni 
Kniiie "11 the da\ ni' the xntin^»^ ÍTÍm'-- a ile-eriptinn "Í the ^eeiie there. " li 
¡^ the da\' nl' the jilehi-'eitt'," he w rnte. " It i> an ailniirahle --iieetaele I lie 
peuple, iiiarchmi; in Imdie^, ha'.e ¡ia--^eil under the halmiiv with llai;^ living, 
aeilamnni; the Kin.u' nt' ltal\ the hheratnr ni' Uniiu', '.n their wa\ t'l tlie 
t atiipiilnijlin tn their \nle> in tlu- urn. 1 lia'.e e^erti'l ii"t the !ea-t 
pre^-nre. It \\ill he a ^nlemn ]jlelii-eite." - 

The papal\ i-. linwe\er. tar ditu rent Neenrdtiu^ tn thi> -verMnii tlu- 
Niiiipnrt ni llu Italian e.'ui>e \vi> 'hie tn ÍLiiíaii ninni'v whii'h wa^ pletiliinl, 
aii'l tn the |ir'--(-me "i the trnnp^, whieli the paj'al antlmritii-s aeeiise<l nl Innt- 
iiiLT and \ inleni e \p]iearanee ni wide ^njipnrt w.i- '^w t-w liy the tinmher-. 
i>{ leliirneii <'-inÌ!^re> and nien i mm all jart^. w lin ha' I pniin '1 min K,. me ■>\ iih 
lailnriia. The i'npi- had i'--iu-<l an nriier prnhilotint; all Unman t atlmhes 
frnni takiiip; jiart in the eleetinti mi the ;,'r,,niid that partuipatmn wm 1<1 ^ei-m 
to ¡I'.ithorize tin- invaders ti) question the -.overcifrti ''t'" "i ''"' I'.ip.icy ■ I'« 

' (¡a::cthi uffiiial,- dfl Ki-ijno dltaiui. 

'•■ Letter i>f Cailoriia. I.c assrmhlee det ru,i u^i '•: . -■■■ ■ !■ .- 

•■■ Coi.iiit <U' FW.iuffnrt Histoire de l'infasio» des Rials ponliñtn limes Mac- 

Cnfírey — llisinry cf lite Calholii Cliiireh íh Ihe Xineleeiilh le-itur\. -i .. ..i eil., p. 4.1.' 
.\ ( liiKKCrtbi-rKer - •' Cenemi llislory of Ihe Christian lint, p 3*). Doiial Sarii|>v)ii — T/ii- 
l.ast Ten Years of rhe Teiiiforal l'ouxr — .tmrriea» Calholie (Juarierly Wc; iVte, vol, \xiv. 
p 170 .\i iiiosi of the Papal historians make tlii% »tateinciit, it is duuhtUss airuratc. 


i'i.i;i;i>( I i KS 

I'alaiirc ila- (allibile al.-u-iüi. ms all al.-uit i^.inan- ucr^' -tüiini. .iil-.I t.. return 
aiHÎ tin Italian aiillinrnn-^ had <n\w<\ the railvay^ t.. l,mvl- irw iran-|i. ,nali..n 
t" any man pri-M'iiini- a cmiticate 1>. un a prri.rt aii.-;wi;:; hi. -tain- a. a 
iiaiia- ,.t' K'Minr, ( ,.untk— Italian., Imm ni all ¡.art-. ,,i the pcnm-ula -ei/cd 
thi. -I'l""'""!!'} '"I" an n. tlic Inrnal (it), and\ tn,, ca-ily se- 
cured re-i-irati,.!, e ir.K with wliich they .-.elKd the allirniatiNe v..te,' r.m- 
irary tn the ileiree, those whn had Keen under judicial sentence f-r innie were 
al-. re-iMered.- they as>ert, wlnle th...e kn-nvn tn he a-aiiiM the uninn were 
omitted.' l-:ven canp-inllnwer. uere allowed tn vnte and whnle cnnii)anies 
nf Italian .nMicr-,' a. uell a- i,<<y^ under a-e." .\. eleUnrai ceriiluales 
Imre nn de.i-natHm> a. tn di-irict. and nee.l imt he surrendered nn caMm- a 
\nie. with line Mich certitieale ;i man ni!.!;lu \n!e in a. nianv diMrid- a- he 
pleased, and m,iny straii-er. av.iiled themselves nl" the i ippi irtum; v ,'■ Tn calm 
the lr,irs ,,r Ihr limnrmis that a vnle tnr unii.n wmild i;mse tlie I'.iwers, and 
espen.-illv I'russi;,, i,, 1, ,nk with ilistavnr m, inpu-s ni ,i spurmus letter 
pnriinriin- tn he in nn tlie Kin- nf l'rus-i,a tn the I'npe m which the Km- re- 
I'used tn aid in a prmest ,iL;,,mst "his 1 -miIut the Kin- m li,d\,'- >,\vre"sn!d 
liyllinns.iiiiNnnthed.ivni thrrlrcimn. hnrtlier pmpa-and.i nf a nature mnst 
unfair m tl,e pajKicy was earried nn hy ineiuis ,,i pnstcrs which ridicule.! the 
pajial rule .•md misrepresented its p,,lu-y' Ihdiery ,-iiiil ial-ii. atn m m the 
reiiinis ,, ;ds,, ihar-ed. the iilel.isnie heen ImnestK t,,keii. Imuever. 
Ihe chiireli wniild still h:ue held it itnalid mi iIr. ^mmid the penpje had 
nn ri-ht In transfer iheir umI alle.:;iance rmni ihe I'npe. ^ 

It had heen intended imt m attempt tn take a Mile in' the I.eniiine Citv hut 
'" '^"'"' " '" '''^- ''"!'>• At the earnest desire m" s,,„e ni the mhahit'a.its 
hnuever, ( .adnrna assumed the I^sp,,„.,l,ill|^ ,,, phuin.,; ,„ ,. nei-hhnrin- 
district an electnral urn I'nr the \ntes i,i' (he eity. 

The returns ir,.,,, the >nmmunes and the citv ni K'mne were laceue.l hy 
the ,-ninta. \erilied, and prn.laimed imm ihe Capitnlme stairs, I,, the whole 

■lluy Kive no dl.,ii„„s, howcv.r. and no trruc of tlio .loaimcnt <aii In- f,nm,I i„ any of ' • 
usual collceti.,ns. Ily llu- <l<crec V..,, /f.r/-,-././. of Fcbriiarv .";, 1S(,K. I'ius l,a<i i,,r- n latlL.Iics to parti, ii.alc in p:.rliamrntnry under llu Italian R..vrrnmont 

' Ih-r llalu-ms.-l.c k,n,h:u,i, y. ¿07. I>r Ih;iutf,.rl. y. .V>3_ (;,,„„.-„/.,-,o-.-. p .UO /i„„„( 

.'•iJWl/>J(>H, (1/). (Í/, p. 170 

'Der Itatit-ni.uhe Ranhcun, p. JUS. 

'1',- H,;tuñ,'>l p .vr. 

•Rev. Ricliar.l lirt-mian. I \f,- of /',/•,■ / i,,.t IX 

'• C,uti>ictäHr,iir. p. .Í4Í) 

'■' /'r Btaulfort. p. yì2. 

■|..-tl.T <it Cardinal .\iit,.iî,ll, i,, (1„. nuiui,.s, \,,v,!n!i(r K, Isrn, ./.M S-,,.,, /ul 
Sfdis. lS/()-71. vol, 0, p, Jlf, ( f also i/i,/., ,\ppcn.lix V, p. J.M 

"'111. wiiole I'apal si, I.- iif iho Roman Qnostiim was set forth m the FiuNelical Letter of 
XovcmhiT 1. 1870. entitU-.l K,-sfUi,;,i,-s .„ „mnia. Ada Sam lac Sedh. vol. (i. pp. 1M-H5, 

The |.,,pai t.-ii.kiiin.ill. •! iii iraiisfir .'f aiieniancf had l.oen r. -pealo. II-. --■ ' ' Cf -pc- 

.M< M.D.W I \ AM) W \l,l.\i 111 A, ls = 7 


turrit. ify, it \va< aninmiii-iil. tiurc luid hoiti Kv^.J"! v. 'tes ca-t in ia\.ir dt 
iihímii and 1.5(17 a^ani-t.' In Ri.nic it-i'lf ()S.4f')() had vini. Several of the 
ennimeiitator.s a~-ert that it \\a- a pln^ieal iiiipt i--^iliiiii\- i'«.r -.i nian\ \i.t-'- 
tii he ea-t in the time ami with the lacilitie- ntïered.- ( )\vin,L; t.> the papal 
niterdulinii, n, ,[ a -ini;le ne,L;ai;\e \'ite had heen ea-t in the I.e^aiine ('it\, 

I iie pre-emati.:n to \ I'.inamul ..t thi- la-t and enuvnin;.;- art "l" nni.'ii 
\\a> made with ^reat cereiiinnv on (Jet.iher 'i. Ihe Km-, -nrr. >niidcd hv 
the ni\al suite, the Ministry. hundes dt' jLirliament. ami the lii,;.;li mdi- 
lary ottica], received the dele,i;ates in. in the Roman '.^iiinta. md th.'^e t'n>!n 
each ol tlie proxince-. I'he Kmir actejited the v^te-. declann- that tltev 
Completed li.duin nmty and reci.n-ecr.iteij the lonndalii'u, ,,i' the nati. .nal 
pact.' aii'l a r..yal decree, c.inlirmed Liter liv p;irh,ameiit. inc. .rp. .r.ate.l m 
the kin-d. .m ■' in view ol the re-nlt of the pleliiscite hv whi. h the citi/ens of 
the K'..m,an rr<ivinoes h.ave declared fi.r nim>n with the ( '. .nstiinti. .na! Kini;- 
d(im of X'lctor 1-jiiamiel II ami hi- successors." 

.Moiii.wiA s\ij W'.Mi \i iii\. [Sr7 

1 he year ]Xr-() m.irk- n,.t only the end ..f ¡he ('rmuMn W ir hm .-il,,, .-m 
inno\:iti..!i m ¡nternaii..nal dipL.macv l-.,r ¡he tir. t tum m lnsi,,r\ .an iv.ier- coiif^ress ol j^nvat l'..wers, which ha.I met lo .etile tlie future ..f .a 
small, weak, and disunited people. p(.sip,,ne.' their acti..n unlil ihe\ should 
li.ave as -i.iined the .lesire ,.f the jicple ihenisches. .and, ,as .a furtlier inn.i- 
\,ition, liiey no. le.l this de-ire sh,,ul,l he e\pre--eil h\ a v..Ie taken 
tinder tlie supervis;, .n ,,f an internati, mal c. munis. i, .n, 

lile t'Ao Dannili. Ill I 'riuciii.ahties ,,t Moldavi;! ami Wall.ichi.i, v.hicli n..w 
t..rni the Si.ite ..f Rum.mi.a, ahlinUi.;]! of the same r,,ci,il u \iure. h.i.l fr..m ¡he 
lie^mnm:,' maintained .a separate existence fr. .in e.icli oth. r. .am! had <leveloped 
a -ejiarale hisi..ry. In the Middle .\,i;es the stru-^de f..r self-prescrvatioii 

cially the KiiryelitMl nf ! .*<. li<'.4 ,\> t,,r iinncr>al MilTraKe. I'lus IX. m 1S7.Í, iliar- 
aiicri?c(l It ,is 'imi' iilaie liorril.le ciui .iIÌIil'c la s,„i.t. Iriiiiaiiu- . . . iiiif jilaic destructive <lc 
I'or.lrc sd.ial ct fini iinrilrrait à juste titre d'.tre a[i|jtl<c Ir (<ici(.ç,.ii./(- imirvric/." Cf. "Le 
Miffram- miivirsil .hik>' far i'ic IX." in the A'iT u.- iatlwliquc del iirslxlulinns el du dnut, 
1S74. \..! .Ì. p. (i(i. Tilt (iiuitatiim is fr,.iii a sinnli of I'ius t.. the 'Viii. Ii iiiluriiui nn Mav 5. 

' l)iK:umri.I^, l'osi, p. 7\>. The p(i|iula!t..n i.f the iv.iiiiaii i>r.i\ iiieer. m 1K7I was S.ii..7ll4. 
of whieh miMilier J67,+i7 w. re males o\er Jl It i. stat.-. I hy a Jesuit wriiri that four 
months latir a formal iietilii>ii was sinne.! hy .V.l'.l R.'man.s. horn or IiKally ihmiieile.l. male, 
of \otinti SKC and enjoying eivil rinhts. statiiiK Uiit thev remainr-l taithtui to the ovcr- 
tiirneil Ko\ermnctit. Charles van I'u'-rm. ¡'uissiluiliS /•«i/íín/Mr.t du fou-.ntr Icmfor.-I i/rt 
faff ''<• l^W» ,i M<>,< jours, p. 4.'.'. lie cites /.o Iclln- du fif'' e' I'H'ilii- nfli.irll,-, M 

-Ci artiele hy J. Im 1 '.unis Ma^nire, íhihtiii A'.ti.-;,', .'./mnov ll7¡. \.il 1'. (new seriis., 

' 1 1. leimicnts. /".'Ji, p. 72(i. m.'/c. 


i'i.i.i;i.--( 1 i I'.s 

a-ain-t tlif attack-- ( .1 Tnrk-, I I ;i:i-ariaii-. l'ulr-, ami Tavia! - lia^l pr-.M'il im. 
.L^rcat I'.ir tlif litix i 'f:iin|ialit:(.--. \t la-t. in ilir 15tli and Uuli centurie-. 
each. altliMUL;!! ( iin-iian. lia.l >..n.;;ln |n'acr ihr. .it-li tin- pr. iIih-ümii ..i' l'nrk:-li 
-i!/iTaimy, In ¡lie i a|iitnla!i(.n-. then eiitcreil ^n each had ruanied u- an in- 
"■iny. which iiichided the ri^ht to make treatie- with lMre:.L;n I'l'uer-. The 
< 'n-taiit tnniinil a'ld nitri.i;ne ciiMiinent lai the ii.>l:t:cal jealnn-} '>i tSie ci>ii- 
lenihni,' claimant- t.. t e'- ,,1 the I'-inc!¡-aliiie- -n.m íurni-heij Ttn'kev 
with an e\c\i-i' it<v -iili-titiiiin;; prince- ni ner nwii clieice a- ^i iverm .r-, tnid 
the antnn.iiii) i>l' the rrmcipahtie- .^radnaliy hei-anie :i name milv. 

The s^muili i.i' I nrki-h p'.wer ¡n the l'rmci]ialitie- had aw;ikened the alarti! 
Ill l\il<-ia, intent a- -he \\a- ..ii tile de-lrnclKin ni ilie ()tti>man lùiipire and 
the CMiitrnj ..i the r..i-phi.rn- '! .. cnnnteract the-rowili m i'lirki-h inlliieiice. 
-he had pill reddiilileil vf^nv mio pn-lniiL,' her claim tu the cham])i( Jii-lnp uf all 
the I liri-iian-"i the l-'a-i, and with -neh -ncce-- that the Kn--iaii pmtecturate 
ii\er the rnncipalitie- had heeii i^rmallv reci ii,Mii/ed li\ the l'urte m a -erie- 
cii euiuentiun- emliiiL; with the Treatv oí \dr;an(iple m \S2'<. Turki-h 
-n/eraint\, however, wa- -nil recni^tii/ed li\ the paMiieiit ui animal tnhiite 
and the riL^ht ui inw-tiliire ui' the Íiu-]m idar-. 

'1 he iinii\ ut the Knmanian r.iee had Keen a ia\un!e ductnne ui the Mul- 
da\iaii lii-turian- ui the ISlh century, Imi the mûrement had a--iinied iiu 
practical iiii])urtance until the lieLiiiiniiiL.' ui the T'th ceiitiir\. when the na- 
tiniiali-t ¡ilea -pread lu the iwu 1 'rincipalit le- truui the l-Iiimanian- ui 'lran-\l- 
vaiiia. wliu were held under Mau\ar aiiil 1 laii-lini\;; iluimnatiun, I'erpeina- 
tiun ut the -e]iarate e\i~lence ni the 1 'i inci|iahtie- had ia\ured Turki-h 
elh ruachiiient and had ihereiiiie heen a cariluial tenet ui the I'urki-h rule. 
kii--ia. willniL; lu -treiiL^ihen them aL;am-t Tiirkev a- well a- h.ipeiul ui their 
i-vetinially acce]iini^' a l\ii--iaii prince, had -liuwn -ympailu with the imiuih-t 
idea, .ami under the Ku--!.!!! prutectur.ite the twu I'rineipalitie- had heen i;i\ei! 
.1 juuit .admmi-ir.iiiuu. l',\ the Treaty ni Adri.iiiuple. u had heeti .iLjreed that 
the (■uii-lunliun ui ihi' i 'rincipahtic- -huuM regulated li\ .in ur- 

Ljaitic a. 1. tu he di aw n up .icci ■nliUL'' tu ihe w i-he- ni d:\ an- uf the liutai ile- ut 
e, ich ti'irilur\. In the Ima! ,ici, drawn np under ihe Intel, ii;e ni l\u--i.i. culi 
tinned li\ llie l'urki-h .iiid l\u--ian ;;uveinmetit - and pruniul;,;atcd m IS.U. 
were ]il.iceil twu .iriicle- e\pre--:n;; .1 de-ife iur nltiin.ite umuii.' Till- ( )r- 

Mlki.AMc Air, >KiiiiiN 5. .\ktii IK 4J.^, — I,'iii-Ìì;ìiu , la rilinimi, U - u-aucs et la lon- 
fnrmiftf ile Innuuc dis habitants «lans les 2 I'rincipaiité<. ainsi r|Mt' le lic*oin iniitticl. 
cniitiiiincnf. liN le prineiiK'. It- eléinenls d'unt' union intime uni .t étr entravée ef<Iie 
par lie« ciru n^tances fortuite- et s'cotulain«, !•- avaiilai;<- et li- roii-ii|iieiii e- -ilii- 
talres ré «le la re.niion ile ce* 2 1« nple- ne <anraiem être révoipiés en ilniile I.e< 
éUnients lie la fusion ilu peuple Molilo \'alai|.ii' -ont iliia poses dans ce rèi;lenii nt |>ar 
rniiifornute des liases aduiiiiistratives des 2 pa.vs. Iirif!.\-li nn.ì i\Trii:ii Slni,- /'ii/-i'c>. 
^.rî .!.•. ÍÍÍ4U1S4-?. i-. 7?&. 

M( il.U \\ I \ \\i) W \LI. \i III A, is-r 


t;;inu- Xct, aitli' Mii;!! a '.(iii-i'i' aii\e (!> n iiiiiiMi in rin'tn.itniL; tik' ÍL-;iilal ^truüirc 
dl' MH-ii'iy. în\ trtlirlc-^ ]ia\iil the ua\ ínr niii'M! Ii\ f-taiili>liiili; tlu- ^aiiic law - 
Inf tiu- twii 1 'rnKÍ])alitif- ami a tnrtlnT -ir]i \\a-> takt-ii. wlii-ii m tin- hutii-- :lu- 
tai'll (liitn-^ iiclwri'ii tlk' ;\\ii wiTr ^-.iiiuri-^-i'il. Ihr rcM iliilK iilar\ iimv i-iin-nl 
i.í IS4N. alihiiii^h 11- ]iiii)iar\ lOiii-c-t iii Mnhlasia aiid \\ allacliia >\as the "wr- 
thriiw ni K'n^-iaii iiühuiin' raihiT tliaii aiilnii.' nc . i-nhtU-- i;a\i' the iminni-t 
eaii-e a irreal imiictii- thrniij;h tlic re-tiltiii:; liaiii-hinem ni the pnhtical U-adi-r-- 
\Uin, 111 their exile in western |-'.iirni)e aiiil panieuiarly in l'ari-, eatne in tniieh 
with the new -pint ni iiatinnahtx ailanie aIlln|l^ the hheraU and. ni their turn. 
!i\ paintint,' the -ni't'erin^- ni the Uimianian ])en])le. .-n]i])hed tn the i^cnernii- 
-]iirit nt thn-e lilioraK an nhieet t"nr their -\in|iathy. 'I'he nn'-t intinential ni 
th.e-e di-eiple- i^i the Kninaiiian patrint- wa- Xaimlenii 111. v\hn-.e de', ntinii 
In the [iri nei] lU' nf nat:niialil> wa- at niiee eiili-ted in the intere-t n| thi- ea-terii 
niiti)n--t Dì the I .atin race. 

Sneli w;i- the -itliatintt in tlie I'rineipahtie- when, in IS.^.i. war I'rnke mii 
lietweeti ¡•Jii-^-ia and Tiirke\ . in the next \ ear I ireat Britain and I rani'e Ti.ide 
enmninii eaii-e uith tile ( tttnitian L;n\ ernnietit and nnderinnk the ( nnieaii 
expeditinii. !>.,ni the i)eL;inniiii,' tile paranininit aim ni the aHie- 'ix - tlie 
alinhtinii nf tile prnteetnrate e-;erii-eii \>y i\n--ia nver the iliree i 'rineipahtie- 
• •i \\ allacliia. \ii.lda\ia. and Serhia. and the -iih-titutmn nt" the cnlleetive 
,;,Mtar:iiitee hy all tlie I'nwer- nt' tiu- ]iri'. ileije- ..f the 1 'rineijialitie-. a> well .i- 
the freednin nt iiavii;atinii nf the l)aniilie. the liiiiitatmn ni ¡lie K'li — ian lleet 
nn the ni.iek Sea. and the ee--atinn ni the l\ii--ian pH'Kii-inn- n\er the other 
( diri -tian -nhjeet- ni the I'nrie. 

Tn the-i' term-, einlindied li\ i ¡ I'.ritain. krance, and Aii-tria in the 
tinte- "i X'ieniia ni \iii;ii-t S. IS.-l. the l\ii--ian L;n'\ erntiieiit aeeedeij, lint with 
an itilerprel:itinn -n iar iii'in the iiUeiinnit ni the alke- ,i- tn lieoe--itate a 
I'nniereiu'e. In prejiaratinii inr tlie enniereiue, aiKl in nrder in nlniate an\ 
iiirtlier ini-ennee]ilinn-. the three I'nuer-, nn 1 »eeeinlier _'S, -en t tn i ii ,rieli.ikn\ . 
llu Kii — laii Mini-ter at X'ienna. a tneninrandiiin explaining; and aniplityin.:; the 
meaiiin.Lr ^i the n-ii^ note, and di-eit--iiiL; -eparately the fniir jmini- .at 
is'-ne. K'euardiii^' the I'riiu-i|ialitie-. the ineninrandiiin -tipnlated that the 
Kll — lan pmieetnrate nin-t eea-e and tlial the detail- I'i their iiitnre nrL;.nii/.i- 
tinn \\hi''h wa- in he \>\ the rnwer>. >linitld he .arr;iii^'ed later and 
in -neh a manner a- In -!\e " iiill .nid entire -ati'-fai'tmn tn the ri^hl- ni the 
-n/er.iin I'nwer. In ihn-r ni ilu' I 'nnci|talitif'., and tn the general intere ' 
l-'.iirn]ie - 

it wa- n|l\'lnll- that the lir-l l|lle-ilnl| nl nl l^.mi/.lllnll n. 1,1' -I tl'eil W.l- 

'A clitiM' of the rpaft i-nii-iiiriiiii «a' 1.^-1.'' nf M..lil.i'. i.i. Ii'mi-Mr, cx¡ir<.'í-fii siicli a 
.1... ;,.. 

- I i"i iitiuMii-, /•'.?(. ¡I ~-7. 


ri.iju^i iTi-:> 

"' '"i'"ii. Iranrc every etï^rt Im m^Itu'e the e. inference Im ei^Inr-e il. 
Xni (.nl\ wa- \a])Mlei.ii Hi<l tu t!ie |iriiieii)li'^ i.i natii malitv aivl -elf- 
(lelennniatini!. l,;it ih,' eniharra Miient uliieli sneli a iiiiion v...ii:^i Im!,] f,,r 
Aii-iria, liy >!iiiinlatiii-- racial a-piratii iik in Trail-} Ivania and I'.iikww ir.a. 
wniild alM, Ii.arinMiii/e w itli |-'rench p^lirv. Tin t .[.[x .-iti(,n, Imwever, \\a- ,i 
■-inni- Mlle. In Tnriscy, union p. .rlemled tlie eventual indepemlen.e ni the 
I'rni. ipaiilie- I' i!'e -ii/eram l'^wer. Tu Austria, it pnnni-eil in.t mhIv 
ar^ilier ri-int^ in Traii-\ I\ aiiia. Inn aKi. meant tlie failure df her aniliitii .;i U> 
Lrain ecnoniie nnitn.l ,,\er the full extent uf the Damilie. The Üriti-h ( 'ahmet 
>upp..rted Tiirkev and AuMria. \t the <.peninL; >es-inn the tir-t pdun ,>i the 
jirehniinarv meni..randmn wa- -, developed. , ,11 tlie initiative ni Au>tria. a- 
\n lea\e the ditaik ..f . ir-ani/aiii m in the Torte, an arraiiLTeinent which would 
eiiMire the -epaiaiioii of ihe two couiilrie-.' l'or the -ame rea-on that Turkev. 
Austria, ami In-land oiijiosed the union. lio\\e\er, Ru-sia strom;lv favoriti 
It and. as u wa- ohvious that tlie hojie of direct endorsement hy the conference 
uas nude, the Rtissi,,,, plenipotentiaries cliose an indirect l)Ut eipiallv -are 
""■''""I- \! 'Ile second -essi, ,11. i^.rtcliakov aiisuered t!te Austrian jiroposal 
liy a counter propositi. .11 to the elïeci that the wishes of the two I'rinci]ialities 
should he directly consulte.! throu-li rep.reseiit,iti\ e divails. ]ioiiitinL; (üit that 
this procedure was the more siutaMe as the ( )r-aiiic Act of IX.U. which would 
iiecess,-iril\ l,e the snhject of <li<ciis,sion, had heeii drawn np in similar fashion. - 
.\l the s.-iuie time de d'itol'f, the second Ru-sian lìlenipotentiarv. presented a 
more lormal pn.p.wa! to the s.-mie etïect, providing; that the I'ortc slmuld " in 
ihe lir-t uistanee " coiisnit tln' wi-hes ,,f tlie country liefore determining^ the 
tiual iirovisioiis. In s,,iie of the s,j.nitic,ance of the Russian ])roposal the 
opposi!!, Ill accepted It. .and de Tiioffs <lrafl. with the oinissi,,,, ,,f the word^ 
■' 111 the first insi.ance." w.h adoined h\- the conference with little de!.,iie.' \! 
the sixth se,si,,n tin- ¡"rench iileiii|iotentiar\ m.ide a linai etfori to ohi.dn ;i 
direit endorsement of ilu- union, imt disdissi,,,! \va< prevented hy the op,!,, si- 
tion Ol the ürilish ,|e!e.i;,ates. dhc nei;, .li.itioiis were wrecked < .11 the reui.iin- 
inir point ot th.. memonmiluni, namely, the tiuaranteo of the intej,'rilv of the 
fittoman l-iminiv .and the hntil.ati,.!! of ;he Russian I'.l.ack .'^ea tleel. Tlie con- 
tereiice closed in June. ,ind .lisnis-i, m u:is not reo|iened tinlil. dei)rived of the 
supp.irt Ol Ausii-,.,!! nenlndiiy, o,\in:^ t,, the .addition of Sanlinia to the allies 
in IN.^.^. Russi, I u,i, f,,rced, li\ the fall of Sehas|op,,l. \n capitulate. 

' 1 '"Ciaiuiiis. ¡•,\<i, II. 72a. 

- Diiciitiicnts. f'cft. i< 'Ml 

■■"It is avsertid hy s,,nie !n-t,,n,iiis thai l-r.ino .k-irerl tiiii,.M ,is .1 che. k t,, k'ìissian 
CNfiaiiMMii ,111,1 ili,,t Ku-si,, uas ai;aiii-t ami Miiiimrlin« it onlv in ,,nh r t.» 
in<liH-e her eiuniie'^ W «leu at it. TI.,, a.tim, ,.t tli. Knssiaii delcKates at \i,i)',a «nnl.l 
scan lo i>rovc the oiijiositr, I ,,r th,' -Iraft ,.f ,1,- Tu, ,11 .n„l th.; hnnt .-,...•.:..,, ,,,• ,1.,. ;.,,,..f,.r^ 
e!H-e. SII- Diìniinciits, ft'st. pp 7_V. ".!il. 

.M(M!.1V\\ l.\ .\\|) W M.l.xrüLX, ¡s.v 


'1 liL- ( Miiorc,. Ml' l'ari- iir-i (.11 1 (.■liniar\ _'5, iS5'i. i..r ;hc ii;n]io-e ,,1 iv.i;i-- 
tcrnii; the (li-taiU ni the pe.tcc ah'i-a'l^ aL;rei.''l ..11 ¡n iiriiu-!|i!c m thr 1 'rfhiniiia)> 
l)rati' -¡,l;iu'.1 hy Iraiicc. Aii-tria, (.real I'.ntam. Ku--ia aii^l Turki.'}- -11 
l(.iiniar\ 1, Walcv.-ki. Ircmh .\Iiii;-ht ni 1 Mrci.L;ii \iïa;r- and ihc lir-i 
p'u-nijiotiiitiary for l"ranco, i>reM,lc.l.- 1 Ik- mily Uvi-lv (Icliaie- wct\- th.:-c 
r(.;jariliii,i; ihc irnntiiT ni Muldavia and it- uni. .11 with W ailarlna. ( )n ihr lat- 
HT (iiR'-linn i! li])l(jniaiir ah'L;n!nrnt \i ,. idcntira! .\:tli that ni 1S55, with the 
f\ci'iiti..n tha: 11-land i'.nw laM.rrd nni..n. 1 lie ¡ireiiniinarv drait, like ¡lie 
llKinoranduni adopted at \ lenna m 1N55. liad pr-vided ¡ha! tlie ¡niernal or- 
liani/ation of the IVineijiduie- dioidd lie ;n eonfonniix .,v;tli the need- and 
wi-lle- ol tile population.' I'raiKe made e\ery effort to indiiee the L'oil,tire-- 
to I'lidor-e the nnioii outr¡L,Mii. \i once, on the oprnni^- of the dei-i-r. 
Walew-ki poMiteil out tiltil any i|ue-tion of orL;aili/ation neee--aril\ ¡nw.lve<l 
the (|Ue-tion oi tniioti, -o ;;reatl\- de-ired Iiy the iiihtiliitant -, and hi- ar;;unieiit 
\\a- hearlil)- coiieurred ni hv riaremlou,' and li\ llruniiow.' jt 1- an niler- 
e-tnii,,^ coninientar\ on the pre-ti.ue which the prnuipli- of popular con-tiit had 
;ici|ttired by ISrd to lind that lioth \n-tria and I nrkey. 'in op|)o-in- the un:on. 
inaile -iniilar a]ipeal to the wi-li oi the |ieop!c of the l'ruK'ipaüt'e-. I'n!ke\ 
in-i-tini,'- that the inliahitant- did noi at all de-ire the union, .\u-tria pointin,:,' 
out that the jjciple liail not lieen lon-ulted .ami :i--i'riui^ that, if llie\ were. 
till ■-.■ would de-ire -ep.iratioii. In the tace oi the eoniniued opp.i-aa.n (if 
Au-tria and ri;rk(.'\- direct action on the i|ue-lion oi union wa- aij.'iin 

'Idle ;irL;iinieiii- of .\ii-tr:a. hoAe\er. pointed the wa\ to a -oluti^n .and 
indirect action \\;i- attain re-orted to. In the treaty draft, dr.awn up liv 
lîoui'queiK'y, the -ecoiid Ireiich plenipoientiar\ . -uid ;t coinnnttee conipo-ril of 
( 'iiunt r.iiol .and A til i I'acha, it w.i- pro\ ided tli:it. in reL;,ird to orLjain/atioii, the 
wi-he- ol the ¡mpulation- -Irmld he :i-certained on all ipie-tion- of princijile 
Hot \et .-ettled. i''iir tlii- ]iurpo,e the coinniittee recoiiiniended that 
ad /;i!(- -honld he -uiniiioiieil, at Ja--\' ;uiil at I aichare-t, in -neh .a ni.uiiur ,1- 
to j^iiaraiuee a true repre-eiUatioii of the wi-lie- of the countr\. and a 
l-'.inope;in couiini-.-ioii. coiiipo-ed of deleítate- oi the I'ower- together uiili a 
Turki-li coiniiii--ionei". -liould meet at ( on-tantinople. -hould theri,' re\i-e tlu' 

' L'lKiinK'iu.s. i'l'st, p. 730. 

- Tlie si'coml I'rciich npriseiilatr. c \va< lîmini'n ncy, (¡ I'.ritLiin ua- rcpre^eiui-l 
by the l'ari of Clarcmloii. SL-crutary of Stat^ t'T l'ureien Atfairs. and I'V I.'ir'l r.>\\l.y. 
.•\iistria liy ruuiit Riml-.'-oliauoii-teiii. Miiii-tir fur I'orciyn .Nlïair-, aivl I'.aroii llnlim-r. 
Rns-ia liy Count Orlulï and lianm I'.rnnnnu. Sanllnia liy Cavour ami 'A'.r Marlllli^ ili 
\ ill.iniai ma ami 1 iirki-.\ l>v .\ali I'aclia ami Meluiiinnci I'lcinil !'..>. The I'russiaii dt'le- 
v;atiiin wa< lu-aileil liy tlio I'ni-sian Mini-lcr n¡ I'oriign .Mïairs. M.inuutïtl. 

' Dociinifnts, /"cíí, p. 7.1V 

* Tor till' liassai;!'- rcferrcl to see I''.\tracls frniti the I'mlnoiN. I iocunicut*, f<st, 
|ip. 7Ò2. rr .to;. 



(ir;:aiiu- \ii, taking iiiln c .n^ulrraii. jii ilu' \\i-li(.-> f\]irc--iil liv t'm--i- duaii^. 
aii'l -liwiiM ciimiiiiinii.aU' iln- Imal r(-.iilt Im i1k- I- ',ir. iihmii ri inicrnu-f. 

I lu.' ix-]»jrt "i llu- rMiiiiiiiuci' \\a- rci-uivfil wiili ia\iT li\ ilu- i miiì;i\-~, with 
ilk- -ek- aiiii-ibliiu-m iliat the (•(ini!iii^>ii)ti slumlil tiUTcl\ ri-i-niiinuiiil tu a iiiinre 
i-niii'iTrm-c l'I till- I'liwcT- -lieh (k'tail- «if revi-;. ,11 m thr I Iri^.nm- \it a, Jt 
-liiiiilil ilcnii ail\ iv;,lilc. rallier tliaii iliai 1! -li'iiM ii^cli' rc\i-c iliein, W itli 
llii- rhaiiLic UÌ the iliararter a] ihr jii^pM-e'! >(iiiinii~-!i m. the plan \\a- a.lnpUMi 
I'V tin- ( iiiiL;Te>- ami iiui .rpnrateil ;ii the 1 reat\ irl l'ari-.' tu 'a hielt i 11 -I ruinent 
the -ii^nalii'-e n\ I'm^-ia. a- \m11 a- ni the -i\ nriL;nial I'nwer-, wa- aliixeil. 

1 he 1 'r!mi]ialiiie- hail heeii umler > leenpatii iti he \ti-trian irdnp- -inee 
¡•'^^4. \ii iiiinieilJale \'ile, (hiiiii;; the neenjiatii .11. lili'eretl ti^ Aii-lria aiiil 
I ;irke\ imlimiled Mppi.rtniiit\ ti. >\\inL; the eleclinii- Im their -iile. l'In- \\a- 
ileleaieil hy JTaiue, liii\\e\er. whu iii-i»ieil 1 ui the ¡iritieijile that l'iireiL;n neen- 
liatmii wa- an infunili uiniahk' I'li-iaele in ihe na-e e\pre--¡'in ,,1' the wi-h i>\ 
llie pei.|ile and ihat, in er .ii-e'|iieiue. ihe Mite -h.ittld nut he taken until l!ie 
wuhdrawal nl ihe Aii-irian i.iree-. \i'ter a detenniiicd -irii:,'L;le Hiicil and 
\ah l'a. ha -nrreiideri'd the pniiit and it \\a- a,L;reed that the ]niliein,L; nl the 
I 'riiui|ialilie-- dn^in^ the eleelinii --hnnld lie Ml the hand- ni natu'e trnnp-. 

Ihe r.Miiripieiiex ei miiniitet' had al-n lieen einni-ted \\ith the draftiii;^ nf a 
-It 111 !ii-triKii' 111- to the I'nriipean ( 1 imnii--iiin which had heeli e>tahli-hed. 
I lie-e in-triietiiin- eiiiplia-i/ed the eiin-iiltati\ e and ah-iihit(d\- nuti-parti-an 
eliaraeter ni the Ci iinmi--¡< in. The eMninii--;i iiier- weri' tn make an niten-ive 
•-tiidv III all i|ue-tiiins ei iiKerniiiL; tinaine. the ehnri'l , the inihlar\ -\-teni; in 
hriet. Ill all qiU'-tinn- ni adiiiini-Iratinn -ave nnl\ thn-e w hii'h had heeti -ei- 
lied liy the treatx. naiiu'l), the ni\ ¡nlalnlitx ni I'nrki-h -ii/eraiiit\' and the 
ee--atinn nl the l\n--riii prnieelnrale Ihe -iihjeet nt nnimi \\a- lint -pe- 
citiealK" nieniii Hied. Il \\a-, lin\\e\er, -uHieienlU ii!i\inn- that it wnnli! al 
nnee heeniiie i'm- ¡laranintint ipie-tinn, Aei-nr<liiiL; In tlie in-triietinii- the emii- 
111Ì--Ì1111 wa- In repair lir-t In ( nn-tanliilnple, there in a-(a-rta¡n ihal the tlrniaii 
l'i enliNiiealinn. wliiili wa- In li\ the ideelnral (|iialit'u'atii iii- and the rule- nl 
prneediire. had heeii ¡--ned li\ the I'ni le. I rnni there the\ were tn iL;n t 
Ull hare-t, 111 nrder tn pni iheiii-eUe- in tniieli with the l)i\an-. arnxuiL; there 
at the iiiniiient when the \ii-trian I'nnp- liad heen withdrawn. \lter ihe 
I ); , ail- hail a--enililed. ihe pre-idini; ntiieer- w ere In he iii\ ited In t ran -111 it the 
de-ire- nl ihe-e a--eiiil!he- In the eiininii--inii, w hu'h wa- enipnwered In a-lv nl 
the I 'nan- an\ additiniial niinriiiai inn a- In ¡heir w i-lie-, \l ihe terniinalinii 
ni lile -i'--inii~, ;he •■n!iniii--inii wa- In draw u]) a repnrt, with -neh ili--t'!itniL,' 
repnrt- a- -hnnld he neee-sarv.-' 

Ilie appnnitiitent- In the l.nrnpeaii eiiiiiin;--ii ill were .'^ir Henry l'.ulwer Inr 

' Dociimt'iits, /iii.ti. IV 741. 

Ï II, ,r--l!l. lit*, f'"' !• 74Í1 

\H 11. h W i \ \\i) W \1.1 \( 111 \. is.v 


I.hliI.iikI. Talli'Nr.iiul inr lrani<-. ,mil mk' iK-lr^au- laih ir..rn ilif \ii-.tvan, 
l'ni-~iaii. kn~»iaii, Tiirki~li ainl Sanliiiian ,l;i i\ i-nrmnt-. i tuiii^ tu ilitiu-uhu- 

in ilu' fxtT'iU! f -ivt-ral iM.ini-- in ilir treaty rf^ijardiiit; ilu' mw Hinii- m' 

Mi'Mavia and an i-land at ihr nnintb nf the Daiutlio, tht- \ii^triaii l 'crniialiMn. 
w li:cli w a^ 1(1 liavf cca-i-cl -ix nu iiith- alter the >i;.;innL; ni peai'c, \\a> |jrn!, hil^ciI 
In a vcar. Ilit- ( Minini-^;i.iicr>. >\crr i'..ri-ed \n n-niaiii m uiactuiiv at (nti- 
>taninin[ile fur ~(in,i- mnntli- until tin- evai-nali"n -IimuM 'i,- (■■ iin;ik'lr'l. wliirlt 
\\as nul acci miph^ln'il nntil Marcii .^'K lSr7. Xiicr ninrc tniic, -iicni \u vi-il- 
in.U la^>\ and ni waning inr tlic arrivai oí tiic delayed nieiiilier- mi the inin- 
ir.i^^iipii. tlu'\ llnalK" held thi'ir lir-i -e->ioii at laicharest en \Ia\ IN. \Sr7 ' 

1 lie lirinan CDiivdkm^' the |ii\an-. whicli, li\ stipnlat;' oi wi ilu- i nn;.:re^-. 
\\a~ tu li\ the nile^ 'i| [irncediire ni tlie-e a--~eiiilil;e-. had alreadv heeii drawn 
11]! In the l'i irte in c< inference with tile an il la^ -adi ir- ni" llu' six 1 'owitn al ( nii- 
stant:nn|ile. A- nni\er-al ^iiifra^e ^^•|- nnkiinwii m the rrincipalitie- and wa- 
cmilrarv al-n tn the pnluical ¡irnici|ile- ni ail the Tnwer- exce]it l'iatice, the 
< 'nii^re>- had stijmlated in the in-irnctiniis that tliere dinn'd he " a.n ac urate 
repre jntatinii ni ail classe- ni -ncuty " \ careinl cnii-ideratmii had tliere- 
l' tu lie L;i\en tn the ^exeral cla->c- in the lerntnrie-. 

The ¡injuilatinn (,i the l'rinciiiaiitie- in \X?7 \\a~ almiit li\e inillinii. W a1- 
lachia h.a\in,L,' hy t'ar the laiynr n in'.er ni nili ilutante Their ]inlit:cal and 
ecnimmic cnndilinii \\a- -till inediae\al. The OrLjanic \ct 'li IS.U. a!thniiL;h 
reatìinniiiL: the ri:.;ht- and privilej^e- "i the rnncipaliiie- a- a ulmle. had heeii 
far l'min a liheral ni-tnintent as regard- inienial matters. Aniniii; ntlur 
aliUses il ha<l perpelnaled the tendal ]iri\ ilexes ni' the l;n\ars and had ' "t 
]in!iiical ¡inwer wlinll)' in the hands ni the ^M'eat and les-er imliU-, ,im 1 !:!■ 
c!erii\. Ilelwccn these i.nh'e- and their peasant seri- there wa-, in the iniiii- 
tr\-. tin ¡niermcihaie' cla--. In the tnwn-. there were the trades-pen|)Ie, Kii- 
niani.m. i I unitarian. Serh and Hulear, wlin were nr^'ani/ed in i^ntild-. ( nin- 
nierce was alilinst whnlK under the cnntml i,|' (ireek-, Vrmenian- and lew-, 
whn. thanks tn \iistrian |irnti'ctinn. enjnved ad\aiitaL;es n\- r their n.ilue 
ciitn]ietitnrs. ( )f tiie cler,L;\ tlure were twn i la-se-, the higher. cniii]i i-ed m" 
I ireek itinnks. ami the Inwer ni iLjnnranl |iea-ants. Ilu- drawni'.^' up i>i the 
lirnia.n ncca-imicd leni;th\ deli, ile n\er tlu' jirnper lialanciiiL; nt the several 
cla-se- and ilio elïnrt in streiìL;then the pnsiimn ni" the natrcc inerchan'-, I he 
l:na! ]irn\isinns represent pnniarilx the lalmr and -kill ni ihniuciu'i • Ihe 

' It ii|iiiiars frum .m artille ni \|inl 17. lS-^7. iti l.'í.rnL- tin /':iiiií,''c iliat the >,■'■- 
eniiiHMits I'f ilic l'riiici|ialities ottiTcd to iiay all tlio iMiis.linM expenses ut tlio coiimiis- 
sii'iiers. an nlfer retu-nl liy tlu- l'iii;li-h ami Rii--iaii tikmiiIuTs. ami accepti'd inily in l'art 
liv the l-'rencli. Tlie Tiirki-li cnniinissinTUT tcmk full aiU, intake dI it. .-fri.' .ti iluiUitiniti- 
rc/.tíiít- hl i,t/iiríii i-,-)hj,v, ,-i;-¡ A'.immiíci. \'o!. 4, p. 7(i. 

-' Timm enei «rute on January S, lS.s7. " R('ili^;.r inic Ini élcrtiirale puir un t'''>."i'> "t"' 
!!->'•- était inc'iiinii. ci ii ■ p-i- riin-c '.uiit-, ni.ii- i, eim- ttr- ■ iim-rtiiicnt ipic ii-iui 

|ir(.\ÌNÌMii .Irl.'aîc in ilu- l)i\.ii- -li^-iiM he (.-arriiii mi -iparatcv liv îlic 
ilfli;;an.-- I ¡''111 (.-acli (la-, -itliiiL;- 'ii '. .¡iintmrc. wa-. ImwcNrr. a •.imL;x--li"ii nl' 
the I'miU' AJiicli tiiiai!} ii!V\aik-il. an., m-li ii \\a- U-arcl thai tin- prr-ti^'i.' ( m' 
ihr l>i\an> wou'mI \k- i' iii-i'k-raiiiy iliniini-lu-il !iy cai'li via-- if|iMn:iii; iliiXTt tn 
lile V..I11I11N-1.PI1, Ihr I'MTtr lla.l wi-hr.l |,p a<!.| t.. ihr liriiiaiì a i/rM,i;rain Í. ^r 
ili>cn--;' III wliH'li -hi.!:! I'whuh,' all i|ik--iiiiii ,i\ miiipii, -a\inL;, at \ii~lr'a'> 
suM<ri.,i;,,,|, il|,i[ uiian) \\..nM hf an mirai ii.'ii ii.ii .iiil\ oí ■rnrki-h >u/craiiuv, 
hnt al-(i Ml' ihf ri-ht-. ■.( the rr;iu-i|ialnii'-. a- ilir-r iinlu.k-'l ihc ri.:;lil (if 
-ilLiiMtii ill .^;!.li a ]ifi iL;raiii mI il;-iii--ii iii Thi iiu liu-I i iliji-vlrii In. and 't- 
aii-iiiir 1- iliu' III hi- i.'N|iii-- |iriiU'-i.' 

,'i\ ihr llniian thf nirnhvr I if iK|iiiI:i - III ilu- W allacliMii l>i\an \\a- li\r.l al 
1 IJ. llu- MiiMaviaii al M. In i.ull I 'rüiiiiiahl \ ihr (.■Ktiimii ni i1c]iuih'- wa- 
ll i l-r \i\ t\\i- cla--r-, llic drjinl ii'- lh:i- i-lrili'il in -ii in tiw v. .ninnlU'c-. rarh 
cianini'.U r in .-i .ii-;iK-r -i par iirl\ t'lc <|iK--lii in- ni jiarani. 'i;iit ini|inriant c ti i it- 
c'lass. I ho lir-i I'la-^ ni rK< inr- wa- riinipii-fil ni' ihr i-ìrrL;\. 'Ihr -iijuTinr- 
nf rniiM'iit- aiiil rounlar ]iru-i- li' iii;^ in ihr ia|i;ial ni' ihr ilimi'-o uorr In 
illnn-i' I \\n (K-pilIU'-. while ihr ìnuiT flcr^y Wrrr In , llnn-c lltcir (Iflf^'aU'- ll\' 
iiiilirci'l i-'i'il!nii, aiul llu- Mi irn|inl;taii ainl ihr hi-lin])- ni ihc i.niiiiir\ woro to 
lu' nuMiilicr- ni ihr l);\an i r ulì'uhi. l'Iii' -t\nii,| ria-- .\,i- ilial ni tlu' ,L;ri.'al 
hiiyar- and -nii- ni limar-, ni ihin\' \i';ir- ni ,il;i' nr n\rr. nwnin^ l'iillixati'il 
land in i-mi-- ni nnc hundred l,illtlrs.- nr ihe ei|iii\,iieiit in /':'i/,i)i,-.v.' atid 
irec irniii tiinri^.im-. i hc-e wi'ir in incci m tiu' l' ni e. uh di-!rn-t .and 
tu l'Ii'U irniii l'air nninlicr iwn dr|iniu-- ..wiiiiil; lliria' Imndrrd i\ilt,l:,-s i nr 
llu' ciiuivaltiii ili /Mi.Md.-.v I. \11 pinpru'ini- ni aiiinriit- ni Land imni U'ii 
In iiiiutv -iiiiu- iiilti!i,s nr iliLir ii|!n\ .iliiii wtri- in inrin ilu- ihinl i l.i--. 
i lii-o wcri' In i iinn-c iriii aninin,' thi'iii-clvi'- liM- (.livlnr-, iinin e. udì preii-c- 
tiiri' tu tiK'ct m ihi' ta|.ìi,il ni thf di-irivt and lluTe oKot niu' drjmu- in tlu' 
i' 1 he iniirili rl.i--. ni ilie pca^iaiU seri- ni ih,; riir.d i nininnin'-. 
wlin !n\rr Ih! ire Inen np' (-ciucd, wrri' lo rìn't llu:r dtpiilu--. mif inr 
r.iidi di-irul. li\ iihmii- ni iwn nili'r'iicdiary i-i)lk'},'iis. 'I lu' liilh .md la-I vl.i-- 
uà- tli.ii ni ihc iiihaliitanl- ni llii' citic,-. 'l'Iii'<f wi-rr divided min iniir L;rn,iji-. 
'ii>n>chiildt'rs (i\MiinL; ]irnperi\- ni a ciTtain v.ilnc.' prnfe--innal iicn. lu-cii-cd 

nous sotmiio tin- <li- if iiriililóme le moins mal |nis*jlilf. .\yant -ini travailK à ímiil 
ta t|iiestniii, jo iraÍKliais im prii (itlTaroinlicr Us aiitns. J'ai in. an contraire, a mc 
Iniur ill- lullt te nii'tnli. I iráii" à t'ini. inv vnil.i "Itlivn- "le cet iiiiiral travail, it i lt< 
V.ilaiinrs ne sr jitti'iil pa* ilam If» tiras di'« MuMavts, >c iif sera pas ma fauti!" I. Ilion- 
Viiicl, Triti} iiiiHi'i'i i/i' 1(1 iiUfslioH d'itrifHl, i/'ii/tP.« ii'f />ii*iVr.t i»t'iiils ilr M. fulitiund 
.InloiHf Thomciift, p. Wi. 

' Thoiivcni-I ti> W'aliwslii, IVra (Cuiisfantimipli'), January 4. 18.v. .î,/,- .ti i/.u-Kiiiiii/t'. 
^ ' ' PI Idlfi KLM. 

■ Mo|ila\iaîi tiU'a>nrrMit'nl. ilio ••(|iii\alini uf U.t.t) si|iu,,o nui.r- 

■ \ \\ all.ictiiaii mcasiirtnirnt, alunit 4.'i',>0 Minare miters. 

'.'IMXHI /•Ki.Krci in Itic capital, 8.IHH) in tlie ntliir eitic». Tllc Tnrkisti fiastr,- was 

.M()[,!>A\ i \ \.\!) W \l.l.\riiL\. l,-?7 


iiUToliaiits, and the 5)rM\,„t^ aii.l .Iclojiatis <>\ iIk- .1¡\(.t-c -mid- lavr v^icd 
!iv indinTt lialL.t ¡«.r the diii-aie. all.ittfd t.. their r:t\- nr Imuu. In W al- 
lai hia the three lar^e-t eitie- had 1 \\ • i ilej.ulie-. 'he -inaHer tii.\n> une ea.h,' 
I h;ny da) -. wei'e td he alli^wrd for jiri.ti'-t- and rMni|iIa'nt- aiier th.e ¡M-tmL; 
nl the elerinral li-t^. whieli were in lie ilrawn np li\ the prelect- I'rnte-t- 
were In he ]ia--ed nn hy a CMniinittee winipn-e-l ni ihe preieel, the ind,L;e- ni' 
the ili-triet-, and tile ninineiiial nttieiaU nf the chiei' rily. Any inter\ ent:' in 
(It the ;i.;ithi)ritie- ni thevleetinn wa- i irlüdden and mi i i lüi.'ial wa- allnwed tn 
run inr eleetimi withmit re-i:,M!Ín;,' nftiee. h \\a- luriher ¡iriAided that the 
eleetmn- were nut tii he held ttntd the arri\al ni the l''urn[iean ( 'nniini--inii 
at Ihudiare-t. 

\renrdini,' in the tr-tininiiy ni' tln' I'renrh enii-uK at |a--\ and lUuhare-t, 
the tinnaii. altlioni^h drawn np li\ nnt-ider-, f^ave ;,aeat •-ati-iaetinii t ■ all 
cla-scs in tile ¡iriiicipahtie-. ['lie nnl\- exjire'-'-inn- nf di--a!i-iai'tinn eaine 
trniii sniuc ot th.e ^'reat hnvar'-, wlin rc-ented the lintniliatmn ni nudn-inn with 
the Ie>>er [irnpricnnr^ and wished a nnieh l.irjjer nntiiher ni deleítate--, a plea 
in wliieh Jleelard. the lYemh enii-nl at i'.nchare-t, ielt im iiUere-;t. linth nii 
aecmitit of its lack of rcasnn, and hccan-e if there were any npjxineiit^ nf 
iininii they woiild he ainnnp; the j^reat iiohlo-.- 

Altlioufîh any s¡)ecilic nieiitinn of the (ine-tmn n\ nninn a- mie ni ihn-e tn 
he -ettled had lieeii nnhtteil fmni the d'reaty ni l'aria and irnni the in-trn 
tion-, to the cniiiiiiis-ioticr-, it had heeii well recn^nii/ed that the -uhject could 
iKJt he avoided in the election-, d he matter \va-, indeed, hmui^dil tip in the 
I'-riti^h llnn-e <d I .nr(N nn l-'ehrn,ir\ 7. mioh alter the tirnian wa- i--:ied. hv 
a «pie^tioii ,i> to whether the matter of union to he settled li\ the 1 >iv,in- or 
by the I'owers ' To this ( larendoii replied that the firman put no har on 
discussions of the (|iie-tion of nnimi nr nf .iiiv niher (|ne-tinn .ari-int,' imni the 
'IVe.ity ot I', in-, and w.a- -n f;ir m f.iithfnl cnmpli.ance with the mteiitmn- ni 
the ( niipre-- of r.iris which had decl.iri'd, with the a'i|iiie-cence n\ ilie I'lirh- 

I he /■'I,!..//.' 

I'l imii'.ililv I'.i'l s!l^;lltI^ ilil- 

uiift!; a little tiu.ri tiian JO .■.ii/iiii.j 
fitiiit xaliies. 'liwuvcnfl. p. i-iX. not,'. 

' ll.ii-miinil--, f<'st. I'- 7^'^ Tlic cuiiipoMtinn cf the Will.n lu.iii l)i\aii w.» as f..l|.iwv 
Ol tin- IIJ (li'intii's. four, iia!;.il.\, tin- Mclroj), ilitan and tliv tliri'c liisliopv, were mcmlxTS 
rx ./Äd.i, tlir liiwlur clorny liati six rcpresintativcs, the latKC laiukl propriaors tliirty- 
fonr. the sniailrr '¡(vmtccn, tlic cities twenty-two, the rural c .miittiiiis vcvi-iitci'ii. In tlic 
MoMa\i:iii Dix an litt- cmMty-fonr (kptitics wert to he seven nienilnr% of the tiiulier 
rlcrsy, twenty einlil n preiiiilatives of (lie large proprietors, fourteen of the smaller 
one«. eiKlit'iii n prt s, ntatixi s i,f ilu cities, ami fourteen of the rural communes. Iln' 
Metropolitan of Jassy and the two liishops were inenilur« rr oKcio iVrlrri': Damé. 
Ili.<t''irr di' .'<» h'liumanif. p ID.' 

•-' 7/10 k; c >!,•/, p. 72. Ileelard wrote that the iitiely i,\c >;riat Liii>.:: ; Wallachia 
wa.aed twenty depiitiei i.iit of the thirty- four allotted lo the class as a whole, which 
iiumtiered ahuiit J.700. 

~ ¡¡antard t.îil leriesi, ■■ i H-i p vm Tin- »picition wns pnt tiy I.onI l.yndhiirit. 

Il" i'¡,i:i;isi i n:.-; 

i~li i.ltiiiiiniciitiary. that the pvipk' oí 'he I 'rinciiiahiic- ^li.nild l.c inx- t.. ,h- 
(.■!!-- any MihiiHt r.iiiii, rlnl with thi' Innii ..! i^nviTiitiii'iit tn lif a'lMj.tcd -i, l.,ii- 
a- I iirki-h Mi/iTaimy w a- ihh i|iifMÍ< iin-il. I Mrthcr <, m 1,\ I 'ai l;aii:clil, 
I lari-ii.H.n a^lilcl. iiiiim Ik- .Idavi-.l until thi |):var,. had ln-cii CMiiMihcil, ihr 
vc]>nrt ..I ihr i(iiiiiiii.~i,,ii ha. I hri'ii ivicivi'.l. ami the . , m i\tc;i u had iiK'l u» 
c-Mii^i.liT It. I'lir -iu:i liail hciii th" inük-r-taiiiliiii; .Í the I niiuiv-- .ii' l'an-, 

\lrt-ad\ (hiring th<' (hMii^iMii- ,,n the liriiian ><{ omu , .rain .11 a li\i'l\ ram- 
pai-n had lurii larricd 1.11 m the I'rtncipa.htic-. \,i -.m.iht wa- the lirniaii 
pnitiinlLialid ¡lian íhi -el Í-. wii.;iitiu.,l ■' l'.lrcti Tal ( , .-niiiutee " in la--\'. ¡he 
<'h!<'i iiiy III Miildavia, i-sucd a niaintV^i,, (.lulinin- it- ]iiML;rani. with uni. m 
a- lile íir-l anude. li it- |i]a!Í..rin. ami ant. m. iiii\ . a l.irei-n |irin.e. an.l a e..ii- 
MMnti. II the i-eniaiiiiii,i;iiiie- ' In each .li -t riet ..t' .\|\ la -ini ilar e. .lllIlnttee- 
' I lini. .11 - were lurnied, at miee -et alinit -ele.'tin:; their íi.r 
ihe huaii. With tlu' lea. 1er- ni the jiarlN, \ 1'la.e, the Ireii.h 
e..ii-iil al \.i-.\. wa- 111 .!..-.■ |..iuli. \rrivinu m .la-\ at the iniie when the 
-ini-ide li.r 11m. m wa^ lir-i ..|ieiiin- lie lia.l n-e.l all In- inlliieiKi' 111 1;- ia\,.r. 
uaiiiniL; the a.lli.renee ..i the Mein i|i.. Inan an. i nuliu m;; the II. .-11.. .lar t.. 
place iini.iiii-t ..lluial- ..\er each .li-trut with the p;:r¡i..-e ..! arnii-in^ mu. m 
-elltinu lit, 

lile < .niL^re-- III l'an-, m n-an\iet\ íiilK 1,1 reen-ni/e the -n,'erani ri;.;lit- 
.'t lile >iiltaii, ha. i iinwanlv, an.l in -pite ..i tiie elturt- ni t larend-11. leti it 
ali-iiliilil\ t.. the l'.irle t.. lake -neh inea-nie- a- -limrd ' e -nitahle ¡n ni-iiie a 
iree \iite. \- the lei^al telili i.í iilì'i.f ni the h. i-]i. ..lar- \\a- ..11 lile p..nil ..t 
iNpirin;^, the ,'>iilt,m eli. .-e n. n plaee tlieiii li\ " i ainiaeani-- " . .r rei^eiit-, t.i 
wh.iin lie eiitrn-ted the í.. rinati. m ..l' pr. i\ i-i. .nal ,l;i .\ erniiieiil-, I lie-e 111. 'ii 
wire I iretnllx -eleele.l to pi.. m.. le ! 'ik:-ll intere-I- <>\(.r W a'Iaehia lie 
piarci i'mr-e \U'\aii.ler 'iliika. and .. r\ia. l'al-ihe I'i..lh ..i the-e 
\\('re inaneptalile !" Iraïue. iii.l l'al-.he partunlarK -.1. ini' he re]ire-eiued 
lile iràiieiiee ..t \n-tria \- an a.Ker-e \..te irom l 'riiKipalil e wmild 
lu' -iiltuient t..r ilieir piirji..-e, l'urke., .nul \ii -ti 1.1 .leierinnu'.l |. . . . .neeiitrate 
e\er\ ell..t! \l..M.i\ a. wheie. altli.'iiL;h the p.iiru.iu- ni.iveineiit w a-- ..Mer 
and -lriinL;ir m W atlaeln.i. there wa- the lliat -ne.-e-- iiii;.dil alten. 1 
a pr.i]ia;;an.I.i wliieli -IimiiI.I einph.i-i/e the i, ut thaï. ,1- the -inaller .nul le^* 
luppiildiis ¡irii\iii. e, ,M"'.la\ia w.iiil.l lie lUreed ini.i an nr. ri. .r p.i-iiinii. and 
llial ils eliiei eity, J;i»'>\. wniilil lnse il^ r.iiik a> .' 'pital, \n-tria liad aire, ulv 
iiM'd llie iippnriimilif»- atl. riled lu lier tiiilitar\ neenpatinii In stininlale tliis 
ri\alr\. ili 'un-' t.. iiam an .eUer-e \iile in MnMa-.i.i Iw inakiii:: '-i- ..| lln- 

• Mixiiinriits fosl. p. 757. 

' Tlu'>e orKaiii/atiiiiis orÎKinall.v c.illril il" ■• 1 
■ coniinittfi'i " a» a refill uf iTÌIici»in. 

• \ I , Ir. V .... ï 1 1 . t i, I (.■ . , 

I, ,i'. . I 'U 

Ml U.DW 1 \ A\|) \\.\i.I..\( 111 \. 


arLitniifnt .md cii' varmiis iiumii- <'i !iiaiii|iul;iti< •ii, it \\a^ arran;;fil that the \ nw 
ihtTc -li..u!il ]irfi.\'(le iliai n\ Wailnhia, and tlifiTli\ v\crn-e an un .avnralile 
Milltifini' (111 till' i:iii(pni-t ^cntinu-iii ci the latti-t. To lunlicr i|i-r, uira.m- iln- 
niiciiii^t-. ni hdtli coiiiitnc-. wnrd \\a> >]in.ail lliat I'raiui,- had aliandnii.'d thnr 
ca;!>i'. ail a^surtidii ])ri iiii])tly dciiK'd li\ an ariic';- r,i i!u' M^iiiilnir ni I r!i- 
r'iar\ 5. 

I ndcr ihr dirrrtiuii lii [laKchi- the partisan- '>i ;iii;mìi witc |ivr-ci.-nird ni 
¡nm:!r,cralilr way-. \i i ii-ain in- wcit trn:ii|n'(l ii|) and ihr i-.mrN |ia.;,e'd 
n,i;aiiiM ilu ;n, and in all i|iU'-nnn- prriaiinn- tn lali.T. M\i >, drht- ami ihr like, 
llu' |iivi\(i-, who uiTc llif arliiuT-, -axe advir-r nidL:nunI.' i'.aU-iu- d'ed 
-iiddfiily. Pillili af UT the imlilicatK .11 i.|" the lirman Ih- -neii'". .1. \ (i^,.r;i!r>, 
like ÜaNclu- the (.-lidiee .'Í Austria a-- well a- mi' 1 nrke\. in -¡lUe ni hi- icrmal 
«'.ith til du iMihiim tu uiterfere with the trei> Ncte mÍ the jieMjile. at mire -et 
alidiit eirryini; out lii- ]ireilece--Mr'- ]iulie\ uf iire--iire.- \'e\\ ari;ninent- 
a;^ain-t i niirii were al-u advaneed. ddie Ireiuli i'..n-ii!. I'laee, k<']it hi- ihiel' 
l;ill\ niliinneil nt the repre^-ive ael- '<i tile (annaiain. and ir,-e:\ed w repK 
lapeati'd adniiiiiiti(.ii- tu ln-nd e\er\ I'liori i<i,\ard- a iree e\)ire--iun ,,■ .\|,,!- 
da\ ian ipiniun, ■ an end de-irahle in il-el I. Imt 1 -pena IK -1 ■ ,1.- a mean- 1 if mndi- 
fxiiiL; the I i|ipi i-iiii 111 iif (treat llrilam. 

The tinnan, drawn np at a d;-tann'. n.inirally e.-ntaiiied iminer'n;- ditail- 
adiiiitiiiii: I 'I diinlit 111 interpretatiiin IlardU had ilu' I ;irii]iean t • iinrii- -ii iti 
emislitiited it-eif at l'in<hari'-t 1 f.a'e it had reiei.ed iruiii ¡'rii|-e 1 ihika. 
( aniiai am ni W alkiehia. ipie-tinii- w huh, lu -aid. mii-t iie ail-weii d he fuie the li-t- emild he piilili-lieil Tin- wa- the eaii-e uI fre-h ih'lieiilt u--. 
The I "niiiii---iiiner- a--eiled that the .aiillinr- i.l the lirman -lunild he the uiiK 
dtie- t'l interpret :. 1 he iine-iimi uf wliuli !«id\ -huiiM -hunlder the l.i-k 
Mi-iii a--iinied the pn ipi irlu m- uf ,1 I titupe.m dipluinalu- euiilhet. i'l 1 .tdd tu 
the idtiiplu aliuti, \ u;^uride- uii ;he utluT h.n'd nu -III li he-il.itiun h'll \\;is 
piuceedm^ tu piiMi-h at uiue the Muld;i\i.iii eleiiiuii h>l> \\ huh iiei-ii 
eari'inlU re\i-ed tu uinil the p.iiii-an- ni miiun, Idii- iiu'iva-'i'd the ti'ii-inii 
atllniiy; tlie I'lnxer-. ¡Iiu-e aL;,i!il-t nil uil \',ldnil-^ lu !e;ae a free ll.iiid tu 
\ i>f{(iridl'>. wllu h.ld piep.ired exeiwlhilli; lur .111 ele ::u|| i-urre-pu|idaiL; tu 

ilu'ir wishf*. 

The iiuthud- III \ u-,,rid-- h.ld Keen m.inifiild ,nid enule. I .<-a'lcTs oí tili- 

' T/i.'icriic/. p|> TiJ-iid 

•' VoKoridr« «a» .i|>p.iii.u .; i ..n.i.,,., 1, »mhìi ; 1 'kr il.ilsclic h. «.1- l'ot .-i i.iifi- 

i>f the Princtpalitif«. ria.r ri'|iiir!f.| tu TIkuimiioI tliat \ "H.iriiU-«. who iia<l Ix-rn Miiii»l#r 
• a l-inanrrs ttnilrr lialsihc. lia<l askeil the iii|ipiirt ni Kraiicc i'l liis ian(lida(\ 
oiVice "Í eainiarani. «axiim tital lir wa^ ,it heart a unioni,!. 7 A, m; ,»,•/. p K.S. 

"Thoiivcml t.i \V;.l.H,l<i, .M.irch .'. 1H57. .l./c si d.uinn.iil,-. vol j. p 1 172, Urtli.s-ki 
fn \'W, \Urih I'», 1857, il'iil . vol, 4. p, 75. Tlicrr arc many oilier .li^pal.lii h p, th. 

11-' i'i.i.i;iS( iTi'.s 

itiiintii-N h:t'I iiLvii an\' ami imiiri-uiird.' ut'lu-iaK wh.i ciuild lidt he <lc- 
[ii-iiili-il lili I" w^rk a,L;aiiwt uiii^ii nmtc (k-|iii-.L'il, jiiilL;r~ wen- rciih i\ cd !: m 
(lit UT - I'o ^trniutikii lii^ ailhrri'iit^, niaiiv [)ri iiiintii iiis win- inaile in tin.' 
arni\ and in iIk- Imyar cla--, an act cxprc^-ly Inrliiddi'ii hy tin- ( iri^anic \cl, 
111;' jinMic pre-- \\a- ceii-nrc-d and sc ime papers -nspeiided.' 'Idle uninni-t 

II i!nnnt!ers were l'urliidden In meet and all ])nlilic (li-en--iiin \\a- iirnlnhited. 
I lie-e nua-nre- lieini.; ajipareiiiK in-ut'tieieiit in the taee ^l' the jinpnlar \vill 
I' ir niii'iii. ihr ui i\ eminent i .tiii mU had next t in led their atlentinii In the elec- 
tiiral i>t-. d'he-e were in ha\e heeii ptlliii-hed in each locality a- -mm a- the 
jireieci had drawn them np. 1 he niethnd adnpted wa- tn urder that they 
-liiiiiM lint he made ]iiilil!c at niice luit that the\- shnnld he .-eiit by the ]ireiect> 
tn ja--y. when' the\- were carel'nlly in-|)ecteil and corrected to meet the .env- 
eniment'-- \!e\\-. rile jirel'ect- were in-tnicted to aid the ,L;nvernment in thi- 
work and care wa- taken in the electinii nf prefect^ to iii-nre the failure of 
aii\' tininni-t candidate. Tlie complete ah^-ence of statistics, of aiitlieiitic meas- 
ni.-meiit- of the i|iiantilies of land, of certiticate> of hirth and of natiniialitv, 
and. a!>o\e all. the pro\ision m ihe tirmaii that the holdings must he free of 
mortL;a;;e, made it ea^y for the L;n\e. iment to reject in L;reat niimher> the 
dem.niiU Inr reL;i-iraiion. \]ipi-al !a\. .according to the, with ,a com- 
mittee compo-eil ol tile prefeit, two ji;d,L;e- of IJie comí, and two dele.e'ates of 
the miinici|ial council. .\1i!iou.l;1i the latter were more inde[ieiuk'm. they were 

III till iinnorilx, ;i- .ii^aiiist tlie ^■"o\eriiment coinmi->ioiiers. 'I'l'.e wert' 
for the most part returned mire id.* l-'roiii the li^mres };i\en it ajipe.ars 
e\iln-ion wa- practiced w!; 'le-,iie. ( )f the J.ÜU) larj^e proprietor^ of Mol- 
li. r.i.i the list-, eoiii.mud tile 11, lines of onlv .v^lk (If the Jd.iKKl or nmre 
sin.ill proprieties only _'._'(i| were included. .Nnioii:,' the municipal elector- 
(inly eli\(n ineinlicrs of the liheral professions were entered. The I'onijilete 
lists eiiiiipr;-ed l,(iss ,.l,H'tnr-. of the liiL,dier classes in of the 4il.i"Kl which 
should li.ive heci; entered, ( w,is m.ade of the lii7. _'_'_' 
rt'jiJstered. Imi m \!e\\ of the niniiur in which the\ were to vote this ;imoiniied 
to nothiiiL;,'' 

' hi-iMtih III' I'lii.c, Vpnl ,î, .I,í,- si ,/ I. 1,1», ■)!/,'. \.il. 4, |i, 222. Ct, al-n ( I. mcnt 
tlfsprt's. ¡a i/iii-j/iiiii (¡,-s principautés i/iiim/iiHii, ( \\. IJ.V ai;,/ .V.iiii/'.)/. vol 2. |ip. 5(i4, ,-i sctj 

* Protest <if Conslatitiii StoiirM/a. .\|>iil 22. .(./,- ,m .l.ufin.nir. Mil. 4, p. ,ÎS7. St.mnl/.i 
also cnnipl.iiiicil hi- lurn pri-vfiiti'il fnmi makiiii; a Imal entry of tlie limits of 
his lami on the liruund that lie was doinn it in oriler to secure Ihe ri«lit t" vote for union, 

■'The chief unionist l>aper, /.'/:(, n/,- ilu lhinuh,\ was piililishc.l in ürussels \nstria 
came to the aiil of Voxoriiles hy prohihitinK its carriage her terril iry. The 
orwan of the Mohlavian Boveriinient. the Gactla Mi'lJoZti. opposed niiion eiKT¡{etically 
and freely, St'iiopnl, vol. 2. p. 5fi,l 

' .Y.'m.i/-../. \oI. 2. pp. 5(i7 8. 

'' Xi'iii'fi'l, vol. .', p, Stfi. In .1 protest aildre-sed to the I'.nropran Commission on 
h.'V.e JO. siimot! hv thousands of Molda-, iaü pa'riii'-; •! i- •.•!:.-îrc-:;! n -.•r.rMó-.u- t!o .-!¡r.. :í! 
deputies that Vo^irídes 'lad so arratiscd il otic ehctoral lolhyi', uln.h li,ii| '.i . 1. i 

>!< »l.DAXIA AM) W Al.I.Ai'llIA. Is57 


111 --pite ni a^scniuii- til the iniitrary ]i\- iIk' Turkish \'i/;cr, it i-~ ¡irMVcti li\- 
luiiiii-rntiN letter^ that \'c if^'oriilc- \\a> iiktcK carrvniu; mit tlu- hhIit^ ri-.nwil 
t'l'otn the I'dfto ami that, in the larL^e. it' iii.t in deiail, hi- aan'ii- liail t!ie 
ajipr. ival ni ( ireat llrilain and the hij,dic-t [r ai-c trniii Au-^tria ' The a¡i]i. .iiit- 
lllellt 111 the \'i/ier hilli-.eil' hail liein at the in-tame ni I. did Stratlnrd de 
i\e(lelille and I'.aruii ['nike-ch vmi ( >>teii. '.he M:ni-ter-- ni i ireat Urilain and 
Ati-tria, at i nnstamiimiile, ami in their liamK he wa- lnii a |)a--ive in-! ru- 
inent. 1t;uk\'. hn\ve\er. -ii|i]Mirtt_-d li\- Kii---ia. Sardinia, and l'rii--:a, wa-^ 
(leterniiiied nii a lij^ht tn the tini-li mi the Mnldavian eleetinii-. d'he üiiinni-t^ 
(It the iViiieipalities were ei|iia!ly deterniiiied. At eaeh a.'t ni" the ^-vern- 
iiieiit a ery ni' indij^natmn went np, ]irnte-t- were at niice -eiit |.i the I'reiuh 
eniisul at .la--\-. and tn the nieniher- ni thi' iairnpt-an I nin!iii--ii .n at I'.iicha- 
re-t. in the einl the niini-ters ni tlu- I'nwer- I'rieiidK tn the unmn nl't'ered 
siu'li cnneln-i\e e\"ideihe that X'ni^nnde- wa- aetii;^' in a -]iirit ihrvetK enii- 
trary tn the d'reaty nf l'ari-, that their cnllca^'iie- ni" < ireat i'.ritain and 
An-tri 1 were inrceil tn nuet in eniiiereiue tn ailvi-e a- tn the iim-t siutalile 
mean- nf reeallin«;' the ( aiinacani ni' Mnl<la\ia tn the exeeiitinii ni tliv liinian. 
At tili-- ennlereiiee, held nil .M,i\ on, 1S57, it w.i-. :i,i;reed that the inninii--in;i 
at r>iieli;ire-t -luuild interpret the in eniieert with the ( '.I'-i.n am ni 
W.allaihia, and that tlii- inteqiret.itinn -liniild he -l'iiî !n \'n_i;nride-, " in nrd-T 

l\\" (Ifimtii-. li,Til Hilly tun ilt'ii'ir-; am ni'iilti.iyc on l,in4 cli-ipialili' ■! tlic cumr, 
I'M II tli(iiit;h tin lami was woitli tlic mortcajjc many liiiu- umt; that ttuiiilicrs nt t!u- 
liln-ral iir.ifc^-iiiiis were imIuiIciI ilk-Kally : that tliiTv wtrv only .ill) vurt'T- alln«..! idr 
Jassy, (lilt (if .SiiKXi inliahitaiit-, \\lH'ri.i\ llicrc were ,-(io i.ii the li-t fur llnM-riii, «liirh li.ul 
(inly 8,l)l)() iiiliahitaiils : that (ialat/ was fdrccd to give ii]> um (if its two rliimtiis ami tlic 
\otc was L;i\rii to I'ok^liani, a town with a smalli r iiMiiilior of iiihaliitaiit- : ami that sonir 
clci'tidiiv anionL! |»asaiil- wen luid I'vf re the li-ts were |iuhlislucl, hv mean- ot lialluts 
(in whieh the nanus of iliiiniie- wir lift ¡Link. I loi inieiii-. /"I. p SiiJ lor a Mimniari 
of the ilil'ferdit prntests ami |iititio!'s. Cf. 1 loiiinu ut-. /•. ■^/, ¡i|i "SI, 7S_'. Ii (, /,■ m ,1', ii 
nulli,-, n liai., Ill l\i'iiiaiii -i thirc a'-e'iinntnl iii.iiiy more prote-ts not ^:i\en liere. 

' (.f. hll(r of liaron Prokesh-í Islen to \'oi.;orH!es. .\|iril IH. .í,íi' si li', iim.-nt,-. \ o' 4, 
p. .'.s8. " I'ai -•n\i a\er im \it itili r' I it avec une -ati-fartioii t.nioiir~ iroi^-.uite I.eli- 
\it<'' (pie \otri- .Mtesse n'a ei --e de diplour dati- un -en- ipii a du hit m. riter I.i vnoii- 
tiaissanei' et les dotjes de ta Suhlinic Torte, et o me -iiis fidieite dans la nu nie tiu'-iire, 
de la part cpie i'ai (\i le lidiilienr de prendre an choi\ de sa personne pour Io poste 
cpi'i lie rdiiplil -t clium iiietit." l'f. also the eontidcntial letti r of .\. X'onoridrs, .Secretary 
to the Tiirki-li l\mlsa--\ in London to his hrother, the Cainiai-am, on .\pril 14, 1K57. the 
I'rencli translation of which is as follows , . . "Lord I'alnurstnn e-t tont-a fail contraire 
à riiiiion. i! la entisidire Kitnine snlivcrsise des droits et de la ünprém.itie de notre .^oii- 
eraiii. et, par C()tiséi|nent, des inslnirlions an. donnes seront eiivorés atiionrd'hui .i Sir 
Henri Hulwer . . . .\insi (pie je vous l'ai dit prex-denuiient. il y a Rratide mcessit. ipie 
VOIS employiez à temps tons vos cfTorts poitr (pie le- Molda\es n'expriment point de 
vieux poitr rnnion et pour (pic vous vous rendiez ainsi dinne de la l'ienvoillance de la 
S. l'ortc et de l'appui de l'-ViiKlelerrc et de l'.Xiitriclie. Piiisiptc les trois l'iiissances sont 
di'-cidern â eiitpeelier de toutes leur forces l'union, il ne faut k"" re \ous inipiiéter de ce 
rpie veulent ou nirnarcni de faire les Français dont Us iournaitx vous traitent de fine 

..." .Il/C .(I (/•. KIHC'ld-. \ol. 4. pp. JJ8-0, 

pli;îîisc iTiùs 

ceiiratcK a> \>' tlu' liniian --IiduM lie lullowcd a> aceiiratcK a> piis-ilik- except in ta>e> of 
e(iii(liticiii> ])eciiliar to Moldavia." ' üui X'o^orides had already inihlislied 
the Moldavian elecíoral list>, with all the ohjeetioiiahle leatufe^ whieli had 
raided ~iuii o]i[)o>ition. I'raiice and the three other I'ower^ thereupon de- 
manded a ilela_\- of fifteen da\ > m order that the li>t> mi^ht he revised accord- 
imi t" ''li>^' interpretation, and to ihi> the Vizier, w liose complicit\- \va> hv now 
iiiicovereil, had a^^reed, and the t'otineil of .Minister-- had -o decided when the 
amli.iss;i(l(ir^ oi ( ireat I'.ritain and Austria, iisìiil; their inthience o\er Reclini 
Taclla, induced the <iraiid \'i/ier to withdraw his promise on the ,L;roiiiid that 
no such act 11 m coiild he taken w ithont the tiiiainm 'tis consent of all the Towers. 
At the s;inie time Uedclilte and Trokcsch announced that tluw acce])ted am 
respoiisildlity which nii^ht fall on the Torte, and the I amiacam of .Moldavia 
]iroceeded with the elections. 

1 he elections in Moldavia were held on Jiilv 1'*. In spite of the careful 
pri]iaration the majority oi the electors chosen h\ the government so resented 
the manipnlatioii of the lists that, as a iimtest, they ahstaiiied from votin;^. 
< »I th.e Jn.s electors of the relij^ioiis orders only U) voted, i )l the 4(>5 larice 
proprietors chosen hy the ,i.;o\ eminent, only _'14 voted. .\t Ias^\, where oiil\ 
-in of the "on .^reat jiroprietois \\ere re,i,'istered. <iiil\ 17 voted; at T.acaii 17 
out o! .s7 ; .at .^ontchav.-., 17 out of .v^. Hie delei;ates of the lowiT cla-ses 
wiTe iionnii.iied in lar>;e jiart hv the j^overnment and the formal minutes v\ere 
drawn up without coiisultin.i,'- the electors.- Tven in the polling ])laces tlie 
.■iliusi_'s were continued, a ^rou]i of electors at las-v coiiijilainint; that a self- 
,a|ipointeil committee took po>ses>¡oii of the liallots .and wrote on it the name- 
ot the aiiii-unionist candid.ate while anvone who ohjected to this proceeding; 
was ( jecled. ■ 

\\ hat w ilh these inetlioiU and w ith the .ihsieiitioii of such un ion i st^ as were 
reLjistered. it is not surpri-inj; that the returns were a;;ainsi union, hut the 
losui;,^ si, le rellist'd lo tolerate such a parody ot a vote. J-'rance iilsi-ted tha 
the elections he annulled.' Ilopiiipto placate I'lMiice. Rechid I'asha was >acri 
iHi'd .-mil ,1 neu inini-trv in-titnted. l*'r,nice. however, not coiitein with ; 
mere clian'.;eoi ministrv. repealed her dem.iiid Rus-.ia. ."siaríhiiia. ami Trussi; 
ioiiieil Irance I'l an nltimaluin. The i'orte. which still under the inllf 
elice KÌ Uedcliffe and Trokesch, answi-rim; evasively. Ir. mei' liroke otf dijih 
in.ilic relations with I iirkev , on \ii,i;ust .s. anil Trussi.i. Sardinia, and Russi 
tollowed oil till- IK At dav . 

loMi'weil oil tni- IK At ilav . 

' - hnuaiit- tl.-.i i/ii(.i iii">ii/f,f. Mil. 7. li^.s'i 57. II 7(L'. The tr^t nf this dcusinn was 
\h't iiiadr jmlilic I lu iiMrl.uii lurt' irni'ii m tinntiitinns w t^all^^^l frnm iii-'riictniits 
HÌMI1 I'V 'riKimiiiil to ..Ml lit the l-'n-mli ai;i-Mts 

- . /iiMii.iii,-. vol 7. 18.s<> .s7. |i- 7(M<. .Vi'ii. '/■../, vol J. |) .^7_'. 

'("f |iri.ti'st (|iioti'() 111 . Iiiiniciir.' ly,',; ¡liux in:"iJt's, vol 7, 18.^'> .^7. p 7tl7 

* 1 or iMr.'it- Iroiii ihr iliiiliiiii.ilu iviha.ikics. s. c I locnnuMitv. 

M()L1)A\1A AXD W Al. ¡.Ac 111 \. 1,^.^7 


The sitiuiiinii was (HK' ui ,t;reat [gravity and another I'.nropcaii war >ccni(.'il 
l)(i-;>il)lc. Neither !■' ranee imr lùi^^'land, however, desireil war, and Xajinlenn 
seized the neca^iun n{ a vi~:i in the ijiieeii at I i^imrne, <jn Aii¡;ti^t (>. t^ elleci 
a e'.ini)r(iini>e. In return ior Ins ¡ironnse to retrain irnm m-istin^f on an ali-o- 
lute mnnii ni' the two I'rinei]ialities. (iri'at lîritain «jave eon-ent to the aniuil- 
nieiit cii' the .Moldaviaii election^.' \\ itli the deieetum oi l-'.nj^land. luikev 
and \n-tr'a were torced to ea|iuuiate. Xew electoral li-ts were onleri'd in 
.\lolda\ia. the elections were helil onre more, and diidoinati.- relations were 
re-lored. The crisis thron.uh which th.e I'orte had passeij hasins; heen -ulli- 
cientlx serions to make the a\oidance ol' aii' »titer more delirai ile than the de I eat 
Ol limon, \'ot;orides' lir^t care in the second elections was to he as I'air aiiil 
impartial as ¡iossihle.- 

d he drama which had heen ¡ilaveil on the international sta.L^e had heen re- 
])eated /;; feriti' in tlie sessions oi the hhinijiean ( ommis^ion, where the ilele- 
,i;ates ol l''r:iiice, Kiissi.i and .Sardinia h;id heen i(itte<l ,ii;,iiiist those oi i ireat 
llritam, Austria and Tnrkey in the strn<;i.;le over the Molda\i,m I'lectioiis, 
As each (iiie-tioii of procedure was hrou^ht up in the roinmissioii I'le ilehate 
over the rulmj^ rellected this ]i;irtisan di\isi .ii, the |)ro-nmonist irroiip of »lele- 
.tjates makii'ij a determined ell^rt to iorce the l'oinims,ioii to 1«.- a supervisory 
ÌHid\ .and the other ^;ron¡) seeking to limit its ¡lowers in smh a ■ a\ that no 
res])onse conlil he made to ]iet;lions and no word ol censure could he passed, 
diu re were jirotracted dehates o\er the actions oi XH^orides; the representa- 
tives oí the Powers which were ;or union nisistiiiL; that it w;is liene.ath the 
dis.;nitv of till- (.'oniimssioii to with, a which had heen tints electeil. 
while the üritish roinmissioner. Iliilwer, on the other h.ind. uri^ed. m .i 
len.trthv defense, the char^'cs aijainst \ o^orides s|i,,i!l,! j,,. ire.ited with 
I)atieiice ami ske|)ticisiii. ■ 

Ihe secotiil Moldavian elecii<ins were liel.l on Se]ilemher 10. ind those in 
Wallachia on Septemlier J'l, In hoth rrmcip.ilities the vicory union was 
Complete. I he Mold.av 1 )i v .in ope- 1 on ( icioher 4. and f if W'.ill.u hia 
on ' )riolier 11. in .Moldavi.i the 'lu.'m .;fter the form.ahtie- .and ;i 
motion of i^T.ititnde to the l'<iwers - cn.itorv t" the 1 re.aty of i'aris. at - 'iice 
proceeiled to fornml.ite the ^ prnu'iples on whuli .all reori;aiii/ation 
miist rest These were .i miarantee of the antoiioinv of the rriiicip.ihties , 
nnioii iiiuler oiu ^(iveinmeiit: ,i fotei^m prince, to he chosen ir.iin one of the 
reiu'iim,!,' f imilies of h'iirope . and a smj^de repre-eni.ative .-issemhlv lor llic two 

Ul 1 HI. 1.1. .ut. Il:^l,'ir,- (/i/-/,.iii.i/i,/ii,' ./,• ll.iir.<!',\ \..I J. ). 17! | i \|.l.iins 
till- i-.iHi'sMi.ii (.11 til.- part .if l-'ii«l;iiii! I.\ tin- Siii,.y KclieMioii ' .May July. iH.v i wliul: 
niaili- it iiiii.i-ralnr |.. i.laca'e Kussia. vvliicli was at Klma. and Iraiur. vvlinii u.iv m 
lliti'lnslaii. ( Í al-.'. />iJim,- ji. '114. 

2 .Y. ■»../>../. V..1 .'. pp. 57-» s, 

^ l'..r t!if -i;;iie>aiit pass.i'ji's ..t tin- il-.l'.ites see l>.>cuiiiciit>, />...(/. p|> /''H .i u-if. 


l'I. lenisci 

l'rinciiialuic-. 'ihis piati,. rm \va> iiunMliicci! in an do(niein address and 
.^ccnndc.l amidst the <;reatest cntlniMaMn. The only tuo numhers who uere 
against iniH.n at ..nce ottered a eoiniter moti,,,,. .\lth,,u,uh this haii onlv two 
signatures and the rnles <,| the assenihly did not permit the reading ,,'t any 
m,iti,,i; unie- it were supp,,rte,l hy at least tive niemhers, the Divan, n,,t uish- 
uig to eut olí the adversaries ,.i uni,,n, all, .wed the in,.li,,n to he read, .\iter 
a sh,.rt diseussion the v,-te was taken and o! the eighty-three deputies voting, 
eighty-,,ne were tor union. The nietho,! ol" voting was ,.pen: eaeh ,leputy ill 
turn advaiu-e.l t,. the desk, stated his v,.te in a !on,l voice an,l signed his name 
t,, three identical hall, its oi" which t\\,,, of j)archment. were dep,. sited hy the 
archhishoj) in the .state arelii\es. uhile the thinl was appende,! t,, the minute 
of the delilieralion-. 

Having registered the v,ite f,,r nni,.n. the M,,l,lavian l)i\an then coiilormed 
with the hy f,.nning in c.nimiitees ,.f classes an,l there discussin"- the 

further iletails ,,f the pr,.pose''. 

rc.rganization. The W'allachian Divan was. 

ho\\e\er, f,ar less suhservient, peihaj)s l.ecause ,.f the presence ,.f a large nuin- 
her ,.f retunicl exiles ,,f 1,S4,^.' it utterly refuscl t,. separate inn. class omi- 
miitees ami, after ;i,l,.piing. with ,.nly t\\,i ilissenting \-otes, a platf,.rm similar 
t,. of .M,.lda\i,i, with uni, 111 ;iii,l a f,.reii;n prince the chief planks, it issued 
the ])rononncement further discussi,,,, ,,f ilelaiK \v,,u!,l he incnvenient 
and inipossiMc ,,„¡¡1 the <lecisi,.n ,>f the l',.\\ers ,.n these ])oints s|i,,n|,l he ma, le 
kn,.\\i,. Ill ¡his .attilli, le it persiste,! in spite ,if rei.eate,! re,|ue-ts fn.iii the 
I'.uropeaii Commission to ■-tate its \iews on details ,.f ,.rganizati,.i,.- an,! on 
Deceniher Jó it .aconluigly ;i,l j,,iiriie,l until the f, ,11, .wing I'elirtiary. 

iM.reseemg if n,. m;ini|)ul;iti,,n were ,ill,.«e,l the venlii't f,.r 
uni,.!, was i,ie\it;ihle. d'tirkey lia,l anticii.ated the v,.tes ,,f the Divaus hy a cinniuiiicati,,!! i,. her represeiit.ilues al.r,.a,l, st.atmg that (piasi- 
rev,.Iiiti,.iiary clnl.s ha.l heeii ,.rgani/ei! m Walladiia .and M,.|,!avia which 
h,i,l intimi, late,! ilie inh.iliitanis, an,l tlieref,.re, hef,>re the \,.te for tin;,.ii. 
she c,.nsi,lc-i-e,i it 1,. he her ,luty i,. ileclare fninklv that, whatever tlie desire 
exjiresse,! hy the Div.iiis as t,i uiii,.ii. the I',. rie. relying ,.i, the pn.visio,, ,if 
tile Ireatx' ,.f I',iris. t., the eflect the !ir.,il sli,.ul,l he ,leier- 
iililleil eiilirel\- l.v .i^reeineii! hetweeu the l',.rte an,l the otlu r P,.wers. felt 
■ ihsolntely nl.iige,! I,, inaint.ain ils f,,riiier ,!ecisi,,u .igaius; uni,.n. T,. this 

'liu-r lia. I r. nirni.l. witli the .-..iimiiI ,,i iho portr. in tuno f,.r tlie cli-,ti.,iis 1, js 
l.r,,l, tliat this prniiivsi,,,, u;m .„ ih,. inMaiuc ..f Cr.rt Hritaiii uluri- flu „i.ittcr ha.j 
l„iii ni,i,!c (In- Mil,u'i-t lif ,1 ,i!:(s|i..n in I'.irÜ.in. iit ,iii 1,S 

-The ,1,1, iniitiatidM ..f tlir Walla, i.i.iii Unan wa^ ^tr, n^ili, n, ,1 in the ciMiiity ihat 
llicrc u,,i!M !„■ ,na„y .Hllrrnuis ..Í ,.|„„i,,ii ,,„ ,,tl„T ■yn-t.nn-. an. I that ,li-v,n-i,.n miüht 
Wfalii'ii till- fon-c i.f the V(,tc for iim.ii in tl.i- ,>,s ,,i tli- IV.wits. .V,,..' . /, \,.|, _' i,;, 
.s76-7. This (kcisi,.,, «a. h..rn,- ,,m hv il,.. cxiif riciu-c ,,t the M,,l,lavian Divan, wlicre 
the scvira! dasscs h, M far .Inf.r,,,! m, «, ,,„ „uiiy .|iicsti,.ni. an,l on .sonic rea,hc,l n,) 

.Mt)Ll)A\lA AM) WALI.ACIIIA, U^57 


protest Russia and Prussia replied that they uuuld pustpiMie their an>\ver until 
they had heard tlie votes of the Divans and until the conference had met at 
I'aris, and added tiiat the character cpf the l)i\an> was ahove reproach. After 
another prote>t the Torte eeasetl from further oliieclion> uutd the opi-niuL; of 
the conference of ambassadors at i'ari>.' 

In the se^>ions of the iùiropean l'omini>sion at I'.ucliare-t. there had Inen 
some criticisms hy Austria and Turkey of the letjalits' of the sv^'ouil e'eclion^ 
in Molda\ia; little interest had. however, hccu excued, e\eii Sir Henry I'.ulwer 
refusing to protest them, on the -ground that one need not expect the millennium 
in such a hackward re,<;ion. The Ru^^ian t 'ommi^sioiier, anxious as he \\a- tu 
credit the votes for u: on. had heen outra,i,a'd at the ]iri iinuieuce "\ the pairmt^ 
of 1X4X in the Wallachian assemhK . at the of the delei;";ite-- to >e|i;ir.Ut' 
into classes, and at the institution of steuo<:r;iphic report- of deliate-, which 
were made public before copies could reach the conuui-sion. Ili- jirote-t-. 
alsn, were without result. 

Tile Moldavian Divan had dissolved it--elf on J.anuary 2. \X?X. I'.efore the 
<l:ite fi>r the Wallachian Divan to reassemble, both bodies were lurui.illy dis- 
solved bv a tirman of the Porte. It now remained for the I' ( miii- 
mission to draw uji its re]iort to the Powers re.i^ardini,' the desire- of the 
people's re])resentatives. 'I'hi- had become a matter of yrcit ditliculty. The 
Divans had made union their llrst demand. i)ut bVance. their chief supporter 
anion«; the Powers, had ple(l<,fed herself a.q-ainst it ai Osborne, even before the 
\(ite< were ¡»assed. and the several commi^-ioners had received explicit orders 
from their j^overnmeiits not to di-cu-s the ipiestioii of union or ot a foreii;n 
prince. On these points, therefore, the commi~-iiin contented itself with 
simply transmitting the votes of the Divans, uitliout recommendation.- The 
other problems of organization were exhau-iively di-cu^-ed in the rejnnt which 
was transmitted direct to the conference at Pan-, without iieing made public. 

Whatever the agreement made between \ap<'leon and the (jueeii ,it ( )-.b. .rue. 
the r.ritidi liberals were still iMjieful of changing I'.riti-h |iniicy in f.iv.^ oi 
ac(|uiescence in he vote of the Prin. ¡¡lalities. .\ week before the conti.Teuce 
of anibass;idors was to meet at Paris, the ipie-tion of the union wa-- again 
bmught u]) in Parliament, this tune by Idad-tnue. who. -uiiported ]<\ I.^rd 
b'hn Ku-sel!. introduced a re-^lution calhng on the llou-e of t^'uunoiw t^ 
re.ilfirm the policy regarding the Primip.alitie- which had been pur-ued by the 
(ii'vernment in .and to e\])re-- the wi-h. in term-, due 
weight and ciinsjderation -hould be given to the wi-lie- which their people 
had exiu-e--ed throu-h their repre-ciitaii\ e-. electei! in cmiformiiv with the 

' /iiUMiiir,-. \(.! ,S (l,s.-7 5f<i. i'|> '>f<.' 4 

-Sec tetrads fr<im Rcpurtb i.ii tla- l\cori;,aiii/:iti'iii nt the I'riiu ip.ilitit-. 1 Licnnniils. 

tost, p. 8J3. 


Li-:i;is(;ii i':s 

'l'rf;it\ 111' l'ari-.' 1 lu held that the ek-ctions w urc ci)iK-hi-i\ e in thu tact that 
a ,i,^r(.-at prnpdrtioii Dt thn>e i|ualilic'il had .otcd. and with a iinaniniitv ruiiiark- 
al)k' in a Mitu taken liy cla-Ncs hc'wccn which there c\i>tcil i|uc-tiiin- ni a nin-t 
]iainl'til and dil'ticnlt natm-c. ot' ¡>^ every chance to l'oineiii (li.>seii-iiin. Tu 
Cdioiilt the people and then tu refer the i|nestiiin of iininn to the coiniin-.-iun- 
er- he chara.teri/ed a~ a ]iriiceedinL; nut (¡nK fonli-h. liut dan;j;er' nt>, it \\a-. 
he -aid, u^lu'^ hi-> la\iirite .-iniile, "like lij,dnini; a lire and -iuppnii; up the 
chiiniiev," and he declared that he tor niie w inild he ll' i part\- tu tritlinL^ with 
the rea-iinalile expectatii in- (it ii\e niilliuiis di' men. ; id cunclnded w uh the 
ui-e t(ireca-l that it" the con Itrcin e at l'ari- -houlil decree a,L,^ain-i iininii the 
i'rinci])alitie- wnuld thereby he i'--hed intn the ann^ ut" l\u--ia which w a- 
.-n|ipiirtui},r it. 1 he ( idvernineiit, in an.suer, attempted tu iiUer|iret the Note 
111 the nivalis a- mie fur uiiinn mily in ca-e a furei^n prince -linuld he accnrded 
them, d'n thi- I. uni Ivihert C'ecil answered that in the preaniMe tu the re-u- 
hitiuii- n{ the lli\aii- it \\a- clearlv stateil that the inu-t iin]iun:inî \\¡-h \\a- 
fur uniuii, which -huwed the fureij^Mi prince tu lie a suli-idiaiw (it-sire. In 
s|hte iif these eflurt- uf (iladstuiie, Kiis-ell and ('ecil, the ,i;u\ eminent'- pi)lic\' 
remained uuchanyed. 

The cuufiTence lur the reur.i;ani/atiun ^i the I 'riiu-ipahtie-. me! at l'aria 
un May 22. 1S5S. l"r;mce wa- represented li\ ( 'uiim \\ak-\\-ki, h'.n,i;laii(l li> 
I.urd ('(i\\le\, Russia h_\ ('unit Kissilef. rrn--ia li\- < uimt V( m llat/feld. 
Sardinia hy the Mari|nisuf N'illaniarina. and 'I'nrkev li\- I'uad I'acha. Mini-ter 
(il l-'iirei;^m .\lfair- of the Sultan. There was no atli'Uipi tu (|ue-tiim the 
autlieiiticit\- i'i the vute- "i tlie divans. The ])lenii)u!eii;iarie- ni Kiis-ia. 
I-'rance. rru--ia, and Sardinia all asserted their cunlìdence in their \alidit\-. 
and ("ou ley agreed that there wa- no douht hut tliat the peo])le had -hown 
theni-eh'es lur niiio.i. I'rance made an initial etïurt tu sfcure eiidur-ement 
liulli fur tile union and tor a foreiijn prince, hut in the face of the continued 
uppii-itiuii of I'.iii^dand. .Xapoleoti, his hand- tied h\ the n-liorue cuni|irunii-e. 
was furced to yield. The I'rench plenipotentiar\ at the third -e--iuu intro- 
ihu'ei! a draft containing,'- a i|nalilied union and the (Iraft was made the lia-i- 
of the coiueiition -i;,nied on .Xu.i^tist 1''. The structure thus reared h\ the 
tacili' hand of di])lomacy wa- a strange ■m'xtitrc of union ainl -ejiaratiou. 
The I'rlncip;i.Iitie- were, to he sure, hence. urtli tu he calici] " united " hut the 

' . . " I ln' union !- the ui'sli uf aInicKl .lie fiilirc pii|iiiltitiiin uf the Priiiciiialltle-, 
'I'liat i- a fait •.»liuli bear- greatly uimii llii^ i] u-tinii . . . although it i- ii"t cnrlusise mi 
the ipii -tidii. \ei I -peak in ilic Uriti-li limisi uf ( i mininn!, — I vpeak in that a--eiiilil> 
111 uhi' 11. I will licit -ay almie, hut tu uliieli al iiii<t almie. evcrv huer ut liberty in the 
umili luTi n.iw t'l h>iik fur the \ iniin'aliun of lii<; ri),'ht.s — ami I the Iloi-e of 
I otiiiihii- to ilo tnil Mi^-lne to the wi-hi-'i. to the nulits and interest5 of these people-, u 
iho-e inten-t- he eonipalihle with ¡nsliee ami tile welfare of ITiirope." See lltinsiir.i, 
(.ill -.rit-1 IS.-S, Mil, l,sl), pp. 4(>-8il, for the speeches of rilailstune and Rtis-el! 

Mnl.DWlA WO W Aí.l.AC 1 1 1 \. 


words "ni Mnldavia aiiil W all.ichia " uurc to i»' aiMcd. in nrdcr to (Icjiiivi.- 
the new ilenoiniiiation oí >ii,'iiiti('aiice, I'.ach was to !i;i\e a sejiarate lio^iioilar. 
a native of either I'riiicipality, who \\a> to he elected lOr hfe, and ea<!i \\a> 
to ha\e a separate a-.>einlil\-. 'I'here \\a^. on the otlier han !, î ■ he a murai 
e<imniission and a Iliadi court ot ju-Mce >et nj) ¡or the two I'riiK i^.ahti"^ lor 
iiiaiters ol common interest and the new or,!j;aiiizatioM :. ¡nu umler llieir 
salefiuard. The niihtia hodie>. too. were to have a conuuon orL;ani/ation, 
and mij^ht he united for niauienvri--.. _\et they \sere to have -e])arate llaL;>.' 
Xevv assemhhes were to he elected, each to vole lor the new ho^ and l''>r 
thi- an tlecloral law was drawn u\) hy the I'ovver^.- \ltlioUL;h vastly .ini|iler 
and more liheral than the I'lrman ol' 1S37, thi> law iierpetuatcd the voting; hv 
classes and the comhinatioii of a direct and indirect vote. 

While the roiiveiition of Au^ni-t l'> ilid not fullill the hop'- oí the Ru- 
manian patrii>ts, it was nevenhele--s a loii!^ -tej) toward- luiiiui lii:;euui'y 
soon contrived the next. The C'onveiitioii had provided that citi/.s n- oi euher 
Moldavia or Wallachia should he elit^ihle to the otfice of ho-podar in either 
I'rincipalitv. I"..\plicit in all el-e, the Convention had not provideil for anv 
action m case the two assemhhes -hould elect the same ho-podar. I hi- thev 
at once ])roceeded to do, althou^di, mindful oí the caher provision- of the 
Convention, thev surrendered their de-ire for a foreign ]iriuce and elected a 

l-"or the new elections the Conference at I'aris in-isted th.if \ o^;, ,ride- 
aiid Cihika lie removed and rjjilaced in each Principality hy three mcmiier- ot 
the Mini-trv in power helore 1S37, hut the turhulent relatic'ii- ,ind autocratic 
acts of these restored ofticials i,'ave little evidence of their conception oi the situation. In the Moldavian a-semhly there were two rival c.mdi- 
dates for the oHict )f hospodar. anil into the en-uint; hitter -tnii;i;le the 
Turkish f^overnment entered with the hop- of re;;ainin^' hy indirect mcthod- 
wh.-it it hail lost throiif^h the Convention of .Xiijju-t 1''. heariiu^ that di— eli- 
sion would f^ive aid and comfort to Turkey and .\u-tria. the ITeiuh and \\u~- 
sian consuls nr<,'ed the rival factions to unite on a new candid.ite. \\ hen the 
name of .Me.xander Couz.a, who. as prefect of Calatz, h,id reiu-ed to e.irrv 
out N'og-orides' orders for the first Moldavian election, wa- at la-t .idopted 
hv the national jiarty, the iiartisans of the two other candidate- Lrave wav. 
and Coll a was unanimously elected m lantiary '*, 1X5"'. ■ 

'I"he W'allachian assenihly had lieeii iei .vcd hy the -trui,',i;le over the electora! 

'Winn iiiiit'.l for iiiaii.i'iurt'- tin- two llai;> itiiiiht facii liave a iMir.lir ut tbr -aim 

-The test may Ik- fnuiiil in .Iniiuiiirt-, vol. ><. li< .^7 .-.*<. ]>. ''.^1. 

' Tliere vsere 40 ileleuates. Xi'tir;-,'!, \.il. 2, pp. 580 ,t .?.-./ , «Ives a .let.iile'l ncoMiiit 
of tile election. 


l'i.l'llllSC! I I'.S 

law, wliich tlie coiisnU liad t'mally Ijctu forced to si-ttlc. When the a>-enil)ly 
met there was a three-cornered divi>ion Ijctween tiie ])arti>aii-^ of two former 
ho-¡](,(lar-> and tlie ¡»arty of union. A deadlock >eemed certain when tlie 
newly named a^^ent for Moldavia stopped at llnchare.-t on \ú> wav to ( on- 
slantinoiile and advised that Wallacliia aI>o elect Con/a, -avini,^ that he the 
cainliilate .Mii)])oned liy l-'raiici-, and that this was the indirect melJKid dioden 
Iiy Napoleon to inip<i>e the inii(]n on l''.nrope.' d'hi> hint, t^i^ether '.\ith the 
ap]>e,ir;ince oi a crowd oi town-])eople to support it, liroii,i,dit forth from one 
oi the iiiemhers an elo(|uent appeal for harnion\- and for a vote for Cou/a 
;is another vote tor union, i'-.^d C'oiua unanimously electeil. The op- 
lionenis of the union, startled liy the new turn of events, wanted the election 
annulled, lint the enthusi.asni of the country showed clearlv lh;it the vote, 
i I amiulled, would lie repeated. 'Ihe onI_\- altern.uive, that of interxentioii 
liy -onie one of the Towers, was unaccept.alile to the others. l''aced with ihe 
(lilenuua. Great Britain ackno\vIed,c;c(l the fait accompli, .\ustria was too 
nuich eni,'ai^ed with atïair< in Italy to oppose it. 'I'lu .'^iiltaii attemi)ted to the union liy refusin^^r in\estiture. Imt was fmallv prev.'iiled upon lu- 
tile live i'ouers. in conference at C on>t;uitino])le, to ^dve his consi^nt. l-'orced 
to sill, mit, he ,i,'a\e lou/a two tirmans of investiture, one for each I'rinci- 
I ality, with the reservation the union -hould he onlv durmió his occupation 
of the olfice and that thereafter the (.'oiivention of .Xu-iist 1'» shmild lie re- 
stored.- In 1S61 a further step towards union was effected with the i^rant- 
iui; i if the ¡irixilef^e of a common assemlily and ministry, a,:;ain with the reser- 
vation that it should lie temporary, 'i'licsc reservations were allowed to st.uid 
hui were not endorsed li\- the Powers, who expressly reser\ed their decision 
nnid the c|uestion should a.L;ain arise. 

( ou/a did not have a iieaceful rei.!.;ii. In his /eal for economic and political 
re'orm he contrived liy successive measures and dictatorial methods to alienate 
the cler.ijy. the nolilcs. .and the peasantry. In h'elirnarv. X^Ciú. he was forced 
to alidicate and the ^'ovcrnnient ,it once issucil a proclamation calliiiL,' on the 
assi-mhly already in session to elect a foreit:;ii prince. As the I'orte reco--. 
mVed a siunrl^. hospodar for the IVincijialities only for the reij,'n of Cou/a. and 
as ¡he other Powers had reserve<l the rii:ht to consider the i|ue-tion when it 
should ;iri-e, the matter was a^-.iin open and once more the Powers were 
siiinmoned m conference at Paris to settle the question of the union of the 
twd territories. It was olivious that the Rumairans were now determined 

'/',())i,-, p. IIJ, ;,,iil Sturd/a, La terre et la raee roumaines. p\ì. 50,=;-7. Xeiiopul makes 
r,(i 111! liti. .11 III' Mi.lilaviaii or l'rcüch intliRiice in the (-U\-Iii.n, aii.I crclits it purely !•■ tlif 
W'ailacliiaii assembly. 

-Cl. Martens. .V. R. (,'., \,.l 17. pt J. p H.'. for the protocols of the conference at 
ConMantinopI,', and pp. .'ir-ll for the answer ..f the F.'rei«n OfTiccs of France. Russia, 
(.real I'.rilaiii. I'nisMa. an. I Italy, t.i the re-ir\ati<.n of tlie Porte. 

Ml H.D.WIA AM) W ALI.AililA. 1S57 


HI li:ii(.' nut I'lily uninii Inn ;i fircii^n princo. In \\m< Irittor ik'^iri- tlicv li.iil 
.■il\\;i\> li;i<l liut line struni,' ~;i[ii»irtiT. !''r;n;ii'. Ku^>i.-i w:i> unw >•> .•i!:irnii'ii 
li\ tiK' ]iri'-.]icit that >!k' wnlidrcw Ikt -'ippurt ni úk- nninn. In (li><.ii---:nL; 
tin il in I Ik- nKiltcr u a^ < ince nii irc ]i!;uiil un ilio ha^i^ m' the pi ipnlar .'. ¡11. Aus- 
tria and Rn-^ia. citini,' tiic rt-ccnt nplicaxal rr^arilmi; (nn/a a-- a ]iri'iii nt 
])()])nlar ili-ii intent with the exi^tinL,^ drder. nuw a-^erieil that the de-ire nf 
the peuple, e-iieciallv in Mnhlavia. was lui" separatimi and, tu aseertain lliis 
desire, they iir,i,'ed that the matter he a<^ain \nn tu vote, under -iciire .i^uaran- 
tees III hhertv ;inil independence.' l-'r.-inee ;ind ."Sardinia iijipii-ed a vi>te nil 
the ^'mund the vnte nf IS.^7 had heen ilecisive. ( nw ley st.ited the 
I'ritisli i,'civerntnent hail tin prec<>neeived npiihnn either fnr er a^.iiiist nninti. 
and left it wholly to the ])eople. "on whom she had ne'.er had the intention 
of imposing' a state of atfairs to them." The majnrity of the Pow- 
ers f.axorin;; another vote, the l-'reneh plenipotentiary ¡iroposed that to obviate 
delay it .should he given h_\- the joint assemhly already gathered at P.ncharest. 
Russia ai, ..ed that greater freedom would Ik; assured if the Moldaviati depu- 
ties should vote at Jassy. Russia, however, advocated a wholly fresh ajipeal 
to the peo])le, and was supported in this hy I'nissia and by (ireat Ilritam, 
Cowley .saying that he amid not unilerstand why there should he any hesita- 
tion in consulting the popi 'ations. The mctlioil of taking the vote, whether 
hv one or two assemhlies, and In- new elections or not. finally referred to 
the home goxcrnments. Without waiting for the decision of tlie Powers, 
however, the Provisional Government of the Principalities settled the question 
hy dissohing the assembly already in session and convoking a new one. and 
hy holding a plebiscite wliich elected the Count of l-landers.- This action 
brought forth hitter denunciation from the conference. The consuls in ihe 
Principalities were ntìtitìed bv telegraph to inform the Provisional Govern- 
ment that .1 foreign prince was impossible, that as to unii in if the Moldavian 
delegates to the new assemblv requested it, they should be .'dlowcd to vote 
separately on the matter, and that, if their \ote should lie .adver-e. the union 
Would be dissohed. The coUsuls were to exercise a joint supervision over the 

luiiging the di])li i:iiatic situation to be in.iu~|!Ìcious, the ('ount of l-'lruiders 
had refused his election, but the PriAisimial Goveninieut imt eNhausted 
its resources. On May 17. the President read to the Conference .iiiotlu 
disp.iich from the government at P.uch;ire-t announcing ;i sceoiid plebiscite 
by whic'i I'rince Charles I.i.uisnf ! I.ihen/i iili-rn .'>igiii,irili',eii had been eleeied. 
liy OS'.'T-'' '.ote- to JJ4. d'he Rtimatr.iti .agents at I. nudi ai .-ind Par:- h;id 

' Tin- ,ir, !oc lis of this Conference may tie fouiul m Martens. .V. A". (/., vol. IS, [in. 
ii._,. -. ... 

- Lnivcrsal nianliooil .suttraKC liad liceii une nf the reinriiis iii^tifiteil li> Cuii/a. 


I'l.llilx I I !■. 

alrci'l) ,i>iiri;iiiK-il ih it rnini- ( li.irk-^ wniM l» ,u\( lU.ilili.- In l)()!!i ( ,i\-.\[ 
l!r;i,i!ii ami IrainH'.' W-i-'lic" n. -ay liu liad a' •■ the -tipiiMri m' I'm^ia. 
\l!li..;i,L;li II. .lie "i tin-, -n¡)|i,,n \\a> \(iu(.l in ilif T. nuVrrinT, Aa-tria and 
hirkiy. ])rr tiviiil; nirilicr n|i|i( .-.ition In tlir niiinii tn In' ii-rlc--. aiir]ili'd it. 
■iiid. aller a Inii^ and iiililc dNni-^inn. \ irlucd a.Kn nii tin.' (nif-nnii of ilic 
inri-;-n ]inii(c. ( i|i ()itnli,r J.\ lNi)(>, I'muc ( liarlr- 1 \\a- ;n\c-tcd as 
lu'U'(htar\ |iriiici' n\ cr liir IniiiMJ i 'riin-i|ialiiii.'- ni \\allaili;a and .MnldaMa. 
ul:^li ht-iua-innli aN~niiU'd inr tlu'n!-t]\ c~ iliu na:iK' ni Kuniama, alllmiiLdi the 
'lanic i\u\ ni>t iiitim' di]i|ninal'c' rccn;;nit:nn nnnl tlu' rriiir;ii i!:lii'- had ,L;a;iU'(l 
lluir :iid( |iriidinia- ailcT llii- K'n-sn- I'lirki-li war in 1S77. and il w a- imt 
11111:1 \|.i\ _'_'. ISSI, thai ilk- cninnaii.iii n\ I hark'- a- Kiiil; nf Uiimaiiia tnnk 
nla.c at r.iu liarc-l. 

i II I InM \\ I -I \Mi-, ISd.l 

Mil' M-ar iSd.i va- marked liy an i-\int iiiiii|nr in tlir annaK ni l'"airn|Kan 
d'iilnmar\. \ -rial rni|iin-. in\aiin^ inarmiiK- and i niiiiiu i\ lal -ii]n i-nKn\' 
l'I ihr la-I. \nlnniari]\ irlini|iii-lu'd a iim-t r. .nimandin-- ]in-.iiinii. ludd thiTi- 
I''' 'nidi-|inl(d ri-lil nf triMtv. and inlid In .mnthrr nalmn \\ h.n \\,|, tlmn-ht 
t" I'^' "lu- n| ill,. ,irniUT-i f,,rirr--i-- ni the wnrld.- and the ir-Mnn i- -iiM 
ninrr nnu-\\nrih\ fnr i!¡c <:u-\ thai ii \\a- made iiikIt ihv -niiiilatinn tini ihe 
Iii'i|,!r till ni-cl\c- dinnld. ihmn.i^ii their elected a ìiM\. -anctinn tlie .aet. 
lln,\e\<T a<ri!ralel\ ilie e\nie,il nia\ att!-iliiiie thi- aet tn innijilev diplnniatic 
eaii-e-. it reaiain- the In^liwater mark >ii tlu' lilieral era ni < ii llritain's 

fnlel-Il pi uie\ 

I'.etnre the llriti-h IVnte.lnrate. win h wa- nistilnied m the -, re-, m l-impe m IS!.-, il,,' se\eii Inman I-'.and-. fnrMi. ( eplLdnuM, 
lîhae.i. .<ai'la Maura (l.eneasi, /.ame. ( eri-n and I'a\.., -.-altered alnii- the 
ena-1 nf (■ imni I'pnn- in ihe (-Mrem.- -mith ,.f t!ie \lnre.i. hel kiheui 
'"■'"^ i'^i-!e ■ In,- eeiiinrie- llu-^ li,-id heeii under the har-h .Innrmmi 
"' l''i' ^ < 'i' 1 ill U'epiiiilic. \\h(-ii. 111 \7'>7. ihr nxerllnw ne_; enrrenl ni ilu- I reiuil 
KfVMJtitinn ..niLdi' up the M.ind- and . ai led tlu-ni rapidi^ tlirnnjdi kaleidn- 
M-npie elian^e- ni -n\,-r.-iunl \ : lir-t the Dire.Inrv, 1,\ the I real nf ( aniim- 
'■'"■'"'" '" '"''"■ 111' II -1 l'"iil Un-n- I inki-h prnleet..rate. under a Im-a- |..n-,n 
tii.l" i;ra-p llu 1 d.m.l- maii.i-id tn nhtaili reen^nilmn a- the .'^eptm-iilar 
K'fl.iil.Iu-. ill the 1 r.-,iu m \ma-n- m iSnJ; then. I.\ die Ireate n\ Til, it m 
IWf», Ii;ii-k In .\apnlenii. Mi.h-r vdmm ihe\ n-mained fnr the l.r-ef jKTinil 
licliirf thfv were M-i/vd |.\ tlu- I'.ritidi diirint; the nperaimn- nf ili, and 

' 1. , 41. 

• i^ii' ^^tllMi' llaiiiiitiiii 1 a.iiuiai, ., \ i,i-..niit Kirk«,ill ( MMh Karl nf Orknr.V. 

Four \,,irs in ///,- /..»niii Islands! wriliii« in l*^, ,a.V!i tifat ' rfi :- «till iin- 

rivaüed a« the »'rtü!:.-!--! au.! :•.■.■.■.■.>. ■-;:!-!:i!;!.- 

rîresj« — ve' 

TI!!-: 1< i.\l AN l^l.AXlK. 1S<..Ì 


l'Ut miiliT ;i r.riti-.Ii a^riuii-traiiiin. I lu-ir Viti.- I^r tliv tU'M lii't\ \i-ar- \\,i^ 
at la-t ^cttlfil li\ tilt- i rraìv mi l'.iri--. -.i^iuil .m N'i^m-iuIut 5. 1S13, 

l'i\ tlif Treat». l'I l'ai'i^. < Ircat l'.riiaiii, ku-^-ia, \n-tr:a. ami l'ni>^ia au imi 
r(.'(.'"i:ni/cil ihr U'aiiiK a- a H'|i!;lilic lunlcr ilu' n.iüic ut ilio " l'ii'teil Siaic^ 
III' tlir Imuan l-lainK. " ami cU'claiXMl tlniti ¡n Ke a >ìiii;'i', inr, aiiil '.nilf]nniliiit 
Statt', In "r.Kr in kccj) ihcii' .mi ni iiinrr ihilji.iu- lian-N, li« iwi'x cr. an 1 ¡d 
rcnt.iM' lliriil irniil iln- ititi riialn iiial rile--- laMc, tlic\ \'>iTf placril iiiiiln- ilio 
niimc'liaU' ami tniIiI'-ìm' ¡iri iIitih m ni (ircat l'.ritain Tlu- " man latnrv , ' 
aiiìici])atniL; l'rnin tliv rhar.m' a thalikK"-~ liunk-n. L,a\c ri'huianl a. c i-plam e. 
SII till' lii-innaii- -a\ ; ■ \i-t tin.- ^iraf'^ic iin-itinn mÍ the l-laii'ì-- nni-i nrciK 
lia\i.- Unii •■■■ ;1k t'ir-t nn|i' irtaiua' tu a WnrM l'nui-r, ami tin- n-lr. tu i'i-ujin 
l'"rt- aiiil tiTntiirif> wa- i\|irc>-l\ L;iM'n li\' \rtu'K' 5 X^r \\a- llif imlf- 
]K iiik'nic .'1 tilt- l-latiil- -I' a!i]iart'nl al the fiiil ni tin- trean .'^ al ihr heuni- 
nini;, i'it the ¡lowi-r ni the neu Siate In reuníale n- inlernal nr;^ain/atinn wa- 
in he " \\\lh the ap])rn\ al ni ihe ]iri ilectiiii; l 'nwer " ' iiv hu h w a- " In ilei hi a, t e 
il- iiarlienlar -nlieitmle in the k-i-latinii aii'l general ailmnii-traln m ni t!ie 
Stale." arni t" aiiimini a re-uleiit l.nril lli,i;h l iiinni!--inner nive-ie'l wih 
anthnriu -urtictent Inr the piirjin-e. In tin- l.nril lli'^^h ( ■niniir--¡. mer '.-.ere 
Ulven |iraelii'all\ nnliniiteil pnwer- re^anlnii; the .niiMuaimn alni ilin-riinii 
ni tlu a--enihh. ami the < nii-inutinn ,i', \S\7 . I.\ the -miiee ile\ae <'\ enahhiii; 
the un\eri'tneiil In iininiiiate the ileleLjate-. In the \--eni''K ami ile|iii\inL; the 
\--(in!i!\ ni ]inwer nur -iijiiihe- nr mini-ter-, en.ihle'l llie l.nril lli'^h ' "in- 
ni:--r ¡ner In iln w li;ile\ er he |iK',i-eil ' 

W 'ih -neh .1 <le-|iii|ie -\-Iem, e-I.iMi-heil li\ an alien rn'er, it i- -ni|iri-ni; 
ihal. in -|iiie ni the re-nr^enee ni 'iieek naln inali-in nii ilie inamlaml m ISJl 
alili the -neu-- ni ihe • iieek War i<\ ImK'pemleiu e whieh laihmnaleil in ihe 
ae'i- III i\\ leil^inent ni the inile|iemleiiee 'i\ ihe ' Ireek k!ni;iln!ii m is.ìj. ijure 
-h""!il ha\e Keen, nniil \yUK niiK ,i -inali |iari\ m the l-laml- .iiti\el\ a,i;aiii-t 
the liiil'-h |irntei!nrale. .ill'l -e.iiieU aii\ illn\emenl In |n'n m ihe ne« ( ireek 
kmi;ilnm 1 hi- 'i\a- |iinli,il.]\ ihie imi miK In the iin|in|inlanl\ ni ()!li'. ihe 
Havarian kmi^ ni (ireeee. Imi in ihe eeniimiiu i "iiiliii"ii - in ihe l-laiiil-. wlreh 
eiii|ih.i-i/eil ihe laek ni raeia! -iilnLiria ; Inp. alihnii^li liie ln\M-r eki^-e> were 
n\( re. lielinin,L;l\- < ireek in i.iee .iiil lin^na^H'. tilt' .iri-|nerae\ , e-iH-eially m 
Cnríli. wa» lar.m'K .iii'l .i]i| in h.ue lareil iimre ini" ihe pei |ielii.i- 
tinii •<] it- iniiirnl n\ir ilie | le.i-.iiil r \ . -1 recenti -eri-, than inr -eli-;;M\ erii- 
niiiil \l.'nn\er, the pmleetm;; l'nwir. ]>\ il- ap|MiitltiiiellI ni \ a>t lUlllllifl- 

-: !, ; Minili r eiitil li>U. 
Hi-jiatch of Karl Rii»h-II t» thr llntinli Rfprfsciitativp'» P.iciiin. '' 

¡I .11, « M''a>'atii'" l'f tilt dioici n( lirut Britain n .....i..i..r 
' ArlicU- .V Slitlr ¡'att'^s, vol. í. pp. ¿50 ri je-/ 
Hf lolm Mor'i^ '• .>....,. ■ , (¡¡„¡i,,., . 1 : '"•' 

li I 

I '1. 1 ;i USCI IKS 

(li nativi' ..iiin'al^ a- well a- hy its i-i>ii-crvati\c (.-nii-titiiliipn. liad tied the ari.- 
l'iiiaiy to i!> iiitiTfM-. The -iiMiildeinii; hatred n{ the l 'fi ''ect' Tale, Iioa- 
e\er, aK\a\- mimiil,' uiili the [lea^aiitry and the Miiall tradeMiieii, was al la-i 
linked uitli the liew ~|,;r:l ..f nati, inali-il! kindled li\- the ( iret'k revi iIiUk m ut' 
1N),>. and when, in 1S44, there am-e ;n the Ulaiid> a pariv with itn^Mi with 
< pieece a- it- |ilat l'.irni. it rajiidl\- -wept all hefure it. 

Manned at the ur.iwth i>i thi- ]>.m\ . a- well a- at the -pread ..f the revohi- 
t'..iiarv leverai' ISdS, the I..ird lli-h ( '^ 'inmi-ioner, left free li\ the cu-tuni 
HI the I''(pre!,L;ii ( )lììee t.i in-titnte his own p.. liée, attempted m fnre-tall utire-t 
in the 1-dand- l.y L;rantin,i; freed, iin nf the iire-s an.l a in. .re hheral e..n-titn- 
ti..n. I he -i/e d the -\--emhly was iiu'rea-ed an.l the eleeti.m of )ts nieinhers 
wa- inaile free '' j^-ovorninent eoiitr..l: the liallot wa- re-lored an.! the 
eleetorate trehle.l. ami e\entiially i|nailrnp!ed, hy re.hieiiiL; the rei|ni-itc (|ua!i- 
lieaiionv. I'.nt. wlnle the ¡ire-s and parliament were thn- liherate.l. the exccn- 
ti\e power ua- liseii more tirmie than ever in the hand- of the Lord Ili^-h 
t ..mnii-sioiier.' d'he \--einlily wa< -till unahle to -top supplies or eject min- 
i-ler-. It- only mean- oi pn.te-t wa- t.i vote aj,'ain-t the mtr. .ductimi of anv 
;;.'vernmeiit mea-iire whatsoever, and this, with the passing'- of resolutions for 
the union witli (¡rcece. Iieeatne the principal dccnpation of the Ionian Assetii- 

riu« electoral reforms of IN4'» -eem t.i have completely destrnved the f^ov- 
ernn-.ent'- control over the A-emhly. l.y jilaein-j the new Assemhly in the 
haii.l- of the I'nionists. The several complaints a^iainst the Protectorate no\ 
all hecame v.ical. It li.ul heen a caii-e of irritation that, m -pite of early 

pled-es. Italian an.l n..i (¡reek ha.l ! ciained a the ollicial lan,i,'ua.ire, and 

that even imw. when (¡reek had inaine. 1 ot'ticial -tatns. .me of the " l\e<i- 
deiit-" -eiit out from l'.ni,d.and t.. rule the -everal i-land- c.nil.l speak a word 
of It. Taxation was neither uniform nor wise.'' The Assenihly, deprived 
..I all me.ans \,\ which t.) expre-s their manv irriid<,'es, adopted 
the '■ iii-..|eni pr.i.tice " of admiltini; a ¡irie-t to purify the a--emMv hall .after 
the .leparinre .if the l...rd lli.t,di ( ointni--i. mer. With siuh an inauspicious 
iH'UiniiinLi. II i-n..t -urpri-iu- t.' I'm.l the succeeding,'! ■,,mtm-i, .lier- fre.pieiitly 
l"'""-'""^' the l...d\ I., -top Us •• treasonahle ■' ni.iti.m-. More than that. 
m -pite Ol the .die.^e.l free. I. .m of the pre--. lhe\ uiipri-.iued —me ..f the 

' Kir<;,,ií7, O.I. 1. p. i;.;, 

• I'his attiiiipl t.) i-.imt.iiir rciirrvM.m .m,! rM, r. f..rm :u,iiii iiniirrril (M.i.l- 
st.tiii-'» satiriial nuiaplior cf Ii^IiIimr tin- tire an.l st.>ppm^' up ilic .liimnc.v, «Inch lie had 
applii-.l t,> l!ri!i»h polkv in tt-.c I'riiicip.iliti> , M.'rln-, s.,] 1. p. 508, impm. < the aiilh..r- 
»lii|> ".f the simile ti> Cliarlcs Hiillcr. 

' Ki'hiall, vol. J. p ."»(. ViH-.M.iit Kirk« .11 li.i.l hn-n a nicmhcr ..l ''lo vi.iiï ,,( .'Sir 
Il.iiM Ward. .'^I'vintii l...i,| llinh C.imiiii-vK.iKr lie rriiiaiiuil in the i» until after 

riii'. 1' 'XI w i^i.AXi)^. i.^i.í 


edUdí-- (It thu I-land neu -¡lapcr-., wliuli utTi- al! iinii.n;-!. ilin- iiurt'aMii- ,h^- 
o>ntinl. rill- fault- nf tin- -\-tftii, niiu , irkaMc cit-ii-h a' In--;, .ww cU-aviv 
>lin\\n III an a-t-ar;aii n-iti.i;- m i (.■],lialM!i!a. »\wn \\w att", .r::!!-- .mi 1..,î!i ,i,k-- 
cailcl f,,rili uii-.u l-ji-land'- vik-in;r- tanii!- a- t.. llu- l.ii-hdi rliar-r- auiiii-l 
J!nuiii'iii mil- in Xaiilc- ' 

l.ilii-ral lliMiinhr ill l-.n^land, uilh il> idiniraMr and niirivalifd al.'lüv li. 
SIV tin- 111 lis ,,\\ii i.yi' a- Ai'l a- llii- Lrani :ii th.- i-\r ..Í aii..;luT, lia.l I..111; 
lifL.rv tin- I.e. .1110 alivr t.. tlic ;niii-l\T ..t' tin.' a; ■ran,L;(iiK-iit. ii 11..: ■ tlir 
national a-i.iraii..n- ..i' ilu' I. .man-. Ii in.u .K'liiaii.K.l a i-c--ai:..n -1 tlu- 
-caiulal ami a -].ii-:al iin--,..n \\a- d: -pairln-d t.. ilu' Man. I- in 1^5'' I he ua- lu-adr.l I.\ ( .la.l-t. .nr. •■\\li..-i' la-m.wn a- a IL.tiicric -rliLlar" 
ui.iild " jn-ily ciiniii.rn.l Inni t.. the -wni.allnr- ..Í an IKlKiiu- ran-" -' 

I hi _U. 1S5S. ( .; arruu.! at 1 .ifiii. II:- .■.111:1- ha.l 
tTcatc.l a -cn-alii.ii in tlir I -Ian. I- an. I li:i.l -rcatly i\.iir.l tlu- If.^r- ..i ilic 
I n;. .111-1-, \llli..n.L;li, -....11 :iitrr lin.litii^, he l....k care 1.. iiil..rni tin- ¡-'..mi 
(.T- thai he ha.l n.>I cine 1.. tlir. t :in\ i-hani:i' in the Ivrm- ..i the ÏH':Lt\ ..: 
I'ar:-, iu\erth. k---. ihi ¡n-..]ili' wlti' e. .in :iuf.l that iu- ha.l ..aiK' t.. a:.l tlic 
iini..ii, an.U'\tT\ wJHTi' ..1! Ill- ¡iilL;rMnaL;i' tlir..ii,L;li tin- l-lan.l-lic wa-nut with 
liu .-rif-..!"! ni..ii w ith < iiavn- " an.l " I '..u II with ihr I'r. .irrt, .ratr," ^^i. 
a- llu' li.niaTi ,i;i'ntlcr.U'ii. 11. .tel í..r thi-ir |.. .hlctn'--, an. I llir ..liinal-. :ilariiu- 1 
at -i;.h f. .ntritt-ni|.-. .li-..wiu'ii ihc-c ].r. .ree. lini;-, he -I't-ni- t.. h:i\c lx-ht\«-.l 
thai iIr- crir- rf|iri'-fnte.l i.iily a -mal! iiiiii..rit\.' Ile pr. nat-.k-d t.. -t:itc cx- 
plu-iliy that there wa- n.. ihimi^lii ..i' 11111. .11. ami. at hi- re.|;ie-t, the -h..ii;in;^ 
eea-e.l. I. ill the leeliti:; remanie. I. It ha.l, in. lee. 1. inaine. I a.l.le.l ;n;en-t!\ 
a ili-|iateh . .t lite re-ideiit I .. .rd I I ii^h 1 '. iinmi--ii .tier, .^ir J. .lin N . .tin;;, m w liieh 
lie had ree. .niniemled that ('. .rt'it aiul I'aN... with the .•. .ii-eiH ..t' their inhali- 
itaiit- iwliuli he tle.lart.l to be |ir..l>al.le I, -h..ii!.l l.e e. .n-titii!e.l Uriii-h e..l- 
iMiie-. Ihi- had heeti -t..len ir.. 111 the l'..reÌL:n ' Uliee aii'l inaile ]i.iMie a -h..rt 
time Let. .re • ila.l-l..iie'- airual It ua- m laet the ..pini. .11 i.i the I'.riti-h 
oliieial- 111 ihe l-lan.l- that the ..iiK alternatue t.. i.ialsiii}.^ ('..riti a llnli-h 
coldiiy wa.- a ccs-inn ..t the i-laml- t.. <ireee.' ' (ila<l-t..iie \v.i- .lileniimi-.l 
a};ain-t either alternative. \ et he .learK peiie:\e.i inaii\ lanit- m the eM-tni^ 
sy-tein, lie tnlltid th:n tile I'.riti-h -tweritie- m ( 'eplril. .tua, the e..iiteinpl 
fre.|nentU -I1..WI1 t'l.r the reliai. .11 ..í the p<'..p!e. :ind the l;iek ..I tirder-t.ui.l- 
in;: -h'.wn l.\ the ünli-h pre--, whteh ealle.l ;iie lirn^an.l-. pir;ite- an.l 

' It »Í1» il i.iiiH.ii ill <iuiluni I'lir..].«' tint l!^■n^l. nil«- in tlic i>laiiils «as ..11 .1 Icm'1 

»nil \ii-tri.iM mil' at "'.nie- ami the ml. ..Í lln' I .ir.lii!,(lN m tlir I'.'iititnal ^^t.^ti.;. 
Morii y . V..1 I. |. '.|'. 

2 I'rnm till' .!is],,i|,|, ,,f ttu- r,,!..MÍál Mmisit-r. \ I-!. If5><. ,Vi>.'. ;,.,•, !. 

|. .'!(. 

' IHd.. v\> J-'l .' 

♦ Ibid., V -'-"' 


1'|.i:íiis( m:s 

ljaii).ri:iii~. .i- wt-Il a- tlu- lack ci lan .m iIk' ¡lart oí the I.nnl I1Ííl;1i ('(iiiinii- 
-ÍMiiiT. lia>l ,L:r<-'ail\ i-inliitUTfd i\u- inliahitam-'.' Ile -au iliat the fMstin.L; 
^_\-tini \\a- l>ai! l.uih partie-. \.-i, ecJH'-ickTin^- thaï imuni u.juM k- d'- 
ad\amai;i-uii- i(.r the lnliian-^ theni-elvf^ lie hoped that the Pn-tecturate 
iHHild lie itiaimaineil, aiid thaï the delire iininii euiild lie eiireil liv a .i^rant 
Ml' reiiiiiii-. 

< Ml jair.iarv IS. i, lad-' 'ne ua- made re-ideiit l.i.rd llif^h C. .iiiiui"ioiier oi 
the liiiiian 1-laiiiN, which lie acreiited a- a. te]ii|i(irai\ pn-t. < )ii l'ie dav on 
winch lie a>-miied otlice the \--etiilily met in extraordinary -e-^ioii to hear 
the |iro]io-ed reiorni-. lo hi- nie--ai;e annonnciiiL,^ In- a])|iomtiiient and it- 
olijeci, the \--enil.l_\ returned no an-wer -a\e a \eiled attack on the .i,^o\erii- 
nieiit whii'li culminated t\w> ila\- later m a \ote itroclaiiiiin^' that " ihe -ok- 
änd iiiianmion- will ( i-'t'A-.-ns )- ot the loman people ha- heeii and i-, the union 
ot the Seven I-land- v (¡rcece, " \ committee oí eleven \\a- appointed 
■■ to -uliinit to the C liaiiiiier it- o]iiiiion oil the niter:. .r mea.-ure- -intaMe to the 
proclamation oí the union this day adopteil by the A-.-emlilv." ■'' ( >ii the fol- 
low iiii; da> Mr. ( dad-toiie -eiit a iiie--a^'e to die ( hamlier ]iomtni,L; out tlu 
uncon-iitntional nature oí it- |)roceedin,¡;- and ad\i-mj,f that the committee 
ot t-le\en -hould rather he employed to draw up a ])etition to the (Jueen. m 
accordatici' with the ( oii-iitntion \iler -onie op|io-ition h\- the radical lead- 
er-, till- .id\ice wa- adopted li\ a --eat niaiontv, all -a\e a ieu raihcal^ join- 
hil; 111 It. rile eiieniie- oi iiinon hopeil ihat m tin- wav the (ine-tion wdmIiI 
he clo-ed. I he |ietitioii \\;i- .idopied on iaiiiiaiv M> and lele;;raplied to I'.n;;- 
land li\ .\lr I ilail-toiie <in the iollow iiiL.' da\,' .\l the -ame time he -eut in 
h'- re-i^nai ii 

1 he -ni;j;e-lioii oí reIini|Ui-lni!L; the -traicele íortre-> oí Colili excited 
warm o|i|io-itioti 111 ( ireat llrilaili. \- l.\tIoii had inipre— ed on ( ¡lad-loiie. 
neitlu'i' the I'.rili-li piihiic nor it l'arliamenl like- am poluw that " i;i\e- :in\- 
tliin),^ Up." ' nor r- their altitude iinn|ue. ( )ii h'eliruary J the Colonial .Min- 
i-ter lele^'ra]ihed the (jueen'- ri-pl\. which wa- ;i ino-t nnei|iii\ ocd iie^atu e."' 

I he i|iie-Iioii ,,i union lieiiij; di-po-ed oí, .Mr I dad-toiie now mtiodiiced lu- 
liill ot relorin-. Imt n.itioti.alil \ . not hlieri\. w;i- tlu' con-ninniL; p.i--ion oí 

lile loin, 111- ;ind no other 1 ii woiiM -iiliice. Xor wa- the ii]iper tl.i-- m 

-vmp.ilh\ with the relorm-. preit rriiiL; ih.ii the I'rolector.ite -holild ret.iai il- 
]iowiT. I he \--eml'l\. te.iniif.: aii\ other .iclioii on it- p;irt woiild 

' 1 l\ M.'H.X. O.j 1. p (,(!.! 

- I il.iil-|f. iir M'lil liack t'l till- liinii;!] I Mtii I i MlmliirK .ii-.ii.M,,n .•!" v hrlli. i tin- «.inl 
iiniiiit "híM" nr ■■ wivli," a im tuiil.p\iv .Tttriiti'ii to 'letali «liiih, m mi u ca tlic (lulriit 
intent of til.' vntrr«. Iia< caii-c.! •¿.mho hilarity jnioiif; llic • ••ir.iniütati'rs. 

•■ noi-iiiin-tit^. /■ •.(/. |i M.ÎS, 

* .Mi»l.-y. ^..l !, |, (,].; 

■ I loiunu III- / i'>i. |> SJl, 

!■; Il INI \\ l<I.W|)S, 1,^,,^ 


ut-aki-n the fílVct nf ¡t^ \nw for um. .11. .li-daivd uith ,,!i1n ..„c .Iwvciiiinu 
tliat tlic rclur. . ucrc ina.lmi-;l,!i- ( )n Idirtiar.v 1'», M,-" ( ,la,l,t. .,r clr|ÙrIol. 
-till devoto! t(i the canse ,,i reiorni m tlie Urinali adiiiiii;strati. m ,,i' tlu- 
Islande. Imt a- little hitteii 1,\ 1,¡. exiieneiue here a. m ltal> uitli aii\ eu 
tliiisiasiu i'(,r tiatiMiial a-inratii mi^. 

Ou the da\ helore ( iladq. .ne's departure il, e <-onuuittee o| eleven liad re- 
IMirîed that the «.hieeli'- reply did not elnse the .pie. Ik. n ,.i uuiou. ^\ uh ¡hi- 
Mlliatioil the neu C „luni-iuiier. Sir 1 leur\ Slork-, had to deal, wliieh he did 
liv dei'lariut; the A-seinMy ¡iron i^ued. 

The Italian uar had ■ reated thnm-li.>ui an a,^ua!i..n reinar lini; na- 
linualilv. T.. this the l..iiiaus were acutely alive, and >\ere not dou to p,, nil 

• IUI the >i}.;iulK-aiire of the d(.etrine that eaeh |>eople n the oni\ true judue 
Ol uho diould rule them, which had heen expressed, m the Italian case, hv 
l.ord John Uiiss.ll. ii,,\\ Ihitisl) l-orei.:,'n Secrelarx.' Tiie As.i-nil.K oi ISl.l, 
encourajíed l.y Italian success t,, foll,,\v Italian tactics, .idoiite.l two resolutions 

• Irauii ii|i lis the radical leaders of the rnioiiists; the one addressed to '■ tlie 
I'eopie. (.overunients. ami I 'hilaiuliropists of Ciiristiaii hairope." .attackinjí the 
despotic n;i1ure of the < ioverunieilt : the other ¡iroposiu- that the matter he lefi 
to .1 vole of the people liy universal sutt'ra-e.- The romniissi, ,ner warned the 
.\ssenilil\ any dis,-ussi,,n ol these documents aouM he unconstitutional, 
and on its determui;itio,i to pniceed, proro^ui'd it for sis m.iiiths. 

In spite (it the i)osition iiou .Kcupied l.\ ( ire, it I'.rit.iui in the, the 
r.ritish Cahinet still jiersisted in opiiosu,^- any chan,ue in the I reat\ of l',ari. 
On \pnl JJ. !S(.I. the ( Ministe,- declared m the I loUse ,.| 'l ih ,1 
the («..\ eminent delernimed to the l 'rotei tor.ite ,nid oil M:i\ 7, 
';iadst,ine, ikav Chancelh.r ,,| the l-'.xcheyiuer. deu..uihed the cessi, ,11 as noih 
iiiK k-ss th;m ;i crime ajiaiusi the safetx of lairope ■ W hen the twelfth 
r.irliament opened on M,irch 1, iNi.J. ami m its ,iinmosU\ ,i;;,iin-t the (.overu- 
metit drew up a prou-st ;icciisin,L; 11 of various lire.nhcs of the Treaiv- of 
''■"■'''• "• ' "■ ^^'i^ proroj.;,,!.,!. Milliers come to ,1 patent de.idlock, \ 
new f;elor wa. introduced. h,.\\ever in the sunmier of l.'^d.'. 1,\ ¡he e\iiiilsi,,n 
of Km- ( )tto from the of ( .reece I he tillin- of the \,i>,iul throne 
was an alisorhiilí^ i|iicstion fo|- the tliicc I'owers, (, |;!i;,im. Ir.ime. and 
Uussia. who were - of the kin-d..m li\ the of l.vij ( ),, ,1,,. 
depositi, ,11 ,,f Kin^' ( M,, the re\ oliiti, ,iiar\ ^overuuKul lia,l , .tiered lln- thr..ue 
I" ■' i'"»!" f llu- ( /.ir, wh.i refused I he mass of the |ie..ple, li...\e\er. were 

I Sii;ii..r I), 11, .1-1,,. ;i l.;i,li,ii; Imhì;!!!, Ii.kI im 1.1,1 I>nI,ll^lll•.| ,1 I,. tur I,, Kii-.ill , .ijlmü 
en Him t., < .irr\ ,,iit Ml llic M,iTi,|s llu- |m,1„ v h, |,,-„| .„íiImi.,! im lits i,,mi,„,,. ,|,*,,.ii,h (,, 
Hîuls.'n ¿Il I iiriii, ij.-u-.i (»ri<,l,(r .7 IHmi 

' niiciiiti, lits. /■,.!( |,p K4I ■ I 

a Kirl :, .,/; , ,.1 ! ,, .'i,7 



ilfiirm:nc(i \'< li,i\r I'riiKo \li'ri.-il <>{ l-'ii^'aiiil aii'l tlu- rrn^Mi a:i- Ml't'crd t" 
him 111 (iiliilnr. i')\ an ai;: ((.■iiicnt (.■^lalili-lu-.l Iiclw cl-ii tik' lliroc I'mwci« it 
liail l.fcii -rttk'! thai ii.i iiiriiiluT ni ilii-ir rfii;n;iii; iainilii-- iuÌl^Iu oivnpy tin- 
'Milk llii'Piir. and ',i|Min tlu- ilfpi i-itji ai 1 1 1' Kuil; (»it... 1 jiL;!aii(l had at i 'iicc 
]iri.ii"-nl 1m thr ii:hrf I'mwiì-- that ihi~ )iriiii-:]i'r he rfat'tinin-il. The nihcr 
I'aluiui-. -II liiiiL; a> iluri.' a¡ii.iarrii t.i In- a l'haiur ui the iImut lallmi; mi a 
]iritiie I'l' ihr:r r('-]iri-Iur natii ■nalitic-. were ea^ei" tu iiphiilil tile liuht "t tlie 
]ieM]ile tiMiiake their nwii I'linire. When, hnwever. the\ ^aw that the ilimee 
\\a- likel\ ;.. l'ali mi I'rinie Mired .li l-aiL,dand. the l'.'wer^ a-reed t" the 
l'.rii;-h |irii]iii-al and -ii;ni.d a e'iiuenlÍMn tu that l'iïei i nil 1 )eiiiiilier 4, lS(i_'.' 
d he tireek> reiii--ed t" aiee|)t rrinei' Allrei!\ rel'n-al an-! pri'eeeded t'l 
eleet him li\ a |ilelii-i ile. i'.eî'nre hi>,- hnwexer, the lîriti^h ('ahinet. 
whether anxiiin^ tn iar\e a wa\ mit ni' a |iii-iiiipii nntenaMe m the tare «it 
the I' iiiti'iiu'il ii|,]).i^iti. .11 nl' the i~laniler~. i<v eaL;er in ^treHLithen tile (.reek 
km^dnin a^ a eniiiiter halaiue tn the L;rnwmii >lav pnwer. had. nil 1 'eeeniher 
S. 1S()_'. .idn|ited a re-.nlntinn tn -urreiider the I'rnteeinrate. ■ 1 hi- re-nlntinn 
wlneh, in \iew ni the e\cn!. ]ire--n!na'ilv cniitained the iiin\i-imi that U ^liniiM 
he -iihieel tn the xnte ni the 1 mían \--ein!)!\, wa- t'nrwariled in the l'rn\i- 
-iniial 'Mi\eninient with the -tiiiiilalimi- that il a -iiilaMe ]ier-nn were elm-en 
a^ km;^. ii ihe eniislitiilimial I'nrin i>i ;.;n\eriiment were pre-ei-.ed. and il all 
atleiiiiit at a;4L;re^-inn a.uaiii-t Turkey were ahandniied. the Iniiiaii l-laiid- 
w 1 .iiM he cedei 1 tn < ireeee.' 

Ihr ih. .he 111' rrinee Mt'reil heilig; nut ni' the i|ne-linn, rrinee ( ienri;e nf 
1 ieiiniark. w hmn the r.iil-li de-ired a- .a -uh-lilute, wa- eleeied hv the • i reek 
\--em!.!\ mi Manli .\ l."^(i.>. and in thetrealv nf liil\ 1 ,> helweeii ' Ireat 
aiii. I rallie, l\ii-.-i.i. and 1 li'iiniark e-lalili-hiii;.; the |)am-li ]iM!Ke a'- kmi; i.l 
' .reeee 1 1 real I'-niaiii |ili'd,L;ed lier-eli tn .add the Imiian 1-I,ind- tn the reahii 
ni' the new Kiiii; " when --iieh niiinii aliali have lieeii iniin.l t., he in arennl- 
aiiee w illi the wi-he- ni the Imiian 1 'arlianient and -hall ha\e nhtained the 
a--eni ni the ('mirts ni An-tria. I-'ranoc. Tnis-ia. ami l\n->ia." "' V>y a cmi- 

'< .in:l-n,l.:,- \l,-d,ru History, vol. 11, ].. (.-11 

- Thf |.lfl.i-i III' lulil ai.|i;ircnlly in the sicnnil werk "f Dii-<iiihor. Ttio rc-"lt .if 
till' il.nii.n w.i- i.iihlislud at Atliens on O. iciiiber 11 ( N". S.l. The Times ( I.ondoiO, I>i-- 
niiiliir .'5, IKdJ 

l/,,,;.v. \..l, 1, 1' '.-'(t, I ir. "|)ii- H. IHi.J -( al.inrt Resoluti. '11 ti> snrreiulir tlu- 
1. .111,111 i.r..|n l.t.ilr 'Inly l.m.! \V(r-tl.iirvl oiipovin«." Thr rillii/'rii/x;,- M^'ilrrii Ui\l,'r\. 
\n\ 11. I. (i41. .itlril. Ilici; the I'.ritisli crvMoii {•< uratiliiile f'T tin- ihniee of an I'nuli-li 
|.riii. r Aiidrilmi; to a ili-pali'li of Proiiyn ile l.liny-., i.f N'menilier 1", 18(>,'. tlie ct' 
ua- nuelc .1 eoiiilitioii l..\ Dinniark of tin- afi'i'|ilaiu'i of Trini-c (k-orjic of the thr..iH' ot 
(.rii.i-, anil I'r.iiuo ha. i uuonratíeil the plan ¡"ranci-, .trftv'rrs éirani;èrei: /''ii.-MPii.-iiic 
(/i>í.'iMii/i.;N.-,t, IKM . Itini-.ii..ii Jes Urs í.iiií.iiii.-.t .í /<i (Tri'ir. |i. 7^. 

» (lililí' ni/^- 1- t/.ii/iT« Histnry, np. ,it. ami ¡oc. cit. 

■' n.,iinnrnt-, /-.'.vf. ]> H4,>', Arliric 4. 

'1 lii'. i' 'M.W ¡-i..\.\I>>, l,^.,ì 


ventilili III \ni;n^t 1. tli(--(.- (uurt-, \\liich had liccn .-innati irio to tliu I real \ 
di' l'aria, a,i;r(.'t.-il that wlicii they -linii'nl ulitaiii lertaiii kiinw leilm- ni the 
a>>eii! Ill the -\-~eiiilil\ . the\ were reaih" tn I'miie ti ■ an agreement with I ireat 
llritaiii with re,::;ar(l tn the Inial term- ni the treat\.' I'.\ th;~ iniiveinii ui ¡iie 
Ciiiisuhatii in Di' the reiire^eiitalive- nf the Klainl-- \'.a> U'-er\eil In ihe llriti^h 
< ii)\ernnient. 

In aceiirilance with th.e-e iiiternalK iiial a^reenient^ the I niil lli^h i niii- 
ini->iiilier eniivnkeil a new Inliian I'arhainent In xnle nn ihi' (|ne-; nii ni nninn 
with I ireere. Ihe eleelnrai (|iialilKatinn-- I'nr the ne\. parlianient were lhn>e 
nf the eleelnial law ni' ISt '.- \\\ tlii- it liad lieeii ]irii\iileil ihal the eUclnr^ 
nui^I he :/. IN, either nati\e nr iiatnva' /eil, ( lirNlian-. ni _'l \car^ ni a^e, 
aiiil literate. I urther llian ih--, the e!eetnr^ imi^l nwn iirnperix. nr il" imi. 
inn-t itihlll itlier rei|i!iremeiil- <■{ ediuatinii. nr i<\ Iinsiiie-^ nr ntiu :al --taii 1- 
ini;. 1 vntinti nn a pnquriy (iiialilieatinn nnwt nwn iirnp^^r' wmth 
linee tlmiwaiid dn!lar>. il" dninieiled in a inwn, nr ni nne tli'ni-and e:L;hi hiiii- 
dreij dnlhir-. il in the enniitry. '1 he^e amniint- applied tu ihe l.iri;ei i-lamU 
ni Cnri'u. (ephalniiia ami /ante. In the ^mailer i-land ni Santa Ma ra tiie 
rei|llireinelU \\a- nlie thnii-and ti\e hundred dnll.;'- in ìnwii- and se\en hun- 
dred and tii'ty dnllar- m the rural jian-: :ii Ithaia. l'eriijn. and. l'a\n ihe 
rei|nirenieiit wa-- le<s. Snii-, Inini,'- in their iather- Imu^ehnliN and n\\ninL' 
>ultieient ])rnpert\ iiiij,dit vnte. a^ well a-- hmlherv Iuìiil; ini^ftluT. if tn.^fthei 
ihey allunili ]in>-e^^ the reiph~iie aninunl ni prn|ieri\, li the elee'nr ilainied 
a \nie nn the ha>i^ ni edueatinn, he nm-t linhl a dei;ree nr eiTtiliiate in -« iiue 
ililained in the Iniuan nr l'nrei^n tini\er>itie^, nr he a praetiein:^ ad\neate m 
aitnrnev, nr a ]ili\--ieiaii. -nr^emi. nr aji ithei'ar\ . nr a |irnie>Mir nr intnr in 
>eieiue, hteralnre. nr the line art^. nr a iiui-ter in the Imiian ( 'nllei;e nr m a 
>eeniiilar\ ^chnnl. 111. \nU' wa- al-n i;i\en in nt'tieiaK ni the piilihe i.,iipln\- 
lìieiil wlin were in reei I ni a ^alar\ nr liie pen>inn eiphvaleiit in ilu- prnp- 
ert\ (piahlieatinii, and aUn in retail merehant> ii the return- nn the-r e.ipital 
Were ei|in\alent tn the vaine ni the jirn|ieru i|iiahtieatiiiii~. I he ina-n i nr 
nwiuT ni a ■'hi|i aiid the head ni' an\ inanuiaittinnL'- e>.talili-hineni nii'^^ht aKn 
\iiie. I lu- ii-nal ]irn\i>n wa^ added exelndin- ali thn-e wl.n had hecn de- 
clared ;.;inlt\ <<i nlïeiiee-, niher than pnluieal. iinle--~ their ei\il r;i;hl- hail Keen 
re-tnred. The pnjiulalinn ni the i-laniK wa- in ]Xi>2 a hitle under I .m i hnn- 
dud and liilv thniisaiid: ihe-e (iilahrieatimi- xielded ihiitiiii thnii-and imir 
luindred and innetei'n iiiiahtied (deetnr- '■ 'l'n he eli^ilile inr parlianieni thi 
eandidate iini-l he umi ihin\. and ni\n prnpcriv ni iv\iir the \aliie m th.ii 
ni an eleetnr, nr ]in~s(-, ntlier ipiahlii almn- i nrre-pniídmi; tn tlm-e ini' an 

'■' l'nrliaiiu-nloiy /'cifrrv ( oL.tiic., 1S5(1. ni .ìii M-T'd. y 
> An À:,, I/)" voi 1. J. 174. 

i'i,i; i;i--( il !■: 

cl.viur. ¡hr iinnilKT ui .Icli-au- allnttcd t.. ( ,,riii. > ri,,i. and ZantL-. 
\\a- li'ii each. Santa Maura ua~ ,t;i\fn -.i\. and liliara. (cri-., and l'a\,,. I^\,, 
(-■ai'li. inaknii; i.ii-t\ -twi. m ail 

■|1k' N\a~ held ni tlio chii'i tw\vn .,i tarli dÌMri;i. Tin- |,.,1K ^u■^^■ ,,|K'n 
"■'"" ^>'^''" ^- ^' '" ''\c !■■ M "11 t"" Mi-a'-ivu davv \t a ]n\\<]'.c nu-ctni- 
-i.nir da\s pn-Mcii. i,, ih,. clci;, ,11 tin- camlidaif- w ri\' iHininiaicd and ilu- 
ilc-IiMii ,,trn:aK t-kx-tcd. \ ulin.; at tlir t-liTti..n \\a- 1a .ccrct liallnt. ^\^h^■ 
method I'dllowrd \\a> iiMVfl: a hall. it l.n\ with l^^,, minpartnicnt- ua- ]>r<>- 
Mdfd fur cai-li landidatc'- nanit-, nwv c iin|ianmciit. ¡.aimed wliiti-, to ivceive 
llic allirinativc vntc, (ine ^ra-n. tu n-eiivc tli- nr-ativr. Tlif lonnt was t(p lie 
ma<lc liy Imal nati\e iit'tu-ial> uhi. tur the nio^t part were f!eiti\(.\ 

It ajipear. that I'.niidi (.pinion had I'ailcd i,, credit with sinccrit\ tiic vnto 
ot the t. inner <ieie-ates l'or niiiuii. ar^iiiiiL; the well-kituwii h.nian l,,\e 
"I "llu-e that m Mew <,i the tact tliat nni.m u,mld Mirely mean a redncticni in 
the tiiimher (.1 nlVu-es, the deimties were voiin- I'ur it (Hily while it was nn- 
Hl.'inahle, and a- a mean- ,ii earnin- their omstitneiit-' sitjipurt. The I'.rit- 
;-li (itlieiaK had aK,, drnily helieved that the landed eia- w,mld, n' ,t came 
lo a \ote. prei'er the Mire proieetioii of Creat iiritam with it-, conservative 
iranchise to the protection of the weak (ireek km;;,|om which had 
universal s„|ira-e This faKc mipressio,, had iieen aided l.v several peti- 
tions wliich had Inen presented. Ke.-;-in<,r for incorporation as a I'.ritisj, Cmwn 
>olonv. However widespread these views may have heen aniony the British 
olticials, and the\ v\ere certainly iield hy the C omtnis-ioner. Sir lleiirv Storks. 
aii.l Iiy «dadstoiie.' the\ ¡irovt'd to he tinfoiinded. 1 Iktc was scarcelx a dis- 
•iiitim; voice m tin- \ote for union. 

I he larliameiit opened .m ( Vtoher 1. INO.^. ( )n the .hu]. it was .addres-ed 
li\ the C ,.min,sM,,ner. who -tated that thev had lieett com oked to „.torni him 
whether or not ,t was the desire ,,f tlie people l.\ whom thev h;id heeti cli>,sen 
'hat the IVoiector.ateof Her üritisj, .\l.i|esiv should ce.isc and that the loman 
Mates dioiild form hencefortli a part of the Kiii-,l,,m of (, recce In the 
-amc address he eimmer.iled the condition. Mipnkited li\ the llrilish ( ,oveni- 
meiii. the important one heii..; that of an ohli^ation to make .an pav- 
""■'" "I ill'.<><«> to the (nil List of the ' ,reek Kin- sl,,,„|,l ,1„. ,,„,. |„. 
Ml la\or of the uiiioii. he contmued. the IJueeii would then mvite the Towers 
which wei.' ¡Kirtics to the !rc.ii\ oi ISI.s to revise that iieatv. m couiiinctioii 
\\:tli liaiice. which h.i.l l.>'en ,1 part\ to the treaties respectm- ( Ireece, to make 
'■ siich arrati.:L;emeiits .a, diouid tend to the inture welfare oi it, c M.inds .md 
the permanent interests of 1- urope - On ( .^ the I'arhamcnt. with 

-' i ii'ciiim'iits , ',1 |i .S5.' 

Till-: ¡I »XI w iNi,A\i)s, isi,.^ 


iiiily thrt'c ilissfiitiiii; \i>tc-.' pnn'tci'i'd tn vntc a ik-crrc > ■' niiinn wiih 
till' kiii!j;(liiin (if ( i recce.-' Ki;i;ari!ini; tiie cuiiilitidii^ laid iloun li\- ilie (nin- 
ini>siniKT. lin- As>enilily rocrvt-il tu iIm-IÍ the ri^lil in ilfilarc u-. (U-ti-H m-. 
a> siidii as it >iii)iil(l lia\c iiecii m idriiicd cuiu'eriiiiii; tlic iiiatter- \a;;U(.-ly re- 
ferred tn li\' the L'()iiinii>>inner a> " arraii^^reiiieiits fur the \\elfare <<{ the State-- 
and the interests nf lairi i|ie." \> fur the i;iiaraiitee nf an annual ]ia\nient ni 
¿Id.iKH) ti I the Kiiii,^'-- ei\ il li~t, the .\--einlil_\ made nu answer \\hate\er 1 iie 
tetni)er df tlie <le])Utie^ wa-- ii])|(ii^ed in ci >n-'ider:ni; it a~ a ri inipiiKdrv mea- 
nre. Xo artinn having; heeii taken, the t ommi^'-idner, un the l.^th. aLiani 
called their allentiun td the --tlhjet-t, td which the .\-^enilil\ an--uered wilii a 
reiniest to ni(Klif\' the cunditidiis. ' The .\ssemlil\- wa-. t'mallv Inrliidden td 
discuss the iiuitter further and dii ( )ctdl)er 2\ n was ])rdrd^ued, never td 
reasseinhle. ' 

rile " arraiifiements for the welfare of the States and the interests df 
l-'.tirope " ]>rovcd to he as disjileasinj; td the i^iandi i> as was the ,t,niarantee of 
the civil list, 'idle I'ower-- had come to a secret llnderstandin^^ on the de- 
mand of (ireat lîritain, .\nstria and Turkey, that the ce^^ion should In- accom- 
panied hy the raziiif; of the fortifications of Con i and the neutralization of 
the islands.' These conditioii> had not l>een mentioned hv the ( 'otiitnissioner 
and when they were ])ulili>hed in the lîiiti-h ¡¡ress thev raise<l a furv of prd- 
test in the islands, hut, a-- in the ca--e of the ci\il list, they were insisted on hy 
till' r<iwers. 

The wi>h of the Ionian As>emlil\- having; heeii dtilv expre^-ed on the i|ue'-- 
tioii of union, and the ilritisli f;;o\eriiment haviiifj made the vote known to 
tlie í,'iiaraiiteeiiijí I'owers, tlie plenipotentiaries of .\ustria, I ranee. ( 
I'ritain. I'russia and Ru>sia met at l.dndcin to tak ■ the next stc]). ' )n Xdvem- 
lier 14 the\- si.iined a tre.i". to the effect that, the condition of tiie \ote laid 
ddwn in tlic l'on\eiitioii of Xiifju^t 1 havmij lieen fulfilied, the rdwer-- sit;n,i- 
t<ir\ to the treaty of ISl.s now formally accorded their assent to the renuncia- 
tion of the IVdtectdrale hy Üritain, rmd to the union of the UI.ukK with the 
llelleiiic km^ddin. 1 he ohuoxious clauses of neutrality and the ra/iii.c ot 



.il, -'. Kirkwiill 

tliat tlif 

\ntr «as 

I Air/,:. II//. Oll, I, |i JS4, < lii p. 

-■ I 'ocnnu'lits, fust, p. S5.5. 

■ Till re VMTr tlirrc dis-fiitmn fnnii this vdtc 'Wi the kTcmiid .ill the oiivlitinn- ni 
Mill. ITI tiiiülit Im- i-,iiitíi|i-il t.. i1k' k;(nor"SÍty of 'Ircat Uritaiii, I'nssilily tliis aL-diiiiit- t"r 
tile ini-iiiisivli-iu'y iii Kirlvw.ill iintcil ahi)\f. 

* Tlic tri-aty nf Marih J"'. 1,S<)4. recites iti .Vrtirlo .'i lliat Uu \s-i'nilil> mi (KtolitT 7 1''. 
IKii.i. \citcil that tiu' arinual iiaynu'iit lie inaili' — Kirkwall iliaractcn/o- tlu' "Kniaii'l a- 
iiidcíi'iisililc. as till ri- was im rtas.iii !o assii;ti tlu KiiU' a sprcial nviiur fnnn tin l-lainl- 
It «as later alamloiicil. 

l'raTU'i-, .Itfttirr.f ,-tra>i¡;irrs I 'ihuiiii'iits (lifl:iihiti¡iu,\<, ISM, ¡i, 7.- Kirk-\.ill -ns 
tl'.i! till- iiiiiihlinn was iii-i-i('i¡ i.ii iiy .\iiftna auainst tlu wi-ii ni i .rcat liriiaiii. 



iIk' h.rirc- were incliidf,! m I'a- trca:_\. On March _"', 1S(,4. a liii •! uvaty 
licUM'iti (iivat Untaiii, |-'raiicc. Kii-ia. :iii.i (.iccc, a-am n'.Triii^ t.. ilic 
Vdic cil iIii- A^sfinlily a^ llu' rMiiilitJ, m ■.\li¡,li hn,', Ivcn ^tipiilaicl .. 1 fiiltìlk'rl, 
lf.i;ali/i-il ilif ci'-Miiii and ilic li. ninnai icn ,,i tla- l!riti-h l 'r. .iri tarate \\a- 
l'mallv ijr. .rlamird !•> the l.,,nl ili-h l ( uiinn-i. aicr un Alav J.S. lS(i4. 


S< iii.K>\\ ic, ( )i-i:>Tr<i\, IS4S- 

Thv in.Ki uidcdv kni.un instance- ni a treaty clange pnni.lin- f,,r a ¡ilrhi- 
citu o.iKTrnin.i; a (|nc^tinii ut M,vcR-i^aiiy i, that m' Article 5"mÍ ili. treaty 
Milled at I'ra-iie m 1N(,(). uherel.y Aii-tna an I I'r/v-ia ,-reed :,, ^iie di.- 
pnMtinii oí the Danish diiehies, ilnue\er, the ^n.i^-esti, m m' a ehi'-cite in 
\..rthern S.hle.ui- ,l,i: n, ,t Lectin u„l, the 'Ireatv mi I'ra-ne. Imt dan 
irniii the ^trii-oie in the (hichie> hetueeii the i .ernian and Dani-h national! -t 
;iii'\e:iieiit- nl' 1S4S, 

The IortiiiR-,,1- tile tu,, fen, lai duelne. of Schles« i- and II,,Nicin lia.l |,,r 
nian\ xear^ heeii identilied with those of the Kin.i^doin ,,t i)enniark. altli-n;,di 
their nii;,iii uith tlic kin;;,l,,iu was purely a per-onai one under the DaiiT^i 
KiilC. uh., had inherited the titles ,.f Dnke . li,,Ktein and Duke ,,f Scli'e.- 
ui- in spite of tlii> aneient nni,,n, an,l ..f the iact that the two diu-hies 
had lieeii for centuries closely allied (,r dyna-iica!:y united with each ,,ther, 
they were ,.f different racial texture. lIoÌ-iein wa> uholly i .ernian ni jMipii- 
lation and had heeii made a ,>f the (iernianic I'.Jiifedc ration in l.'^l.r 
l-\cept for the west coast and the -Xi.rtli Sea islati,l>, |-r>iaii fnmi time iin- 
inein,,nal, Schle^w ¡- was , »ri.yinally Danish d,,\\ii t., the river l-.i.ler. which 
was the historical fr,)ntier of Denmark. In the .Mid, lie .\oes, li,,ue\er. it 
ha,l received ;i lar.i;e inlhix ,,i settlers from Holstein, as mav still j^. .i.^.n 
Iroiii thi' (ierinan place names ahmii the l-üder ami ihrou.i;li the south of 
.^chleswiu;. Durin.L; the chise nniuii of the tu,> .luchies this n,M-tlu\ar,l move- 
ment ,if ( ierman settlers continned and .'^,iiitli ."schU-sWi;.; proper i l),iuii,leil hv 
the Schlev-Daniievirke-liusum line t,. the n,.rt!ii. eventually hecame solidly 
<, ernian ni lan,i(ua,i,^e aii,l s\ nmatliies. Tlii. hue ,,f .'<clile\ -I lusum at the end 
,'i the ISth century f,.rmed the fniiiiier f,ir race aii,l lam;ua,ue. Durmt; the 
l''tli ceniury, h,,wever, the f, ernian lan;,nia!,re, aided In I i, iverntiient pressure, 
Ii\ the inllueiue ni the ( 'liiir. h. and later Iiy a popular m,.\einent. penetrated 
turtln r ii,inli. ami li\ 1,V4N the lini;iiistic fr,,iitier cirrcspondcl roii,i.;l)lv t,, the 
hue ,,i I'leiisjjurn- Ton, lent,' This was ,,nl\ a vi-i \ roiii;li apim.x iati, ,11. 
li,,we\er, for through,, ut central Schleswiir there were re-i,)ii~ where s,,:iie- 
linie- ilie one race aiiil snmetimes the ,,tlie'- were si-itleil in solid 1, locks, and. 

' I ini! I llM.lim;. " j'.irtai;, Mi SIcs\ ii; " \\\ l/uii».-/ Inst<'ri<! 
|-,!iU'l t\ Ira)!/ ,1, If^-'in. p. 1,!'', 

,/. !ti .iíir-\tíiin lin St.-x: iir 

'lili: >-! iii.i-'.sw i(, < iri-.>Ti( ).\, 1S-4S - 


ill -ii:iK' ])!aci.--. wIktc tlic twn ■^niu|i> \wn- mu-.L^kd m the ^aim- |,,iri-Ii. 
ThcíC >c)-c;ilkMl '• niixi^l district- " ..í Sc1i1cm\ i^ i-.niiaiiu-d i!n- i itv i.í l'c.n.kTii 
,111(1 iiirty-iiiiir cimiury pan-lK-s .,t tlu- ik'paniiK-m^ oí Ik-nOnirL:, li.ü.k-ni. 
I Insilili and (ii)ltnr|i. In t- ii;] it ecu ui tlu--c ]iari-ln.--, in the .riitn.- ■<] ilic 
rt-^iiin, Dani-h was usi'd f\i-liisi\ely in nnlinary spcccli. and tlu-rr ut-rr liulit 
|)arislK> \\!u-i\' ( icrnian was the c-iMiinii>n ni'.'lnim.' I lu- ri':;iiai |ii.i|irrl\ rc- 
KTfL'd til as niixcij I'untaincd _'3 parisla-s, rliidly in Aii^lia. and .'".ST'i ni- 
lialiitants.- '| lu- tdtal popiilaticni of the duch\', ai-coriliiiL,'^ to ilu- ccnsvi^ of 
ÍN5ñ. was .>''5.NMi. ddiat "i liolsti-in was aliout 5i«I/ki(). dhcir cmiiiIiÌik-iI 
art'a was a|i|in.\iinattdy 7i K I s(|iiarc link's. I.inkt'il to the fate uf the tw.i 
d'.u-hit-s was that of llu" fnniKT rrussiaii Dmlu of Lancili mri,', hiii'^' a!..n.i; 
tlir I'.llif t(i tlio sontlu-ast nf I lojsn-in. and ,L;i\en i.> tlir Danish Kmil; mi ISl 5, 

\Ith(jni;h lioth Schk'swi^^ and Ihilsioin had f^r nian\ years hren ruk'il hy 
kiii^w of Duiiinark, the law of sufcession in the kini;diim an<l in the dnchies 
was différent, the kin,iidMin heinii heritahle in the female line, :ind the S.ilic 
law still liein;; in fon.-e in the dnehies. The iinminent daiif^'er nf the failure 
of the male line, uliich was .]•,(■ only common heir, irisen risv m 1 Jen- 
mark to an ap^itatioii to induce the kini,^ to elian,i,'e the law nf sueeessi, ,ii in the 
twii diiehies. and to iii.ike them an iiite,i;ral ¡lart of the kiii;,'dom nf 1 ic'iimark, 
C' \'III had aeco/diii^dv. h\ a rescript of Inly ,'<. 1S4'', arlmrarily 
ilecreed the contimi.'iiicc uf the union of the ihichies with Denin.aik in spite of 
the ,lit'tereiit laws of inheritance in the two st.ates. 'Illese etforis had called 
lorth sncli \i(jlent ¡irolests ' from the estates .if the duchies, that tlu' matter 
had keen left in al)e_\ance. Christiaii sdon lic.l. 1 lis siU'ces~or, l're(lerick 
\ II. was forced hy a revohitionar\ nio\emr-,'i m ( opeiih.a^eii to is, ne a 
rescript on jannary _'N, l.'^4N, .iiiiioiincinj; that there would he a snille con- 
st-union for the three nnits. Holstein, .^chlcsw i^;', and 1 ii-iini.irk. leavin- Io 
the (lucilie^ antMiioni)' in loc;il matters, hnt providin,:,' fur coinniMii estates, 
'lilis supreme effort of the Danish ])art\- of expansion occurred ,it the \er\ 
moment when the new ('ieriii;in nation;ihst spini w.'is ea^er In unite under 
the fierm.uiic ("on federal ion ;dl territories inhahited hv the ( ierni,iii race. 
And as the Danish nationalist jiarty had not keen coiiteiu to mc irpnr.-ite 'inl\- 

' 'l'Ile (ÚTiiian cciiteiiticiii «as tliat tlu' Danes in Xorlh .S, Icsui^ \, en- ;u,l^,lllt^, -.v'i^n-as 
the mill .if i,riiiH-rty \m r< i'>r the must part ricrmati. llowcxor true this may ha\, hci-ii 
in m4i<, it is iili\ious irmn llii- mat) nii (.pimsitc iia^e that tlu- Mtnatinn ihaiiiicl raili- 
>ally hy l')0(,. 

■' 'i'liis account is taken trcm I'. K. I.anriilsen: "l..i situati, ,11 ,1. > lanijiics en .'s]! -.i :■.■ " 
n l/,ii,-,-(c; /,'i.f/,!/-/,/i,r. |)|>. lU-l.s .,!■ ' l._', Stc ina;, ..n ..iiii,,.M!e patie. 

."ste Slut,- I'dfi-is. Mil, 41), !• I.'.s.i, l'or iif^tcM ,,1 tlu I'.stales <it lIoKiiin imainsi tlu- 
\<[<. 1,1" till- Koeskilil .\ssemhly ni I ■• nniark for unitin« the tw,i ,liM'iies to 1 )enni.-irk. I lie 
iiiU"n Wis stroniily op|i,i-eil hy Mi- l-'rederK-k of .Xn^iU'ti nliiirn uho lia'l strilli« , l,iiins 
... .1,,. .1....1.;.., J...» ..,..,., .,. r^ .-1. 


i'i-i:iii>( Il i-.s 

I lililí.-- Ill ihf Daiii-li kni,i;il.mi. so the ( ii-rman iiafiMn.iIiM- r.vclcl tlu' iiiri.r- 
jjdrati.iii CIÍ iIr- whi.Ic of Srlilc-u il;, a- wrtl a- ul lldNtcin. m the ( 'i .iifdliTa- 
""'1. I'l'l I" '1" llii^ maili- ii-r 111" till' ar^'iinn'iit ni iIk- iiiili--i iluMi- ui:iuii ni 
ilic ihu'hit-,' I lu- (.--tau-- Cl!" the iliuliit->, in waini -Miipatlu with tin- ( n-r- 
inanif iimvuiu-iiî, aii-w cn-il ilic ni\al rt--iri|jt with a ili-inatnl i.n tin- im-nr- 
l"ii-atMiii ni .'-chie-w ij; imdi-r the -m\ tTi-ij.;tity ct' tlir Danish kniL;. a> a --ta'!.- 
111 tlu- (¡i-niiaiiu- ( Min'cck-ratiiiii. 1 hi- th(.-_\ -aiil \\a~ tin- mily nu-aiN ut" -aiV-t\ 
aL;aiiiM tlu- 1 )atii-h int]it'rialist-. Tln-ir (k-tiiatnl \\a> larriril t.. ( "i i]K-tiha,i:i'ii 
111 March, 1>\ the (k-K-L:alt-- t^ tlu- (nii-titiuni a^citiMy wh.i, triu.- tu tlu-ir 
iii-triutinii-., laid ln-i'i.rc tlu- l),iiii-h ( ic\a-riitiu-iit the ik-iiiaiul fur incurp^r.'i- 

it i- in tlu-'-r iii-.iii,>i(iiN at ( '( .pi-nha.L^i-ii that \vc lu-ar tlu- lir-i -u,L;i,'i.->tinii 
ut a divisi. m di" .\, .rtlu-r'i .Srhk--,\\ it,^ hy a iik-ln-iiic. "riu- pLni. which n-- 
'Itiircd Icaviiii; to tlu- v,<{v oi tlic iiihahitaiit-, taken li\ ii.-iri-ln-s, the i|iiestiiiti 
III iiu-Mriinratiini in IVnntark i.r in the ( ■tinfeckTatinn, ajiiìears tu ha\e lieen 
IirM|).>~ed hy two ut the < lerinan dele^'ate-. fruni the (kidiies, t'laiisen and 
< >l-,, til the |)atii--]i Minister. Lehmann. llnw inneh support it artuaiiv 
received troni the Danish ,L;overiinient is uncertain (ertaiiiK it receixed no 
ollicial a>si.nt, althiiu;;h there apjiears to ha\e U-en -unie hope ot this tor a 
short time in .March.'-' The Kiii^\ however. altlioii.Lih viekliiif,' a separate con- 
stitution lor Holstein, answered the demand of the duchies not otilv !)\ re- 
fnsitiii the incorpor;ition of Schles\\i<; in the Confederation lint li\- incor])orat- 
iiiíí it as an mte^'ral part of the Kin^fdum ot Denmark. 

Without \vaitin<,f fur the kinu: to re]>ly to their demands, the duchies had 
kroken into open insurrection. ( »ii March _'4. a i)rovisional i;uvernnient had 
keen erected at Kiel, which, pruclaimiiif; that the duke was nu Imi-rcr free 
lint under tke inllnence of tlie I'.ider l);me-, called its supporters to rally with 
their ;irms, ■■ to ])reser\e their ( ¡erman land from Umuíí ahsorked." .\ week 
later, on M:irch .^1, the I'rovisiunal ( iovernment issued fruiii Ueiidsliur.ii a 
]irucl,tn)atiiin tu the Danish people, prumisinnr that the people of Xorth 
.-sclilesw i^' should freely declare whether they desired to he a province of the 
kiniidom <if Deiim.-irk or to follow the «¡erman nation, althuin;li, "so luii<r 

' Th. \i,-u ,,f till- l.rrniaîi ,,f the ilucliifs and that of many nf the Danish 
inl'iiliiiaiits «as tlial this uni.iii wa» a cnnstitiitinnal ri.i^dit ami could not he taken from 
lh.-n>. The Danish vu w was that it was ,, visionary affair, helief in whieli was of modern 
Mri-in. due l,in;ely to tlu- iiro|)a«aiida ..f \ariiins Clennan professors at Kiel, l-'.lherlini; in 
■\hvn,.-l hHl.;-i,i,i,-. |. l.s'l TI, e riulit to nnion had, however, heen formallv ncouni/ed in 
van. Ills rii>al res>ri|.t- of tiu' er.iwn an. I ha.l an nndoniahl.- Iiis|.irii-al lia-is. 

-Si, 11 Hille. the D;iiii~h adinir.,1 who , ,irri.d the .lelei;ate< hack t.. Kiel reoimts in 
!<i,i>„^ Id \!.„iul.i:'.n,-s lli, His!. Ii.lsskrift. R. VI, p. 41.i, that -if the ilelcRates 
sh..«r.l I . Inni a nup .in.l drew a line aer.iss it nearly as IiìkH as l-'IonsInirR, sayiiif.' that 
tliev inii;lii have supp. Tt. . I that hue as a hasi- for iuch a solution. Imt tliat the Danish 
niii.i.urs h,i.l retiise.i it. Maiiiid hisltn i¡¡:ic. n. 1.^7. 


-I lll.|-'.>\\ K, I li i:S I H i.\. 1S4S 

a^ lln- male lim- ruli-- in I )ciiniark tlu'\ iilfcr t^ ihr |)aiR-> an ImiMralilc alli- 
ance ami a I'liinnidU ^l 'w n-i-^n." ' 

l)an:-h 11-1111])^ weic at nnci' (li-patcluMl lu Sclik'>\\ Ìl;, I 1k' rc\ult hi ¡Ik- 
iliiihii> iiail urmrrcil at the- tinn' when the rexMlnnun m I'.erliii wa-. at u> 
hcii^ht. The i'ru-^ian < <■ i\ ei-nineiil. -eein:; the |i< '|>;ilarit\ "i" a nio\e:nent in 
harniuny with the ,t,'rn\\ iiii;- nationalist -eiiiiinent, inaile the iiiaivhin^ ><{ |)an- 
i~h triicps mtij Sehle>\\ii; the e\ ii-e tur ili^jìatiliinL; Prn^-iaii truu]i> ¡ntu 
lli>l>tein. 'I hi> aetinn \\a-~ endursei! li\ the ( lennaiiK 1 )iet at i'raiikli .rt. 
whieli. (in .\]inl 4, Inriiially declared that the ¡ ederal ( ieniian State mi' jlul- 
>teiii uas m daiif^er ol U'Iiil; attacked and that the I'riwsiaii actimi \\a-> 
apiiroved. 1 he Diet in the --aine ])r(iclaniatiiin ullered iiieiliatiun ha^ed > in 
rec(i,i,'niliiin ut the inde[)eiidence ul the tun ducine-- atid their rii^lit to indi-.- 
xiliihle niiinn. (ireat llritaiii whu, with kii--.ia, hail Ljnaranleed the ])ii-~-e>- 
siiin ol' Schlesw i<i to the C'rowti of Denmark in 17_'l, luoked uith irreal di>- 
lavor on the action oí rru^>ia, and threatened 'n send '^ r lleel to ¡ireserve the 
status lililí. Rnssia, i'Vance and Sweden ai- : opposed I'nissia and the (on- 
lederation. The latter refn>i!i<i to withdraw its troops, mediatiun wa-- ot- 
tered hy (ireat lîritaiii and K^l.s^la. and aecejited hy l*nis>ia and the Diet 

! he pn)|)osal ior a vote in .s.irth Sclileswifi had heen <|nickly adojited Iw 
von Arnim, the Prussian Minister tor Imi-ci-h Affairs. With (Ireat Üritam 
j.;ivin>í full support to the Danish cause and the other Powers ran^'ed beside 
lier, it was plain that ( iermaiiy would not he alloued to alisorh the whole 
of Schleswig': von .\rnini >aw in the pro|)osal of a \ote in Xorth Schleswig 
a method hy which, hy adhering; to the i)rincii)le of nationality and thus sacri- 
ticin.t; a part of Schleswifi, the remainder of the duchy, as well as all of Hol- 
stein, could he claimed hy tlie Confederation hy an uinjuestionahle title. lie 
accordiufily informed the Diet and the I'.ritish (.'ahmet that I'nissia woiilil 
ajjree to a plan of armistice if there were included in the ])rinciples of ]ieace 
not only a recojjnition of the indissoluhl: union and independence of the 
duchies, and iiilieritance throned) the male li,ie only, hut also the division if 
Xorthern Schleswig according to nationality as estahlished hy a vote.- Al- 
though the Provisional (io\ernment had itself heen the author of this last 
¡Klint of the \()te, and it liad gained wide .support in the ikicliies.' the coining 

' nncimuMits, ¡'(■st, p. 8ii4. 

-' l.ltiiTliiU' sa.\'i lliat \<)!i .\niim hupcd tliat .• Mite houIiI v;i\c (,criiiaiiy tin line nt altlii)n>;li lie Iviifw th<- liiiKiii>ti< irunti.' In l,o appr.i\iiiiatt K MinOnirt; 
InMilfrii. Miiiiiiti! Iiistorujui-, jip. !.i(. \^1. 

Mn the Mci.atc .,11 .\|,ril M m l!n ^ . ninii asMini.iy ..i tlu' d-i, hies at RiiitMinrn. tlucc 
nl the iliiff ililfuatcs ileclaroil that in. ol.vtaili- umiM !.<• pni m the way "f the people ,,1 
Xiirthcrii ScIiIcswÍk' if they shuuM e\ ime a de-ire tor l>eiiTiiark. "fur I'f haiipitie« of 
a people can not he elTecteil in ^pite <if theinsrUev" The I'nissian Ma^T Wildctlhrnch, 

i,,.i I 

after the hattle .if Schleswig itarly in .\pnli had i.iiind that in U'eiid-! 

uri.; o|iinioM was 


i'i.i':iii.~-( Il I-: 

111' ani l'rcni Imìli l'ni-Ma ami llic ( nii idiralii m had rai-i-d lii.pi-- ni i^aiiiin^u 
tlu' w li' ile III Scl:k--\\ Ìl;, ,iiiil tlu' -aiiic l'ri .\ >ii uial < i' iv -tinu'iit ili i\\ whcMirrtK 
iiliiiTU-il In a \nti' mi ilk- ^nuiinl ilia; " tlic >aiTii- it iln.- ^aiimiiiiar\- -tiii^- 

^¡r whicii hail (HCiirri'il >-iiu-i.' it- |irii|iM-al \uin:i iii-tii'\ it, inr -iiuiik' 

inii-iiliTatii iii~ III (.■i|iiil\-. ¡Il ailluTiiit; tu a |)riiuM|ii ih Wdiild iiit'riiit;r nii 

lii,L;lu-r MiUTi-^i^ ami iialiniial riitliN";' a ciirn lU^K iiaivc -tatniiciit ni' ;i 
laniiliar .,rL;iiiiK'nt. A ->])irili.'i! cnnv-iMUKk-ii,!- i"( illi iwcil, vmi Ariiini r-iiKihì; 
llall\ l'ni-^ia'». ¡iiìIik'IK'i.- w a- in he liail miK inr an hIirhI ¡m^^ihU' nf 
allainiiK-iit, ami that fnr tlii> ihc vntc \\a^ a ncccs-iiy.- ainl tlu' I'mvi-iniial 
'InviTiiiiR'iit cniiiiU'rin.L; with the nhjcciinn that iin inic imiitiir cnuld he 
arruiil al h\ a ilni-inii, hwiiil; in the iniMiire nf lan^iM^e- and miniai cniidi- 
iMii-. inr i\en in XnrtluTii SrliK'-,u i!,- it |ininird mit that althmi-h the jn-a-- 
ant^ wriX' nndi-iiiahly DamMi. ihf lamiiM¡ pn iprK-tni-- wito ( icrnian ; iiimIkt- 
iiinrc, It umild hf ahaiidoiiiii!; tlu' excellent purts nf Apenrade and l-"len-.hiirg. 
wliuh were iimMls i lennaii. ■ X'mi Arnim ]ier-i-teil. aii-werin^- ilie-e argu- 
ment- with the praetieal one tliat any dejiartiire frmii the slutiis ijifi „•;;,'.• 
\'n;!:d reciuiie a " ci mipen-atii iii," and that a \nle 'Amild -iip|il\ an ar^nnieiit 
inr (ÜMMiiii whieh mi^iit he iii-tirnd hefme the l'airnpean I'nwer-- and emi- 
-ellted li I Ii\ I »elllliark. 

In -pile III the fact lliat the I 'mvi-ii oial < m iverninent had in-lriu-ted their 
lepre-eiiialive-. at Imlli Lmidmi and hraiiklnrt in nppi i-e tlu .li^i-imi, the 
I'lel. at the m-tanee ni vnii Aniiin, re~i.l\ed mi Ma\ .ill in adhere /;/ !■■!,' to 
the I'rn-ian iimpnsitmii. fnr an ariiiiM;ee and peace iirehminarie-. eniplia-i/- 
!"•' '" ''- ''Tn llie Mii.iilalimi that im part n- die diicli\ ,,f Schle-ui- cniild he 
iklached except hy the free cnii-enl nf the ¡.niuilatinn.' \,, -pecial ])r()tectinii 
\\a- deinaiidid fnr the I lerniaii iniiinnl\ . 

Meaiiwlide. Ihin-eii. ihe I'm-iaii Minisler at I.midnn, iiad pmim-ed tlie 
I'rn-Maii ha-e- fnr an armi-tice In l 'alnier-Inii ,.11 Ma\ IS. l'alineiMmi. in 
Ir- capacii\ a- inedialnr. replied that he wmild reci ■inniciid them In the 1 >aii!-h 
'iinernnieiil With regard in dravviii- the line nl -e|Mralinii thmn^^h ihe 
mixed di-trat-. ralmer-imi, hnue\er, -ii^-c-ted ihai •' 111-tead nf ^mn- 
ilirmi-h the (hliiciilt pmc,-- ni a deiailed appeal In all the iiilialiiiant- m each 
''i""i''- 'li'-' line he drawn accnrdniL; tn a-certaiiiahle -taii-Iical fact-." '■ I le« that 111 ci-c .11 a m parati. m il -hniij.l l.c cji.iic hy vnt, an.! iliai a lin. !.. th. 
iiorlli lit l'iaivliiir^; ai»l ■r.mdtTH. l^a^1ll^; t., lieninark tlu- i-lainK ni Al- ami .Tau \\..i\.\ 
form a frtitiii.r satisfactory t.i tlu- rr..\ i-i,.iial ( ...uiiinuiit 1 11., 1 Im»;, lu .Uhhkc/ /li.i- 
li>ri,iii,-. iip. 1.Î7-X. 

' l)i>iniiuiits, / |i Sm. 

- I>i)ciimctil», i>ost, p. y-Ti^ 

■> l><icimicnl«, t'usi. |i. S7I 

•Martens, .V. A', <;.. \,.I, iJ, |. Jiio. „.,,,. |-.ll., rlin.i:. m l/.m»,.! lusl.xiqu.- y H'i 

' IVictimcms. tosi, p. K74, 

'lili-; M iii.i'.:-\\ Il ; < iri'.-^iK »x. is-ts 


siiliniitU'il tile plan d a partiti. >ii Im Dontiiark luu ii aL;aiti foiiii.l cii(.'in:c> 
aiiviii^' ilic I )ani>h -¡atc^nu-ii. 'I'lic l)aii>h ' m >\ friiiiicm rcplit-d tu l'alnifr-|. .n 
that a -i.-])araticin wiaild ilnidc ■ . 'tiiiminc- a'i'l cm'Ii íaiiiilu-- ami iliat tlu- 
;,M'i.'alcr ¡lart .lí the ]ii 'ptilatimí umuM ¡ircíiT aiiiu'xalii in ¡n citlu-r l)riiiiiark i.r 
< iermaiiy.' In -pite ni I 'ahiKT-ti in'-~ aiKuc. I )rniiiark refii-cil t'i acrepl an\ 
il"i\¡-!nn. alili !ii>i~ti-.l up' 111 iiiii!iti.-r piup^i^.i!^ \\hii!i piii\i(Ki! ínr tlu iii;iipK-:c 
i'vaniaiii iM ni St'hlc^w ¡l;. the l'n i- :~:i iiia! < íi iMiiiiiiriit tu i'iiiiImuu' tu ailinui- 
i~ter tlu- ilikhic-. uiil:l tlu- linai ^ftlluniciil ni' ihr i|m--l'.i iii. I''it, hnwcvrr. 
rlinii^ til ilu- \iiii', aiiil rcplinl in I 'aliiur-ti iii with a plan, a\ailaliK- nniler the 
l)aii>h priipi-al, íni" -cv iiiin:; a irre ainl iiiiliia-eil npiínnn ni ihe pnl-tiial 
ii|iiniiin- ni tlir inhaliitaní- a> In iiu'nrpí iratimi wiili I )eiiinai"k -' r.\" tlii- eai 'i 
ii; the twii lielh^aTent--. < lerinaiu' aiiil I U'liniark. were tu ~enil ei ininn--:i iiur-. 
aiiil l'n^laiiil, a-. iiU'diatitiL; l'nwer. wa-- tu ^eml a tllinl. llie three tu ii\er-ee 
the \iiU' wliu'h \\a^ tu lie ailnnni^Ii'reil l!\ the l'ri i\ i^ii 'liai l n i\ eminent. :he 
repre-eiitati\es ,,i the ineihatiie.; l'nwer tu ai I a- Miiipire. 

Dnriiii' the iie^i il'ali' iti^ the nialler eanie np .nr ilehate ni the < lerinan 
Xaii'iiial N^-emlih at i'rank l'i irt mi Inne ''. un the presentai: in ni a repnrt 
ni the ( ninniiltee nii Inlernatinnal (jiu'-linn- ' In the ili-lia!e the \ii-tna,i 
1 'n~; lient i li ihe < lei manie 1 )iet eiiik ir~eil ihe |iri ipn-ed ili\ i>a ili In \ i ile, ihi l'iL'h 
he ielt ennliilent that ;!ie xnte vmiilil 'ne a^.ini-l aiu dui-'nii. an npininii wliieli 
inil-t lia\e heelì enntirineil ¡i\ ihe -peecll ni ihe tu i i|e!eL;,ite> irnill .N'nl'h 
S(.-hle-\\ ÌL,v 

• •il lune J.^ l'aìnier-ti in. -till nnnttiiiL; the --iiLi'je^tii in ni ,i xn'.e, -nlnintteil 
In ihe I 'allibii alili l'rn-si.m M ini^ter^ m I .niiili ai ,i |ilaii ii a' .ui arnn^tiit' w In. h 
iMiiMiiieil twn ,alteriiati\ e-- ,i~ tn the ili^])i witinu ni Sehle^wiu; the lir^t. 
it allunili he ili\iile(l aeenriiiiiL; t" n.ilinnalit\ , the nnrthern pari tn lie inenr- 
]iiir.ile'l in I ìenin.irk .iiiil the -milhein in <\ : the ^'inml. that i: he kept 
nil.iet ami If .ailmini^tereil li\ ,i innil ailiiliiii-lratnr inr ."^elile-w il; ai ì IJnN 
stein 'In ihi- l'.mi-eii reiiheil llalK mi inne _'). " that i aTinanv e.iii imt ^,Mve 
np ilu- ]iriiu'i])le, ailhereil tn un ,ill nia-asiuiis. ih. il iin -ep.iratinn ni an\ p.irt 
ni Sehli--\\ II; e. m e\er he llmu.Lrht ni, niiles. ihe piipalitmii in the n..rtheni 
(li^irieis tliein-eUe- ilei 1. ire. hv an npeii .imi nnlna-i'cl m.iiiiie- itmn ni iheir 
illleiit'nn In eft'eit. lhe\ w i^h tn he -ejiarateil imiii tlie re^t m the 

' Mlurliiii; ili 1/iiiiiiri'.fii,-. \i H'I 

- ! lui imu l'I», fiii.íí, 11. H?.^. IPintiiik'. v 1''', ^a\ ^ lliat U'Uim'H, »ho ».Ts in.irp svinpa- 
timi' «ali till- rr.«\i'-iiiii.Tl Cini rimirili .a" llir iliifliiiN than «»■; hi-. ( nivrnum'iil. tirk<|| 
(111 r.ilincrvtiiit tlial Nnrth . ihlcswij; shouM form, after thr cli\i«ioii. a soiiar.ito <hith>, iinh- 
licii.lriit liki- t!ir ri'vt Ili S.lihswiK. ami tliat the Curiiian iitiiinrit.v »hmiM lic iirntctlfil. 
.IfiiiiHi'/ /ut/ Ih/li.', !• l.V' 

^ IloiMiniciit-.. fi'^l. !' **"''• 

♦ I iiKiiiiuiilv. |iiist. |ip. H76, 878. 


'i.i'.iiiM ii"i:s 

\ltliiiui;li arfcjiiaiu (.■ nf a clixi^idH acmrdin«; Id natiniialilv' atfnrdfil an 
1 '|)|iiirtiiiiit\ tor l)c'ni'iark t" .i^ani ilu' Danieli part >i{ .''clilu-a if,' irrcvi K'alilv . 
ilk' Mameli <i(m-niiiu'nt ciiiitiinu'il tu rctìi-c to rtT()f;iii/(.' tliu lU'w doi-triiic d' 
natimiality and rf^ti'd it^ ca-c mi tn-atio ami hi-tonc rij^iit.' Xnmn.L; tin- 
Sililr^w !Li ri-fni;iH'N at ( i i|j(.-iilia^(.-ii, ibt-rc \\a^ aKn -¡rcat unw ilIiii:,'iK'-> \t> 
aiicpt lili' idt-a <ií a divisinn. í-'m-ii iír' di^iniciis i'ani^li ])(.'i]|)K- ni Xmili 
Sclilc^w lo- went ^11 iar a> In thri-atcii lliat thf\ woiiM olinu^c annexation wiili 
thr rc-t (li Schleswig,' t.i lit-rinanw ratliiT a divided Sclilc-wi«;,- and jnd- 
le-l^ and ¡lelitinn^ were drawn n]i In llii^ effect. liiere weie. liii\<e\er, a 
lew Dani-h indi\idiiaK wlm I'avnred the plan. .\ (ptantit\- di pani])'ilet- a]i- 
jieared -njiportm^ tile twd partii'-, tin- party ol' natmnalilN' and tlio Jiarly i>i 
the mdni>iliIo inniiarclu: illuse íuv a dui-iun [ilaLini; their emplia-i- nii 
divi-iiin Hei'rd'ni; tn t'le lini;iii-.iir I'mntier rather than liy a vn'e. a-- the 
mean- ni -ettlini; the prdlileni,' The l)ani-li jinviTiiinciit. lidwev r reiii-ed 
td di-i'ii-- tlir piiint and Wdnld treat diil\ re,i,Mrditi;; a -n-pen-n.n ni' .irni- anil 
tile prd\ i-idiial adiiinii-trati<in i.t' the ditchie-. rru--ia, ahhdti'^h pidpel'ed li\ 
the elani'ircui- ile-ire ni the ( lennan natimiali ^t-, dare<l nut per-i-t in the t:ue 
di the tlireateniíif,' attitude i<i the lûirdpean I'dver-. In an ariiii-liee -ÍL;iied 
iiM \iif;n-t J'l at .Mahnne, -he \ielded ])ractieall\ all the l)aiii-h deniand-. and. 
altliiniL;h hi>-,t;litu'- -nun liei;an af,'ani. the war ended wilh the ,^liiliis (¡iin I'lilr. 

\lilidiii;h ¡leaee \\a- elïeeted ni IM'» it w a- -nliieiently apparent thai il 
Wdiild lie dnK tenipdrar\ and there wa- enii-tanl ettnrl dii the jiart nl I'.nrd- 
peaii di|il !iiiae\ diirini.; ihe -lueeedii.j; \ear- Id elteel a perinaiuiit -nhilinii. 
rile i-liiei elinrl \\ a- directed Inward- -etllmi: the d\iia-!ic ipiarrel : the ülea 
di a d:\ i-idii a- a inni]irnnii-e w a-, li' >w e\er. imt Inr^nMen. l'alnu . -tnii enii 
iinueil Id iirL;e it. The dnl\ a;,'reenH nt reached. linwe\ev, wa- that hy a cnii- 
ierence ni llu' ! ireat I'nwer- at l.diid' n m IN.^J which alteilipled Id ad|ii-t the 
!--ne- at -lake li\ Inning; nil the cl.nm^ m the 1 )iiUe li \in.;u-tenlnirn, ami hy 
Cdiiliriiiiiif; tn the i),nii-h Km;; the -itcce--idn m ¡lie dnchie-. while prdvulin;- 
that ihe niiidii lie'.weeii them ai'l I »eiimark -iidiild he piiri'ix per-diiai 

'1.1 It» n pri-iiit.ilni . .ilif.i.l liiiim.irl- .ulinilUrl il iiiii,!il .mciit lIu- lim- Sclllcy- 
llnMiiii. Iimiim till city nl ScliK-»in tu (iirniaiiy. 

-' 111 vitiip. .ri lit lilis vtaliiiifiil MlKTliiit! K'^t'* M' ii.uiif. and ntcs thf IUi<jbUult'l 
oí .\lav Id. 1W8 

' 1 lliirliiii,; iiiiiitioiK i-|iniaU> / .• /•(H/iH.c rf« Skni¿ li> II I' Siliack ami .i paiiiiililc! 
Ciititli il / II ./111 .1/1,111 S/(-.t;Kiii.ti' l>y II \ Ka.ivluf. l.\Iltll^ur lUr .ScIiUswík. 1í<5+-.ñi. atxl 
fur IliiUirin, lS<)(»(il». piili|i«lu'<l m .Sm tillin r, 1«4H. umlir tlio signature uf " I licupliiliis." 
in »liii'li he ailvfH-atrcI cunsidtratioii uf thi- wistir^ uf the piu|ik- ui tin- üuiilli uí ScliU'swÍK 
a< \vell an those of tlir north lU- ailviKati-il a (li\i»ioii a'miK tl'.' Uaiinmirkt', Inn »itiiuiit 
aiiiK'valiuii of tif nortlimi pari to Dimiiark, anil liupol fur a Milutiun liy a «pvcial 
a^MiiiMy uf rpprc<enlativfs nut only from Sclilr*»iv!. Ili'ninark. anil lluhtun, Imt aUo 
from Swrilfii ami Norway ami (Icrntany. He «as tlic first to sii- it as a Siaüil? i. \ian 
as well :is a ( icrnian t|ucsti>'ll. 

■lili-; Si lil.l-.SW K, ( tlissi H iX. 1S4S 


The ¡ire^lif^e jjivcii lu the priiu-iplc of ii;iti<iiialit\ li\ the Itahan war di 
IS5'' (iiu-c more lirouf^ht ilie proposal of a i)artition of Sclilcswi^' into (li]il(]- 
matic notice. Schleinitz, I'lits^ian Minister for l-'orei.i:ii Affair', declareil in 
Mij^n^t and aj^aiii in ( )c-tolier. 1S5''. — that i-. after the war ni Italv, -ami 
ajjain in Maw \^(ú. that ilivisujn wa> tlie on'> sohition eajialile of >ati-f\ini; 
a!! partie-, The < 'o!";rne /.c¡tiin¡i. the I l:ini!ii!ri; Whlimiitni and the London 
Morniiuj l'osi all Mipjiorted it.' and l'.i-in.irek. on hi- entrance nito the I'tii-- 
-ian ,i,;o\erninent ( SepleniU'r, INdJ ) ■,|)oke ni f.i\or of tin- partition to Lord 
l\'n--ell," The idea <if a divi-ion had, howe\er, lieen ahandoned i]\ the neu- 
tral-, o\^in;,' in part to the ,i;reat de-ire of An-tna to keep lite l)ani-h inon- 
arehx intact. 

( ..nntin},; mii ilu- i ntiniieil -n]iport of the I'^uer-, the Dani-h j,'o\ eminent 
hail per-iteil m the h<.pr <>\ relainiiiL: n^t ■■nl\ the \\hi>le >>f Sehle-w 114, Inil 
llol>tein a- well, and had ]ireventcd an\ -.iijiiiort nf a di\i-ion lu keeping the 
people in i^Mior.ìnce "I 'he j^rowin^' -torni ."-o unroii-rioii-, indeed, wa- the 
l)aiii-h ( 'io\erninent Ol ii> ])reilicainent, that, in iS(),i, ,u the verv inoineiit when 
the three force-, the d\ni-tic amhitioii- of the 1 lon-e I'i An^'n>tenlnir^, the 
ilieorv of the political niut\ ol .Schle-' i^' and llol-tein. and the exalted na- 
lional sentiment of the ( íerman peoi)le. fn-iii},( in the alile hands of I'.isni.irck 
,ind Lratheriiii,' momentum front the ^Towm;; belief in the national rijjht >^\ 
pei pie t" di-po-e of them-elve-, were threatemnj; 1 )eiimark and her aiu unt 
ri^;lit- h.'i-ecl .III treatie- and inheritance, (hri-tian iX. projielled li> an o\et 
v\ helming cnthn-;a-ni on the part of hi- 1 ».ani-h -iilijei't-, -ij^iied a coii-mii- 
lion \\hicli. coiitrar) ti the LmiuIoii agreement, nml'ied the imlitical m-litn 
tion- of Denmark and tue ducine-. 1 he ( ierm;m an-vver wa- an opji,i-in'4 
wave of n.ational iiatriotis,ii frmn the ¡lenple of Xnstn.i ,iiiil l'ni--;.i, the tww 
¡,'tj\ ernni' lit- cieiii!,; with i ,ich other ,a- leader- m the n.a'ioiial I'aii-e ( hri- 
tian 1\ I'll '11- -ide retii-ed to \ leld. 

In ISdl when the -tunn hrnkf. the Liir.ipe.m -itnatioii. \\hich m.ide 
it to the miere-t of the i'.iwer- lo protei-i Denm.irk m 1S4S. h, id ih.anLjei! 
I'r.ince dispo-ed to U- friendly In I'm-sia at th.e moinenl ' Kii—i.i .and 
( I'.nt.nn were the onl\ oiu -till eoiiccrned m pre-ervnit: ihe monarchi 
liiit neither now felt il worth ,1 -how of forci tin lil.rii,ir\ 1. 1S()4, ilie 
\iistrian am! I'ru-siaii forces cnissed the Lidei into Schleswig;, osteti-ihl\ to 
take possi-, . I, ,11 ,.f the dneliy as a jjiiarantee of tlie e\eeittion ot ceri.nn under 
taking's made liv the Danish j;oveniiiieiit m IS.^J and siine repudi, m d \Mt 1 
a i-oiirat'eous i.nt hopeless strn;;i;le the Dani-li troops were loiced h.ick mio 

1 Ivllirrliini, Uiimi.-/ /ii.(/.>rh/M,- I lir ri ico ' ,, ,, .. •' 

¡«■■m' of Marih J6, I86I. 

•It i» »«i<l that .S' »as -iii'l'"f'>nB .NiiKtmleitbiio 
»enleij the principtr of nationality 

ilH'i.r> that he niin- 


i'i.i-:iiiS( I ri:s 

T)i-niiiark. I'.m ahli' iUi;li ilic whole (if ilu' i-ntitim-iual pait ni the kiiii^iloin 
was ividi'iuls siHiii III lie at the nKTr_\ nl the AMii---. I Icmiiaik \va< maiiitaiiiini; 
an rliecti\e Mmkailc aiiain^l i ifviiianv which \\a< a ^iitik'ient ciiiharras--nniit 
til iiniiua' thi-ni tn aiicpt the nieihatinii ni the I'nwer-. ( )ii the iiuitatimi ni 
ihr r.riii^h ( II ix frnnieiu, [ileinjii iteiiliar)e-~ ni \nsina, 1 )etiiii:irk. l-rance. the 
< leniiaiiir ( nil leikTatrnti, rru--~ia, kii^^ia, anil ^weilen ami \nrway. met ni 
eniiierenre nil \|)ril _'5. witii the niiject ni a^reeini; nil a plan for peaee lie- 
I ween I )eiiniaik iiiil < ierinaiiy. 

I. Mil heinre the |i!eni|iotellliarie- hail L;atllereil, it \va- iih\iini-~ to tiio--e 
aei|iiainle'l with llie atiitmie oi the ( lerniaii Sia'i- that there \\a~ little lio|ie 
oi an aL;reenirnt mi ihe line-- oi ihi; arranmiiieir inaile at i.onilon '• IS3_'. 
.\a|iiileoii. seeiiiL; th;-. ainl anxinii- that heinre the C'niileren met ne ])n-- 
sjlile \\a\ niit of the ililenima nii^lit he in reailiiie^-, re\i\eil the plan ol a 
-ohitmn Iw a \nte nf th<' mhaliitaiu- (hi March J". DrmiMiile i.hii\~. Mni- 
i-ter for loreii^ii Mfair-, -eut a ili-]iateli holh to l.oii,!.iii aiiil to the ( u-rman 
(oiirt- in which he prnp.i-eil that li llie l.onilnii ;L;ieeineni laileil oi acce])!- 
ance the -elllemi'ii! oi the i|iie-tinn -hoiilij he left lo a \ote of the i- lahitant- 
of ¡he iliicln.' Whether nr not th;- wa- wilh the ¡iriiiie intention of aiinoy- 
in.ii Aii-tria. a- i- a--erteil li\ xon S\he, Keehlier.^; at mice (leclardl tliat 
An-tria wmilil never coiiiiteiiaiice -neh a rexohilinnary procceilnii;. Ihe lîer- 
hii aiithoriiie-. hnwe\er. altliniiL;h ninie a- little inelmeii a- \n-iria in ahet 
Napoleon m ¡n- m.thoil of loiuuhnL,' Mate- ami • lovernmeiii- on ]ilehi-eite-. 
wa- more an \ i nil- to ])iopitiale their jmw erinl iiei^hlior ami i leda red a iriemllv 
w illiuiiiie-- to ili-cii-- the matter. I'.i-niarck profe--eil a cnrre-iimnlmu 
-ohciimlc for the will of the inhahitani-, who. he -ani with -onie irmi\. had 
heeii härtere.! at the meri \ of third ¡lartie- h\ former Ci in.L;re-e-. mchidm- 
that ni l.nnd.nn nf IS; J. Nel. lu' added. .altliniii;h an imiinrt.ant iiomi. it wa- 
iiot the miK one demandili.^; alteiilioii; exi-tint; rit;ht-. treatie-, .and the cnn- 
\enience of all parue- mn-! he coii-itlered. ■ 'io avoid delinite emnmitment 
he .-iiileavored to turn the di-cii-imi- to the pmieci ol the Kiel ( in 
which Napoleon wa- uilere-led, I )rom. n de I .hin -. in ov ' r to make the 
pmpn-al more c\pl,imed tliat I'ranc- attached im -p,-ci;il imporiance 
to ihe ,|ue-timi wh.'lher the will of the people of Schle-w i;;-l h ■ -lem w .1- lu 
I,,' expr. -ed 1>\ a plehi-cite or hv a Mile ni ih, I'-Iate-. hni added that dnrin- 
the vote the imop- of hoih of the cmiieiidm- p.irtie- -hmild he reiiioxed trmn 
liu- connlry. .. de\eloi.ment which met with the decided di- .¡'l""^''' "' "■ "" 
floit/. tlie !'rn--ian anilia--ad or .il I'.ui-. 

1 I>i>ciitiieiils. ro3t. p. 8>t-' 

-•lleinriili von SyU-l. 7"/i.- /•imoiiííii./ <i/ th,- (,i-nii,i.t / niri'C miI. .i. ic ,U1 
;<V.m S.vhcl. pi>. .Ml X Von Syl>cl. as is «.11 kii..«n. tia-l access to unpuhliOi.-l ..thciat 

I 111'. ->( ii!.i:>\\ H, ( If 

Il i\, 1S4S 


I'ur^uiuL; i1k' matter, l)rMii\n dr I.lun-, :>u \|inl ''. iiiailr .1 (kfinitc >iaif- 
iiicnt to till- I'ni-^iaii aiiilia--ailiir "liat tlic 1".hi]kti >r \\a■^ m i'a\'ir ni a i-nui- 
pk'to (.r^^iiin 111" IJiiKti-in aiui ut tliat part nt' Srhlc^w li;" l\:ii:^ ^niith ut thr 
liriipii^fi! 1,'atial.' the ¡lenplo ti> lie ri ni-tilieil, either thnniL;!! a jileln-iite nr a 
vnteoi' the l-',>tate-. It' the jienjile wi-heil tn l'n'ati an iinleiietiileitt -tate iiiiiler 
the An^MisterJitir',;- ]iriiR-e. Iraiice wmilil rai-e tin 1 iKjeetn iii~. aUhmii^li -lie 
Cimili liiilv ii^i^ret the t'l .iiihIÌiil; ni' aii' 'ther -iiiall -tate. It, linwaAer, the vite 
.-hdllld U- ill i.aviir nt' iiiiitiili; with rni-~-ia, X'ajn ilet m wmiM. .11 the cntitei- 
ein'e, make their eaii-e hi- nwii. DmilMi ile l.hii\- -Imwed I'lirther Imw lew 
iihieetiiiii- eniilil lie rai-ed a;^^aiIl-t -tieli a -y-tem; the iiihereiit ^r.mdeiir nt 
the idea, he -aid, iiui-t meet with irre-i-tihie >iiece-s in the CniifereiKe - In 
ihi- lÜMiiarck >eiit an aii-\ver mi April 14 that the Kiu.ii h.ul e\pre--e'l In- 
enueiirreiice with tlic j,aiieral plan ni divi-inn iirnjio-ed hy I'raiue, althnii,L;h 
he miiM in-i-t mi timre tavnrahle cnniut'iui- t'nr the ( ierman element in tlie 
duchies and, nmre e-i)eei;dly. a innre imni; 'rly sitnatinii I'l.r the eaiial nr tur 
the frontier, althnu},di. if the alternative ni' amiexatinti tn l'rn--ia, i>rnpn-ed 
liy Di-nnyii .le Lhuy>. slmuld he ilecided . n, ihi- de'.iiand unnM he nmre 
iiinderate. As to a vote, he wrote: 

Prussia will at all stages of the conference certainly insist upon consultili;.; 
the will of the inhahitants. about which we ,are neRotiatinji with X'ienna, aiid 
upon the pro|)osal of a canal, although Kus-i.i will not listen to it. Yet it w.ll 
not he advisable to call uimn the peojyle to e.-'-t their votes at the very outset, 
li the vote should he taken now, it would be in favor of .XuRU-tenhurg, but 
a),'.iinst anv (iivi>ion of Schle-wii,'. :md. consei|uently, not in accordance with 
N'apoleon's wislu- 

I'russia therefore intends to hriri: forward :it first in the conference the 
demands m.ide hitherto: personal union with Deiunark. adniis-ion of Schles- 
wig into the ( .ennanic Con'ederation. and ele\ation of Kendsb\irg to the r.iiik 
of a Confederate forties>. an.! of Kiil to ,i Confederate port. 1 ienniark will 
-urelv reject these deiuands. .iiid prefer rather the cession of Holstein ami of 
a part of Schleswig, 'l'hen tiie jieople will -ee there nui-t be a division in 
any case, and they will m:ike np their nunds to it 

The -ame is true of the question, to whom the territoiv which is ceded 
-h.dl beloni;;' Prussia, of course, would prefer the ot .muexation ; but 
the ])eople will not voti- for that, until th.e otlier plan has jiroved itself to be 
hopeless, and the matter is reduced to the -imple cptc-t'nii : Prussian or 
Danish? Moreover, the ])o-tponeinenl of the deci-icm. so long ,1- the occn- 
jialion of llic country continues, would not l)e prejndicia! to Pru--i.iii 
interc'-ts. ' 

'Oil \prii 1'' Napolcn'i - unitird his a«snit to the liti' ~ 'isum, a line at tli,it 

tim.' tlimi«lit o! ¡T tlir canal, .ir any nthrr pri'viiletl Pr liic cofnont of tin- 

pi-i'ple to it. I'll« Sybfl, vol. 3. p. 3SI 

-Tili« s'tmiiiary of tli r.i,f,r<iin' : '' (lit'tween dr l.luiys and vmi 'l.ilt 1 i 

qiioteil from ; oil Sylwl 

■' :hi,{ pp U'i ;ii 

i 42 

l'I.I'.lîISCII !■> 

Mfanuliilt' ilir tiüic fur i1k> : .¡.riiiiití nf ilu' Ci uifcTt^ncc lia.l arrixfil and 
tlu' ]i!ciii|Mii(.'titiaric'^ lia«! ^atlu-rcil in I.omion. A <n>¡i(.'nNÍ, ,n iñ ln'-tiliiif^ 
\\a^ tile lir-t "-nlijiTt mI ili-liatc. AítcT a Ihiil; <>>i(.n of trrní-, a i'onr 
wirks' arnn-ticf \ui^ linally arrecil un. In (.■(infnrniity with tln' l'rns-ian 
]ilan. ;lu- ~ni;;4c^lii in ni ,i ili\i-,¡i,n h as iiipI al unce limn^lu N'iwaril. The 
ni.íiilli wvüi 1j\ liciiiia- any Ii(i|n.' ni' ai^rceinenl wa^ rcarlu-il. Tlu- ]ilrii¡]jn- 
U'nliarii's ,,f ( ireat l'.riíaní ami i'rancc Mi|)]inrU'(l tlic Haiii-h insistence on the 
n.uhls ,,(■ inheritance m' Km:;- Christian 1 X c.\er ail the Cduntries i.i the Dan- 
ish niMiiarchy as ¡inivided in the Treaty ..l' Lnndon oí iS.sJ. whereas the 
• icnnanic ( i miederatinn. which had not hi'en re]ireseiited at 'lie -iu-'iiiLj of 
the lreat\ of 1S5_'. refii-ed to consider itself lioniid Ii\ it. and. s-,i|i¡i, ,rted li\- 
\nstr'.i ,ind Prussia, insisted on the complete in<le])en(lence of the duchies as 
ihe lir-i esseniiai of ]) ( )n Ma\ _'N matters were l)r(ai;;iit to a 
li\ .1 motion \> hielt iniroihued hy the iilenipoientiaries of the ' 
Towers. calliniL; lor the esi.alilishment of Schlesw ii;-ilolstein .as an iiidepend- 
int .'^i.iie under the so\erei,L;iity ni the liereditarv I'rince of Anmistenliurt,'.' lilis attitude of the <¡erm.anic Towers the neutrals were helpless un- 
less ilu>\ wished to come to Denmark's .aid o|ienl\ . As ilisinarck had fi '''_'- 
sten. d:\ is;,,n was the only ahernatiee. Terceis in^^ this the i'.arl of I lareiiilon 
aliaiidonin;; all ll^jie of a^reeinenl on the lines of ihe conxcnlion of IS.sJ, 
hail, m consiilt.iiion with the nenir.als. dr.awn np' a new pro]ios!i;on to res])ect 
the n.iiional .aspirations of Imih races li\ cuiiiu; to ( iennam ilolsU'in and 
soinhe,isi(..rn ."^chleswi^. from the month of the Sclile\ to the of the 
1 >.iniie\ irke. and In allowing; the rcsi of ScIiIc-wìl; to he inci prporatcl in Den- 
ni^irk, Th's L^'ift of the mixed disiricjs n, Denmark was defemled li\ the 
Iri'iich represi'iitative on the i^roimd that as ihere was Imnnd to he diss;u¡s- 
f.aclioii anioni; ihe inli.ahilants, no m.ilter to whom the\ were i;iven. tile 
rei;ion di.>nld l;o Io the weaker |iowir. d'he plan fnrlher stipulateli that the 
fiiUire s, i\ftaii^nl\ of the Duchies of llolsioiii and of 1 .anenlmr;.;. as well 
as ihe sMitthern pari of Schleswig, iioi to he ti\eil withotil ilu-ir coiiseiil. 
I'olli iw ini; an arranL;eniei,i wiih the ( iermaii ilele^aies. ihis was j,ro- 
]i' '~ed on \la\ _'N. li\ ( Tirendoii. i mined lai el \ alter the < Ieri", an motion 

ihe iie\\ |ii"i'posal .It tirsi i;a\e ]ironi!sc i,f sni'ci'ss. ihe < lernian and Dan- 
isii plenipoteiit!;irie~. ,i!!er snnu- drh.ale. .iccepteij in ]irinc'ple the proposition-; 
li.ith of diiision :md of I" ihe \i.|e of ihe |ieople -f ihe s.inlliern 
ti'rritory. It remained !■' .iL;ree oii ihi line south ..f which ihi- 'o.te to 
he taken l-ni^l.ind |)'-op..-ed ihe line "i Schlev -lliisirii ; Tnt-si.i pn .- 
jioscd .1 ime lar |.i ihr ii..!th. n.imel\. tin- hue of \peiirade- TondiTii. which 
(.'oimi \on \inini li,; 1 in mind m 1S4S-' 'l'Ile Trn<si;m plenipi 'lenti.ary 

' l''(ir till si^iiiiicaiit ii.issaiii in llu- pr.itncnls. sie l>iu-iimciilv. f<tisl. \'it. SWi ,■; .,■,■,;. 

- I"tlicrlin(4 in .Uaiiui'/ historique, p. 171, ¡savs that il ir. easy Id iiiKlcrslaiicI iliat (ieiiiniiv 

II". S( lll.l-'.sWh , ( il'l'.S I II iX. 1S4S - 



laUT let It lic liLjn-il that lu- i^. .\ rriiiiii-iit vvc.nid ri.ii-i-iil ; . the lini' . .t' l-lcn>i.n -- 
hiiidi-rii.' a liiK' whnh a.'-nrdcd -Mnicuhat Kcttor with ilu- liti-ni-tir ir..n- 
tii-i. Dfiimark. ri'lyin- ..n il,,- MipiK.rt ni the Hnii-li \<u'n\)c. lifld t.. the Imc- 
Sehk-y-lltisuiii ..r. prcicralilx . I'. keniii irdi'-l'riedericlistadt. Hi-iiiarrk had 
litTii waitiuLT :''■!■ tiie ( . .iiietviii-e In reject the ,\nL;ii-;eiili\ir-- tiint!..ii, liei, 'e 
liiakitit,' li¡> |iiMjiij-al l'i a \Mte nî' the ]!■ i|iiilatii m-, the idea iirÌL,niiai!\- ìii:im 
(hiced hy tile l-"reiicli.- Aeeurdin.Lrlx . at thi^ pniiit the |ileiiiiin:eiitiarii'- ..f the 
(lermaiiic ( i 'illederatii 'u aiiin miiceil that the ]ir!in'i]iie nf enii-ii'tati.'n i<( \\\:- 
nihahitaiits -hí'üld he extemled to aii\ terriiorv -ruarated ir. >iii Sehle^w il; a- 
well ■■> applied tn ail_\ separated iruiit Denmark; mi nlher w^rd- that there 
-honld he a Note taken in the imrth a- well a- in the -nu'di o i >>hle^\\ ii;-. i hi- (li the ])r;iuip!e d popular t'Mii,s;iltatii 'ii rai-ed a -turni ni',-- 
tioii in the t oulereiux' .in die L^rniiiid oí the ini|iropriet\ oi i. in-nlliiiL; snlije.t- 
a- to whether tliev wondd remain ninler their ri^ditinl km^. 1 leninark re- 
tii-ied aliMihitely. ( ireat Uritain, Swedi'ii. and Rii^-ia -ii]i¡iorled her,' a- will 
a- l-'rance, who ua- deteriiiined to adhere to the nentraN ])ro]>o--al of Ma\ 
2X. Seeiiii; that her proiio-itioii wa-. ii-ele--. I'nis-ia then ineiitioned the po^- 
-ihility ot' liniitiivi; the vote 'o the mixed di-triet--, in order to dr.iw a lini' oi 
irnntier, aiiil the -ii^^c-.tioii ua- eiid'ir-ed li\- the < lerm.anie ( oiiie.leration 

'Ihroii^hout the di-eii--ion \ii>tria. tlioiii^li -n]iportmL; the ]ilan oi di\i-ion, 
had eon-<i-tentl\ ohjeeted to aii\ popular eoii-iiltatMii. l\ii--ia. d-o -eciiiL; m 
ail}- hnropean endorsement oi -.neh a metho.l a tlireat a^ain-t .ih-ohiii-m. had 
made e\en more e,iriie-t protest^. \t tin- point, ;ind heiore .nu di-en--!on 
on tin- new ' ierman propo-al wa- po--ili!e, I'lninnow . tlie Uii-sian jileniiio- 

c.r.l.'. -iipimrt the llriti-ii lim-, ;i- It i;a\c lur ..iit> a -: .ill part ..i tlic t.irit..i.\ m 
i|i, .111(1 Icit In lleiiinark preciM-h tin rf^imi ulurr l!;.- aiiLiKniii^iii nf ii.ilinnality 
wa- -tr.iiij;.-!, iiaiiuly tlu juiiiii-iila .it Aiiml, u.i- hall I .irin.iin.'. d .111. 1 u!i..!h 
lnriii.iii ill ■tiitiiriiit 

'111. rliiiv; nil- a litUT ..f Cfnikcii 1.1 liiiu 4 i .intaiiiiiii; a statiiiHiit ly Hi-niinl- 
Inni-. If t-i M. hill, Man-. 11. a I i.inr,' iii.itiil:- later, a- pin.. I that tin rr'--i,iii ■.■..\ 
( rminnl u..u|.| aoiptid tin litu'. ili-iiiank -.u.l l'rii--ia inmlit cm 11 have ..m 
-iiiti'l III a lini- ' (.i.llini; |,. iln.l-lid. MìIiik.I ¡ii.kI.'ii.jh,' . p 1 -J. 

-■\.'ii ^yl.el iiiiplifs that h.i.l ,il..iii.i..i ,-.1 tlu- id. a .111, 1 return. . I I., it, ■■ in 
uilliiiti t.. '..-e the i.pp..rtuiiin ..t iiiipl..>im; nu an- .m .1, .•..•■iit ,,i th, . ,r. lu ,il 
-iriiple-" I In M.'n .'I. Ili-inar.k. unii the api.! ,.| the Km.,.-, ha. I «ritl.n '.i We'lhei 
\ller pi'lliiiL.: .1-1. le tlie o .n-i.U ratimi ..Í llni-naii 1\. llie ihimi- ni \"uii-ieiil nry ,ii' 
ilii'ilitle-- ih. ..ill- e..u!i! 1111. 1er tlir |ireM-ii! .i.n.liti.ui- he 111. .-t 1 ,i-iK 1..1I1/1.I. „1,.: 
uitli tile ha-t il.inu.r i.f Ihimpeaii eemiplii-ati. .11- Tliire «..iiM l.i ii..ll.ii!,. 1., 111 the 
ua\ 1.1 ..pp., -111. .11 the Mn. hi. - theni-elie-. .an. I aii\ teii.leii. x t. fiirfr,!:;,- uir' 
■.'■>.' .■■•iiM .il-ii le .iM.i.le.l We are ti;,ril' 11.. t ,!i-iii. Iin. .| I.. I.iv..r tlii- .,..l.if..i' •■' 
the pr. I.l.t'i it \u- ina> t..r tlu- , ....p, rati, m ..f tin- I . e. rrniiK-li' ' .' ni 
.S;.hi-I. Mil. i. p. .Î7.', 

"¡'lilt Syh,-I. ,!. p, .VC). -av- tliat ihi ..pp.. -in 1 1!,,. I i.n.i , m.l ,i . , (Uk- III a fiar that an nl' in-piir-, ml., m X.iith sehl<--uin 
1111 -re the I >aiii-h 1 aii-e 


i'i.i-;i;iS( ri i-:s 

Uiiiiaiy, r(;iil a Miiiiniarx ..f tin- ik-Lak- in lie Matcl tlial llic iikiIi.mI 
ni -^..11111. .11 in.laaUMl 1,\ tin- ( ,,iirt ..Í l'rii-.>ia hail iint -aiiicl tlii.- Miiiî.nrt ,,f 
the I i.iiirriiuc. ihi^ ^tauiiuiii. -iitiu-i(.'ntly iiiatnirak- at ii- lic-i. u lu'ii 
îal-aii aiMii ítMiii ilic ik'tailc.l .Kl.ati- invrcdin,'; and ÍmUmuihm. i. al.M.hitcly 
ni'-lta'iMiL; : \rt ;t i- iriR-a'ail in the lina! -niiiiiiary ..!' tlii. T. ,iii\ti-ik(.-. ininii-il 
•■" ílií' 'ii'l "I ihr ])n.t..ii.K, anil i- iiiiil. .iilitcilly the ca'i-c cii the oniiiKinlv 
rrpraiid hut err. .iK'(in> -latiiin'iit thai tlic l.nn<l.iii ( miu'iti-iut iT]j|i(liati'(l the 
nieih.iil I.I a ]ilrl.iM-ite. I ar irimi that heiiii; true the >anie -ii^f;,'e-tii>ii ni a 
lilfhiMitc in tin- nii\e.l ihstrnt-, hr. .ii;,rl,t i",,r\vanl ahiM-t itniiiediateh after 
l.v I ranee, a^ we -liall -ee. was endnr-eil hy all the nther I'nwers >ave Ru>--ia 
and \ii-tria. and wmild dnnlitle-^ lia\e heen adapted had there heeii the neee>- 
>ar\ airreemeiit a^ I., delunitatii.ii nf the territory in whieh the v. .te -Imuld 
lie taken. 

\iler r.r:inni)u\ -nniiiiary was read. Kiis-ell intniihieed a new ])niii.isal, 
n.aine]\, the ipie-tii m dt the line he -iilmiitted •, arhitratimi. the award to 
'"■ '"'■''■ 1 li'^ lailin-- ti> ^'am the support ot' either the Danish or 
plenip.iteiiti.iries, de la Tour d'Auvergne, in aecordaiue with his instructions 
oi june 1 1. iroin Dmuxn de l.huys, as lo his eourse in ease af,'reenieiu on the 
lioundar\ eoulil not he reached li\ other means.' then proposeil that a \ote 
he taken hy coniniunes m the district hounded on the nortli hv the line 
-u,<;-es|eil hy the ( .ernian plenipotentiaries ,and on the s,,uth hy the line in- 
sisied on !iy the Danish plenipotentiary. His plan included the details thai all 
iinhiary h.rce lie reniovetl iroiu the ref^iou ¡irior to the hallotm.ii and all ])os- 
si' le iire-sure ;;ii,irded a;;ainst. and thai each I'ower should send a deleítate 
to hear Aitiiess i . the .iiuhenticity oi' the vote. d"o this the pleni])otentiaries 
<.i I'russia and the (¡erniaiuc ( ont'ederatii m a^^reed, <hl rrfrrciulum . and those 
oi lintain ,ii)pro\ed it. suhject lo the Danish l\ini,f's decisi^.n. The 
I'aiiish plenipotenii.iries, houever, refused lo accept it, even dd rrfi'muliini 
and, tin truce ha\i!i.u- coiiie to ,in end, the l.'onference hmke i\\> mi lune _'_'. 
Mie snnimar\ dniwn up hy ilu' I'.ritish plenii)olenliaries and annexed to the 
protocol-, shi,\\, that tin- iiiahility to reacli an aí^reeiiieiit on ;i delimitation of 
terntorv h.r l!ie \ote. rather than on a vole itself, was the caust' of the futilitv 
Ol tile 1 ondoii ronfcrence.- 

llu- inu-e ended mi luiie 2?. The ( .erman troops somi forced the Danes 
to make .i pe.ace lar in. .re dis.istrmis than any discussed m the ( milereiice of 
'"'"'"" \"I ^'Veii ¡he iionherm.isi p.m ,,f .^chlesu i-; left io them, I'.v 
the term- ..I drawn up mi \u-Ust ], and si^n.d on < ictoher M\ ]Si,4. 
the Km- of Demnaik renounced al! his i-ioht-, nver :he duchies of Schlcswi-- 
lloisiem ,rid I .aiienhuri; m f.avor of the Kuil'; of I'russi,! ;md tlu l-aniiemr of 

' l-'raiH-i'. .Iff.iir.-s .■lniiii::-i,-s IKuumriit.^ ilir!,'in,U:,iiti-x, 1S(.4. |. J,s. 
- I iucuim-nts. ffxl ti. ''•'-?. 

■|iii'; Si iii.i-:s\\i(, ( ni;sri( )\, is4S- 


Au.stria, aii.l undcri. H,k t., nro-ni/i' any .lis],,,,,!;, ,11. uhidi tlu- ^ai,l iii,>ii,,n li~ 
>hnul,l make in rc-ani h< ili-iii.' Hit- ir^aiy ii-rlf imlR-aiol the Imu nf fnm- 
tier and instituted an internatidna! idninn— icii Id iiini]ik-te the line ..n the 
>lM>t, withciut any -u'^'-e-tion that any ¡lan n\ 11 -lionld lie determined \>\ a 
Mite III the iieiiple. The iinl\ ]ir>i\i-ion I'nr the e\|ire~-i. m nf a debile un the 
¡lart III tile inhaliitaiu- \\a< in tiie -i\ year-' uptiim elau-e eniilained in Aniele 
XIX, whieli j;ave a iieriod nf >i\ \ear- tn l)ani->h -nlijeet- dnmieiled m thi' 
ceded territnries in which tu exercise the ri^ht nf chnip-iiiL; I )ani>h natinnalilv 
and 111' tran-ierrin.i;- tllem-el\e-, their I'aniilie-, and their per-inal ]iriiiiert\ 
111 Denmark, while kee|iin,L; their landed ]irn]ierl\ in the duchu->. The i ),nie- 
were at la~i con\inred hy the peace that the dui-imi li\ natii inalitv wa- the 
(iiijy -uhitinn anil hitterly regretted tlu-ir rel'n-al to c mierate in it,- 

I'riis-ia and An-tria tir--t e--a\ed tu aihnini-!er the diichie- in cuinniun, an 
arran<iement whicli. a- rii>niarck had planned, led lu endle-- altercatimi. The 
C(impri)mi>e attempted ihruu,i,di the (i.-i-tem ('unventiun, which i,Mve the ad- 
ininislraiiiin uf Schie-wi,L; tu l'rii->i.-i .and "i lluKtein tu \n-!ria. Ni"-\ed, 
thrniif;-!! the ujipro-ive I' rule uver the Dane- uf .Vurth .^i-hk'-w ii;, tu 
intensify their InnginL^ fur -eparatiun ;niil fur .1 uniun with Denmark. In 
rhi- thev cuntinned tu h,i\e the -.n|)purt xi Xapuleun. .••.iid tu hi- re])re-ent,a- 
tiun- l!i-marck, whether ur nut in -\-m]ial!iy, iH'\er ;r:i\e a ileci-i\e neL;,iti\e. 
I he I'ni,->ian IÑiii.y', huwe\er. wa- determined a.i^^ain-t anv divi-iun 

Two years after the juint cuni|re-t of the diichie-. a -hurt war hruke uiit 
hetween the cuiiiitierurs.-' As ;i re-ult, by the I'reliniin.iries -ii^ned at XikuK- 
hurij in jii'\', 1¡^'V), ;ii;d emhudied in the Treaty uf l'r;iL;iie. sÍL;neit mi \iiL;u-t 
J.iil, .\ii-tri;i ceded to l'ni--ia .all the riLjht- aci|iiired uver the dnchie- •'! 
1 liil-tein and Schle-wi^,'. with the cunditiui' that the pupnlatimi <'i the nurth- 
ern districts ni Schlcswijj^ should he i-eded tu Denm.irk if. liy a free vute, ihey 
should express ri wi^h to he so united.' 

It i- -aid that this i- due to .1 liujie entert.ained li\ !'rn--ia Iw 
stirrendcrin«.,^ Xorth Schle-wii,' -he wutild ,!;.ain the ;ici|uie-cetice "i !■ ranee 111 
the reori;aniz;ition of <¡erm.uiy. The iiruject iti the Kiel I .mal wa- un 
at'fei'ted h\ the m.atter inr i,- prupu-ed cu;ir-e l,i\- tu the -until ni the mixed 
di-trict- :uid well w,itliin the < ierman^-iie.akin^ territur\. I'li-m.irck 
tu h.ave acce]iteil the clau-e in .yuud f.iith.' and in the liei^'iniliiiL; certamli de- 

' Iln'iinriil'-. frst. I'. ".l\ 

- I'llitrlnii,'. " l.a pais ile I'r.miio ISiid." m \!,iiinrl hi.\l >ri,jiir. ¡i _"'■'. 

■It sieiii- Mimi ct--arv lure In t;.i un<< liie iiitri' cli' cliiitN .uni eniiiitcv. l.niii- nf ilu' 
xari'Mis iiriiiu-. -ii|i|"irti ■! h> l'rll-^i.l aii'l Vn^Iti.t m tli' Ir «iTnrK !■■ nam I'M-ln-ive cnritrnl 
111" llie iluiliii-, ii'ir tlu- relaliiiii ni tin- SiMii Wi'k-' War in I'li^iiiari k'- |M.licy nf (urinali 

♦ IliKiimcnts, ^.i.ç/. p ''.Ì.- .'-ic Artieli- .- 

'' I- MicrliiiK iTcilit- r.i^iiiari k uith ' ui-I ,,ii.l In ne. nient iiileininti-." Miiiiiicl /n.i.' ' : ;ii.-. 

1 )(, 


i;ist iTi'-.s 

icinlccl It m till- l';cÌLÌi>ia';. I'.iit, Ikiul-vct h()iic--.t In- iiiiciuidii-, lie \\..iil,l ,i,,t 
ri-k a -trii.t;i;lc uiih the Kinj; and the military party inr the -ake ui iiiltillin- 
tin- treaty ¡inivi^ion and. withiuit waitiiii,' icir the prnmi-ed plehi^tite. the 
duellier ill their eiitiret_\ were inriiially iiiiiteil tu I'liN-ia li\ an act ni iiicor- 
¡>> nation Mil Janiiar_\ IJ. lN(i7. 

Xi'tuitlivtandmj; the aniiexatidii, Ik lU ever, nej;. niatiuns .vere entered intu 
!>\ rrii->ia and beninark at Cn|ienha;;en nii May 7, iStiJ. -enardin- the cmii- 
<litii>ns 111 the |)rn|)<ised |)Iehi>nte. The ]iriiceedini;> ui' tie (.'uníereiue are 
lint luiMi-hed, lint the (Hitliiie may he ^'alhered I'miii varimi^ Minrce> nf iti- 
li irniati. iii. It a|i|)ear> that Tni^ia l)rll])ll^ed, a> [irimary eoiiditiniis, s|iei.!al 
,i;iiarantee> nf a draglie nature rer irdiiii; the le;;al -tatti- it < lerniaii- and the 
< lerman lan.i,'ua<,'e in the part nt Sehle-w ;<j; w \uch mi^ht lie retroceded.' I'he-e 
cniiditiniis were -o -e\ere a- to i;ive the Dane- the impre-'ion that I'rn^^ia did 
not \\i-.h to reach an ai^rcement. and to -tiimilate the tear that the ^rantiiifi of 
the Ljiiara; ces wonld lead to intrii-inii liy (ierinanv in 1 ) iiii-li att'air-.- rrii>- 
sia, refn-iiij; to modifv her deniand-, the ne^itiatioiis, m -pite of the efforts 
of the I'Vench ^mverninent to aid in el'fectin^' a settleireiit, were broken oti', 
and. .after a lew ninntli^ of continued lÜNCii-^-ior. in iîerlin. in which the 
rrii>>ian demand- were -till iii-i-ted iiiion, the matter dropped. 

< )f the l.sil.tMHi people of .Xorlh ."^clile.-w i;;. ahoiit 5ii.0ihi. takini; advantaj^e 
Ol the option in the Treaty of \ iemia of lS(i4. had cho-en to remain 
under l)eiiiiiark .md. mi the sÍL;inii<,r of the Treaty of l'r.iííue. had inij,'ratcil 
across the frontier |iendin;.,' the |)lehiscile. 'The-e. -eein.i; no ])ro>pect of a 
jilehiscitc. now returned to Schleswig where, owíiil; to their ha\ ¡ii.; In-t their 
1 )ani-h citi/cn-hip and not allowed li\' the I'nis-ian- — as ,i puni-h- 
nient -to .icqiiire I'rns-iaii citizcn-hip. ihcy liecinie in their unprotected 
^tate the object of per-ectitimi in the l'ru--ian ellorts to (¡erin.inize 
the conntr\. The pli.i(ht of those optante served at le.'i-t to fix 
attention on the failure of I'nissia to li\e u]) to her obli^.atinns under tlie 
Treaty of I'ra<iiie aii'l started a discii-sion as to whether either Denmark or 
ihe iieojile of Schleswi<j; h;id not !v the ac(|ihred a le.u;al rij^hl to claim 
it.s performance. The existence of stich a ri.<,dit \va- denied cateK"rically 
.bv lli-in.irck in the fon-titueiit .\-sembly of \Xfw :'■ to which tlie people of 

' I )in-i'iiH-i;t-. T'"'. 1' ''•'" 

- Thr //ii(j)i(//'.i,i; I i/,/ .\.ir,/.(i,-.- í,:,MÍ-r st-''r:^sma,ils hisl.'ri,-, C.í|kmiIi:íi; ii. I'ilH. s;iys tliat 
t!u- \ii-lriaii t!u iTimn'iit ilnl not onncial it- niiiiiiim that I'rus-ia'- oniiililiniis wi-n- 
iinri'.i-oiialilc. I'lirtlKT iiiinrniatioii may be loiiiid in t1ic ilispatclics of (ìeorge H. Ycanian. 
riuti'it Stalls Miiii-ttT t(i |)t-iMnark, {•< Sorclary Si'war.l reijanliiii; the iici;iitiations. 
I i;il,;l s/(i(,-.t. / ,'r,-n;ii k'i-liilimi.i , lH(i7, M)1. 1, ii]). (liifl <■( ,(.-.;. 

^ I'niliTic ThiiihcHiii. l'i-rfassutit;sr,\ht i/.'.t ti('rildi''il.uhc>i lUiiuli'.s uiiti i/.'.ç i/i-iií.r, /i,-;i 
/.vllii-rcins. riviewiit l>.v l<i>lin-Jae<iuoinyns, Relue de dmxt internatioiial el de Irijislation 
lowfiir:;-. 1H~(I, Mil J, ],. ;.'l. 

I'll!': Si III I swiii • ui-;si u >\, isis 



.North Sclili'-w ii; li;i<l .-cui a (k'jnity in pmii-t aj;:iiii-t tlic iikui [nuatn m ni iIk- 
¡«■rrilory in tlic ( '()til\'.''ratii>ii ai;il in ilaiiu ilifir ri^lit tn a i)n]inlar vnic' 
Bi>marrk rciilied wi'h tin- dcnial <if tho t-M-ii .o oi am rij^du, ii'^al nr nmral, 
which ctuild he clain;' 1 hy the jicnplc nt Xnrth Sclik^w i^'. 

'1 111- ih^imli.' ha^ i.ii-(.-il the -.uli^iih.ii) i|iic>liii'i ni \\\u< \\a- ihi iiitriiilvl 
l)ciR'liciar_\', Dciuiiark, the ]ien]ile "i SchleNwij^. or \a]Milenii, ainl. ii i; wa- 
the people lit ^chle^wiji, whether a j^rnii]! ut iiidiviihiaK not a State eati a»iniire 
riglits under a treaty. - 

.\fter the t'aie of Alsace ainl Lorraine in ISJi*. there wa^ little hojie oi 
iiuiucinj.,' Prussia to hold a lileh^cite in Schlc'-w ii;. .\e\ertheles-. the alim- 
<,Mtioii oí the [)lel)i^c:tary cl;iii--e n the Treat) oi' l'raL;iu' \\a^ made li\ l'n',-~!a 
the roiiditiou of the \n^tro-l 'nn^iaii alliance anil, accordintjly, hy the I'reaix 
of \ lenna of ( )ctolK.-r 11, 1S7S. the l-aii])eror of An-tria formali} released 
the Kin^ "f I'rn^sia from the olilÌ!.;ations under Article 5 o-.tensilily " in con- 
sideration of the ditficidtie^ ])re-ented m the carryin-' out 'f the principle- 
tiieri' laid di 'U n." ' 

in spite of the lar^^e einÌL;ratioiN to Denmark ami of the constant attempt- 
to <iermani/e tho-e who remained, f(jr < lenn.iii rule here as in AKace ha- lieeii 
f,!r from alïordin.u the protection to the --acial minority wliich -he her-ell 
demanded m 1S()7. the ]iopiil,ilion of South Jutland is -till ijreiionderaIel\ 
anii-<ierman in sentiment. I'he ca-e of Xorth Schle-uii; i- -till a live i--ne 
hut there i- ,at la-t a ho])e the iine-iion which ha- a.i,nt,itrd I'.iiropr lor 
se\Tt'i\ \eai- i- a'lout to he -ettled. 

Dunn',; the half century that Denmark h.a- heen de])riveil of ScIiIc-uil; and 
Ilol-tein. -he ha- learned the \aliie of the doctrine of sel f-delcrmm.uion. 
She no lon,t;er demands the return of the ( ¡ernian population- ol the ducine-. 
(Jii the contrary -lie ha- definitely refused to .accept au\ part, even (.; S.lile- 
wio. who-e inhal.itaiit- do not wi-h t.> join the kmplom "i Denmark, and, m 
acconlance with hoth the res..liition of the Ki.u-daj; of ( ,\ l'US .and 
with the de-ire of the jieople of \,,rth .^chlesui- a-,l in the Aiun- 
rade resolution of the .^chle-w i- h-lectoral Socutv, of 17, I'MS. the 
Danish (,o\ernment ha.s aske.i that a plehiscite i.e held to -ettle the iiiture di- 
pnsition of the refilons in (|uestion.^ 

1 I'aiil Matur. Hi.siiuirA- cl uni /.■m/-.«. v..l. .', p, 570. 

-Cf. Ki'iiald 1'. Koxl)uri;h. Iiilirmilhiinil (".im;-.-ii/m)i.( mi,/ Tliii\l .Sdi/c.f, p. -íJ. Rm\ 
iMirL'li cifs li.ilfiiKlnrrt'. A'CTH.- i/c ilr.iit iri(,-ni,i/i,.ii,i/ rt ¡I,- ic^f::alvii ,,n,¡i-:ir... ■.•.\ 10. 
P .S«(). Oppenheim, hil,-niatioii<il I.azv (2d cil,), \..l. 1, p. MA. H\\'n-r. /'>cj ,/« ./■■'li 
(i,i L;,-iri l_''¡ "1 I. \'l -. P '!■' HiiTitils, Miiiiii,! it,- droll ,iit.rn,i:i.',i,i: fiihlu I'llli ol i 
Í; l'ra;lur-K...lvrL, I rail,' ,1c droit iiit,-rii,ilioiu:i /■ii/'/iV. \<'I. -', P Hl.V S U."» l'i. ,,ii 
the ..i: <T side, i<nliii-J,i,;iucmyiis. ,'r '''■■ V- ■'-■^- »"'I l'I' 7.M.'4. an. I l-iisin,il,K v l"' 

^ Document«, roxt. ]>. 'M3. 

*Tlu- |)aiii-li C.MnuiU'Tit lias stated its snppcrt nf a pnju) «i ~elt iletcriiiin.itinii in 


ANSI anj iiO Itil LMAR' Nt ; 








'. -ÍGE Ine 


i'i.i-:i;iS( I ri:s 

'1 111' -iiual;. Ill in Slilr^\\i,L; m.tvc- in lllll^tratc liii,\, ir, ..rilcr t.. ctU'L-t a 
l>i;riiiaiunl -rítliiiKiií ^aliMaitKrv to all ]iain . .. a iili-li-~citf i> ÌikIclmI o^cii- 
tial. inr ;lif draw mi: "t lili' li"Mr 'ary Inn- aci-nrdiiij,'- to --tati^tii.--. of race and 
!aii,m!a,i;r, a iiR'tl'.nd -cldiim <if Jtory if wliat i^ uantL-d i> t.. fiillill ¡).i[,¡i'ar 

the li.ll'UviiiK (inicial niiinminii-aiK.ii. imlilii- iiy tin- Kit.'au l'ri--> üiinayí un Janu- 
ary 2^, Viì'l. 

1 iic XmiiIi Sclik-w ii; i|iH-ti,in is l'or I Hninark an (■\rln~i\ tly national i|ni>tÌMn. Tilt" 
I lani^li naliun huii,- ami !• •l•^^ iur tiic return tn t!u- Kiiiyiluni nt l>rnniark i.i a!l who 
-|nak ani li^ I hamuli, br.t \\ c haM-' nn int' ri-t ni ili" i|ni^tion iliat "\ naiii ipality. 
iHnmark^ >tnni;lli a^ a \\niil,l not |.r nicri-'a^vil l.y tiic pr .svi-.^j,,„ „f a KTcalrr 
part "Í SJiliswn; than that ni uhiih ihr luíipU' nally ili^rc to hr niiiti-il with ii-; ><wh 
)ios-i --ion «MnM only en ate ureal irohiual ami a'lniini^lratiw ditiuultie- 

.\11 the I'artus ol the Kiü-'lai;. anil tiironuh tluin an om ru hehinnv; niajorit> oí tile 
I lani-h |ito|ile, lia\e ileilare.l. in tli'' l\ii;-iiau re-olnlion ..f ( )et.iher .î, in iavr of a soln- 
tion alon« pnrely national line-- a- the only ''n. tiiat aeeonU with the di^ire-, seiltinicnts, 
ai.'l inlerc-1- oí the ] laiii-h inopie. 'I hi-, i- i \aetly tlie ^aiiie Meupoint a- that "f th.c 
I iane> m North S.-IiIi-wìl:. as e\pre--. '1 ni the r. -olution passeri hy the X'Tth SehleswiK 
l.leitoral Soci, t> al it- niielnii; in Aahiiiraa. Nom niher 17. 

\\f .lie there). -re 1 rnmiiit; h<, tlie I' (.oniennce the .¡einaml 1. ■riniilatMl l.v the 
pe.iph' .,i' Norlli S.hU'swi'^ lor a -.hilr.ii ,.i th,' prohlein . .n the hasi^ ..t the sell-.letir- ol natioiK In inean- ..|' a p' \ot.. I lii-, ( ,.n eniiii. nt ayree- with the Hanes 
in X.iith .<chle-.uiu iliat a plehi-nte uon!.! i.irni the Mire-t ioiin.lation i,,r o;ir reiniiuii 
"' 'I" inline 111 ac.r.lanc. uith Xrtnle 1 ol tli, Aaheiiraa resolution, this (¡overiiinent 
heli.Ms th. correct pr.Kc.liic uiil he t.. ha\e ".North Schleswii; nyiar'lcl as a unit, 
s.i that the inh.ihil.inl- l,y m.ihil: >e, ..r no ni.iy indicale whether or not ih.y wish t.i he 
reinnud w itli 1 li nniark " 

I he iiiirpiestioi.ahly liaiiish part ol Schleswig is descnhul in .\rticle _' of the Aaheiiraa 
re-olnii..iis as i..ll,,w-: - Xorili Schi. -uiü is that part of the Duchy of SchUswii; ho-.inded 
h.^ a line ninnili^ from the southern -Í XN. tlir..iii;li l-'leiishori.; lo,rd to the Koh- 

h.r.n.ille l'.a> ami aloii^; the Krii-aa s,,nih .1 1>.-s!.a. s. , that I'adoherv; will h. the I ndary 

stall. ill, then loll.,niiii; the l.ct\\.cn Sh.-s and Kai r //cr;-,-,/. Skelhaek. S..ndeliaa, 
and Ihi.l.i.i, t.. ihe |ioiiit uiur. iJM.Ia.i Inriis t., the north, w h, n ilie line runs straight 
oil !.■ the Western Sea and thence ont to tin northern poiiii .,f Slid." 

In SchleswÍL:. on the other hand a I.iir deterniiiialion can he arri\.d at only liy 
votiiiK' 111 di-tii.i-, as in.lic.itcd 111 Ih, .Xahciiraa resohili..n. If any hindrance s|„„il.l arise 
t.i prevent a plehi-cite oí the I )aii. s m ,\.,rth Schhswit; which the ( Ion eminent has no 
reason p. apprc li. nd - ih. n tlie lint iii.luated in \rli.le J .,i tlu .Xahenraa r'sohltion must 
he made the hasis oí the rci;iilalion. sine- there is m. ,|,,;ihi hut iliat the j. op, dati. .n i .irtli 
of this line can with safct.i h, a,hle.l t.. 1 leiini.irk i-',,n wiilioiit a \,.te. 

The .\aheiiraa res, , luti, .n. Article .\ declares that, a- a matter of cnirse. aiiv district-. 
sonili ,.í the lim- ihat espress a lU-ir, f,,r il sli,,ul.| hai<' a ri^lii to \,,ie separately .,n 
whether <,r not ihey wish 1., return I,, Ueiiinark. In c.i-e aiuthim; sh,.ii!,l prcMiit a 
plel.iscite of tluse people als., which th, I ,.,\ eriinient has m, rea-,.n t,, appr. lieii.l ^ it 
wi.iild still he possJMe to receive lack in.liinliial parishes which h.u, .n, nmiiies|i..nahly 
liaiiisli-speal;iiit{ majority, in accordance with the petition siiined hy ^/"n men and ».uiieii 
.HIT twenty years i.f atie in tais district and sent in to this (¡overnmem There are. 
In.wever. some cominimes fmin winch no peliti, ,n has I.eeii recived. 

In llie ease of Meiisl.orK and its ininie.liale Mcinity ciMditii.tis are very 
Ue can not consent to have these districts reunite.l with Denmark nnlcss the' inhahitants 
tNpress a desire for it tliroiiK'h a free vote, since without a .loiiht the majority ..f the 
pcple liiere are (icrmaus. The peiiiioii from I'lciistM.r« i, sl«i,e.l l.y XW men and 
woim-n over twenty year», whereas the total populalion of that awe must he estimate,! as 


c. J.^ 

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la (jLirsünn rill Sli"vi'4. 



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*.'■»'• jt-'ii 


1) Slosvi(c du Nord: Le premier chi fTre de chaíiuo spric 
H-í rhiiTreíí indi-iu» !*• nombre drs famillfs parl:L.".t 
d;in<n:í >lanii U c-jí t-n nufstwn; !»• accnnd 
chilTro reprt'sente le nonilir*' dos funnlífei biltnirutí:^. 
el letroí-iitmeevluidei^ famülei ielant^uebnoin.mfli.'. • 

:'l Slcavig du Sud: P"ur. . -naw-í- iN-i l.itlHr¡,i>i . .J.. 
Iiinquc danois«?. 

+■ The tost (p. >íl) States that the numt<er» iimler (Î i 
ap »ly '.'» the fa-niuesuwnimc laud. 

ST. Till I.MAS \\1) ST, jnllX. WHS T l\l)li:S. ISdS 


ik'siris. wmilii lie ni^j-t iiiacouratc lii-rc. l-'.vcn the Danish autlioriiii.-- a-rcc 
iliat altliduuh ^tati^nc- ywlu a Mitta-ici)il> «li-tniitc lau'nia-c ironticr, whicli 
woulil leave t(. the >c>uth a lar^a' Danish iiiiiiority in (Hily one place, namely, 
l'ienslniri:, xet, in the Irian-le between this line, \>hich jut> ilnwn >nnthw(.-t 
,,t I'lenshur- an.l a line ¡Iraun, nni^hly. ^ve^t\vanl the city, the popu- 
lation, though Danish in lan.;;na,-e, i. ..nly exceptu.nally m, m sentiment.' 
Vor can credence he ;;iven to an interpretation of voie, in recent election^ 
nn<ler ( ¡ernian rule, tor ni tln> re.i^non oi' >par>ely populate.! moorland inauN 
nl" the people of Danidi lan,i;uai;e an.l >ytnpathies have l«.we.l the 
.t.irin There is this further ol.jecti.m that a (lixi-i.m accnlin,- U> statf-tics 
u.mhl .li<re-ar(l the hi>,c .leMre ututy in the -mailer t^r.^up. a .k-ire 
which le.l the refni^ees in Copenhagen in 1S4S t.. pn.te.l that they preterrcl 
„„i,v mi.ler ( ¡ernuun rather than <livÌMon. Tln> ,.l.ject,..n ha. an h.^tor-.c 
claim t., c.m.i.leratu.ti alth.m.^h ,t i> p.>-^MMe that the evet.ts ot the pa.l 
>eNentv vear> have renderci its importan.'e merely aca.lemic. 

1 1 1'. 

Ivi.ANiis OF St. 


MAS AM) St. I.imx. Wkst InI'IK^, lW>i^ 

The f.r.t ].lehi>cite rejiardin^ ^^ ^-^--i"" "' -'verei^nity ever hel.l m the 
western hetmsphere is that which wa. hel.l m the of St. an.l 
'it l.>hn in lannarv, ISr.S. ,,n the .ine.ti..n ni their ce>M..n hv Denmark t.> 
the rnite.l ^tate- It is a matter ai > interest that the an.l the 
inserti,.n of the clause referrin- i.. it in the treaty between th. tu.) l'<.wer>, 

iro-<l..m ..f the iilel.iscite in aocor,lam:e wuh the .les-r., .,í the l)an,.h N.,rth 
r:.!„l..l t,v the .cc,„„l .\ah.nraa re.,1n.i.,n „f !>e.en,her 3.1, 1918, Translatum. 1 r.,n, 

Thr April .\ 1010. , ■■ , i , 

.This .taten.em i. taken fr.m, the article hv II, V. Clau.en. " I.a s,<„an..n .le, lan^.u, 
en \,.nl-Sles\i^ après lR'i4,- in Ma,nu-I hisl.n-,,,,,,. p. .Ul. ^ee map ..n ..iM...M!e i.,-.^e, 
.l.ich i. a eupv ..1 that ,,co mpanyin« the article, .Xecr.lin,. t„ the author. e,„nnunt, 
tl,e enl.,re,l part repreM- t. all ..f that part ,.1 S.'hlevwi^' in ^^h..■h Danish H spuken hy 
H,e n,a,.,r>tv nf the l.un.he. .avnin^ lan.l, Tn th.- s„„th „t th,s re^mn there ,s „nlv one 
plae.- nan.eU ilen.h..r^r. there ,s anv I >a,nsh speaking; n.,n..r,tv. th. 
.„„„iHT there heinu 4,tin.), The t.^^ures .i^en n„ the n,ap are ..t tu.. kni.N. In 
\„rth Sehlesu,« these hu..r, . are n. three set- .see n.,te 1 on n:ap . In the nn.l.'!,- porno,, 
o, 'Sehlesuin «h.r. ,!,.■ lan.;„aue is still ilominant. namely, that part con.a.ue.l 
¡„ ,1„. triangle l.o„n,le.l ..n the ca^t hv ,he p,n,nM,la ..f .\,i«lia a.ul ..n the vv. M h> the 
Fr,.ian territory, there is o„lv ..n,- ,mn, v.n.ler ea. 1. o.n.ninne ( ^ee n..te ..n n.ap). 
Tins .hiTerenee' i,. the tnetho.l of ,Aalnat,o„ ,s eanse.l In the ,n the .o.,ree, 
fr,.,n which tlu' statistics are cntpilol. In ,ni.|.lle Schlesu.e. »here the p...p.e. aah..Muli 
Manish in, are only exccptionallv so ,n sentinient,'' th.' statistics :u. hascl on 
Cei-man u..rks an.l. ,n |.artienlar. -u the work ..t .\.ller. /)„■ rolkssfrach u, .-,m li,r,.'^- 
Ihum S\hU'^w-v sni iS^-l. In the n..rth. ,t uas poss.hle for the Danes the,ns,lve. 
to take the statistics in each cnnnune, the ho.r.s are n,ore complet, an.l more accnrate, 
e.xeept for the cities of lla.lerslav. ,\| S..,ulerl.„n; an,l Ton.lern. o„U a,, 
approsiiiiaf r, ■■!!> . oul.i i„. secure. I, 



i'i.i-:i!isc 1 T 

were (lirci'tlv diR' til tlic i)rL',>ciii:L' di' Article 3 in the Treaty dì l'ra,i,nie ut l.SóO. 
(ìwiii'"" til the íacl that the treat}- with Henniark wa^ ne\er ratitie«! hy the 
I'liited Stato ami that thus the cessimi wa> never completed, the circinii- 
.-taiices (li the affair have heeii lar^Ljely i"i irrotteli. 

Diiriiijí the American Civil War the (ni\ernment of the L'nited States liad 
felt the need i>i a cualin.i; >tatinn in the West Indies for which the three small 
Üan)>h i-land, of St. Croix. St. 'i'lio'iia^ ami St. John, the l;i.--t two with 
excellent harlior-, were well Miited. The inlands had no i;reat area or poim- 
latioii, St. Thomas lieiiii; 1- miles loiij,^ and .i wide, with aliout 13.(X)0 inhab- 
itants, St. CVoix, the larj;e>t one, lieini; twice a-- !-i.r.L;e in are.a and ¡loiiiilation, 
and St. lohn heiii.L,^ about the ^anie .area ;i- St. Thomas lint with a much -m.aller 
number oi inhalMtantv. The peojile of the islands were largely ne^Moe, who 
hail been freed but not eniranchi>ed, ami, although Danish subject-, the laii- 
f^iunie in common u-e w;is lùi^dish. .Xccordiui; to ,i Danish estimate made 
at the time there were in the three islands, even includni^' the mihtary torce 
and the -nverument employee^, only about J'H) people whose mother tonj,nie 
was Danish.' 

In ])ursuance of his ¡lolicv of territorial expansion, and while the need of a 
coaliu'i station in the taribbeau was still a matter of public concern. Secre- 
tary Seward on lulv 17, lS()(i, nitimated to délierai Kaa-lof. the Danish .\lin- 
isier at \\ashin;;ton. ¡he rnited States would be willin.i; to ¡i;iy live 
million dollars for the three islands.- which were not only a source oi debt 
rather than of revenue to Denmark but were ol little use to her m any other 
res].ect. Her treasurx. too. had been dejileted by the recent dis.istrous 
with Prussia and .\u-tria, ^ et. coiiiin,!; a- it di«! so s.x.n after the loss ot 
Schleswii; an.l Ibilstem. the ot a further reduction of her territory 
di,l not ai)peal to Denmark bear oí opp.isitioii irom (.reat I'.ritain and. 
more especialh. l-'rauce, al-,, deterred her from acceptini; the American otter. 
.\ltli<iut;h certain informal conversations took jilace re.i^ardiui; the matter, it 
wa- mn until May 17 of the folhnviii^ >car that the .itiicial Dani-h rei>ly was 
delivered to Mr. '^■eamall. the \niericaii .Minister at ( ■opeiiha^eti. The an- 
swer was .-i counter propositi, ,n. Denmark would sell the smaller islands tor 
ten million and St, Croix lor tive. if the consent of bnmce. which was neces- 
sary for the transfer of the latter, could be obtained.' but any cession 

> r,i.I.-,I,in.l.-t (■,,,,. tiliai;.n. \"^' ^'K ti<"": l'"'"''' ^';"''-" ( ■""/'i'""«'" "/ /'■''■/""•'•î "/ 
.SVm.,(,- (,.m,míí,T ,.., /V'.rc AVfdM-,.M.v . ^. „. l>..c Xo. -Mb p.. S. 5"th (on^ . i.l sess.i. 

'' -DnoniuM.ts r^-i 1' ''•<? 'fl" -'"" ''^'''' "■'- •'"" -"WK'slo.l liv l,ni.T;il ]h\M\M ;.- h 
mo-t «.■,uT,n,s o.n„H■n^at.n„ ,„ In. r-T-rt to .Mr Se«ar,l .m lulv ", \m>. nKar.liim tli- 
v.ilu,. „f th. , -lands, f, S. Sen. l>-c. No, -Ml. pi, S. 5Mh ( .in«, .M s.-s . V 1'»* 

The .|n<su,.n r.Usol a- to the o-sion of St, Ooiv «r.-w ont of tlir pioviMons o 

Xrtul, ■-■ of tiK o,n..nt,on sj^,,,,! a- Coi-rnhauen Inn,- Is, \7.y\. l.v wineh l-rano. colo.l 
the islan.l to the West India Company. Tl,.' artuU- prov„lo.l that ihe Danoh 

S'l". 'I'lln.MAs A\l) ST, |()iiX. WT-.ST IXDII'^, 1S(,S 


whatever, iidt niily \\a> the sanction ul llie Rigsdag reiinired liv the enii-iitu- 
tiiiii liiit the l)aiii>h ( iciNcriimciit uniild al-n insist mi the i;nii>ent ul the ')CMj)!e 
(if the i^laIlds a.s well' 

lo tliis Seward ^eiit an answer mi May 27 that tlie L'nited States iiiu,-t 
lia\e ah the inlands and at a iirice lU't exeeechng' seven and oiie-lialt niiUi .n 
and that a plebiscite would he wholly unnecessary in view of the inchi-ion of 
a two year option clause in the treaty draft which lie was forwardiiii,'.- ( )n 
the receipt of a telegram from Washington, \eanian >ul)mitteil, on .\la\ _'S. 
to Count l-'rij>, the l)aiii>li I'oreign Minister, the terms proposed li\ Mr. 
Seward, with the condition that the treaty must lie ratilied li\ Denmark lie- 
lore August 4lh or the negotiations wnuld lie coii>idered at an end. 

Mr. Seward had e.xjiressly withheld his coii>ent that the ratification of the 
treaty should await or depend U])<)ii a vote of the ¡leople of the i>land>. The 
exact source of th¡^ olijection of .\lr. Seward's to a vote in the i-laiids i> imt 
clear. There are three explanations, first, that he feared that the inllueiice 
of (ireat Hritaiii. I'rance. an<l Spain would he excued to cause an adverse 
vote: secondly, that ii the isl.mders were allowed to \i.)te on the (|uestio!t thev 
Would then demand statehood; third, haste was iniperati\e owing to the 
earlv adjournment of Congres>.' Wiiatever the cause of his objection he 
adhered to it for many months, after all the other difficulties of price and 
time of ratification were reinoveil. flic Uaii]>h Caliinet. on their --ide, wa^- 
e(|ually insistent that a vote was im])erative. for this the\- gave two reaxui-, 
as stated by \'eamaii in his di>patch of June 17. I'he tir.-t was that the mod- 
ern custom of I'.i.irope ujion the subject was so uniform a> to amount to a 
rule of public law, and that any de])arture from it woulil cause comment and 
discontent, and. the second, that Denmark, especiallv, could not afford to di — 
regard the rule as she woiikl thereby infinitely weaken her claim to a plebiscite 
in Xortliern Schleswig, 'lo N'eanian's arguments that the ]>lebiscite would 
offer o])portunity lor intrigue from without as well as tend to weaken the 
authority of the State over the subject, the Danish Caliinet, though doubtlos 
sympathetic, again dwelt on tlie Schleswig situation, who^e force ;is an argu- 
ment ^'eamaIl was com])elled to admit. 

( )n june 17, Neanian had forwarded Denmark's pn.pnsal to -ell the two> of St. 'I'homas and St. John for >cveii and a half million ddllars. and 

W'l-t Indi.i Company Oioul,! i-iinauc and nlilinatf it.srif in a fnrnial an. i antluiuii- niainicr, 
ni'iilicr to M 11 nor to i-ciU- tfu' island <in any terms to any oiIrt nation without tlu' aii- 
liro\al .iiid i-onscni of tlic Kuik it Iraner. Si-f John BasM'tt Moore. IHnt'st ot ¡nl.rmi- 
fiiiiiii/ /.ii:.'. vol. 1. p Wl.i. II, K,' ,1. 

' Docnmvnts, ¡•osi. p. '/-Vi. 

- IidCiinu'nts. post, p. O-W. .Article .3. 

■'Cf. Irederic Hancrofl. ¡if c of HHImw I!. .V,-;,'im/. vol. J. p. 4K,Î, and W.ddeniar 
WeM.TKaard. Th.- !\v¡;^h (l\-.i/ !,:.'U's. p. 259. 


'i.i-.iîiscn I'.s 

tn make St. ('mix the ^uliiei,-! ut' separate ne,m>tiati(ins. Seward, early in 
hil\-, ealileii to rinse with the ot'fer, Imt with iid imlicatinp. that he xielded nil 
the matter ni' the vote, l-'iinhiii; the Danes still insistent mi the vnle. ^'ean)an 
eaMeil I'nr in~tnicti. ms and received the answer " 1 )u mu a.i;ree tti snl)niit the 
i|iiestii)ii." t 'i i!iL;iess lieiiit; ahiuit td adjniirn. the immediate iieeij t<]r haste 
would appear to lia\e passed. Imt there was .another reason whieli still m.ade 
Seward in-istent aj^ainst dela\-. The retnrii of ])eaee had ;;radiiaH\ elimi- 
nated the importaiue of a coalin,i; station in the West indies from the pnhlie 
mind whose (lem.and for expansion had been ijratitied 1)\' the acquisition of 
Al.iska. l'or these reasons the ne,!;' itiation- for St. (."mix were eventually 
aliamli iiied. 

Despite the diplomatic concern of the I)-inish (¡o\ernment not only that the 
vole sh,,iild lie held Imt that it should he stipulated in the treaty. Count l-'rijs, 
in order to meet Mr. Sew.anTs olijection. .after the oiIut |)oints of dillerence 
had heen dispo-eil of. on Au.mist 17 si,L;uitied his w illim;iiess to \ield the de- 
mand for a conditional clause in the tre.aty. if. instead, there should he in- 
serted ;in allusion to the intention of the Danish (¡overnment to t.ake the 
\dte. 'i'his N'eaniau refiiseil :it first. Imt linally took <;</ rrfcrcndiim. aii'l. on 
Sejnemher 17, forwarded the text of the clause as drawn uj) by the Danish, 
nei^otiators. ('onvinced at last hy the repeated advices of his Minister that 
Deniuark would not yield ;nid that if there were no vote there would he no 
cession. Seward, earlv in ( )ctolier. yielded t.i the Danish insistence tor a ¡ilehis- 
cite so far as to cable the withdniwal of his objection t(^ the \-ote. if the con- 
dition of the vote were not mentioned iu the treaty.' In \ieldin,L: this Seward 
was doubtless inlluenced bv ^■eam,an's account of sentiment in the i-huíds. the 
word received, in ("o])enha^en beiuL; that the peo])lo were well disposed lor 
union .and would ^dve it a ,i,'ood majority, and by the warning that, news of 
the negotiations having leaked out. hrauce was already ])rotestinii ;iiid similar 
protests were expected from liritain.- On recei]it of Seward s tele- 
gram \'e:'-n;m informed t'ouut h'rijs that a ckause would be inserted simplv 
statin- the fact that die Kin.LT would afford the jicople an oiiportunity oi 
frei-l\- expressing; their a])]irobalion ol the cession. 

The treatv draft was sij^ited at (.'oiienha^^'u on ( Vtober _'4. \rticle 1 cou- 
taine.l the clause the Kin-- of Denmark would not exercise any constraint 
over the peojile and would, therefore, as s,,on as iiracticable. uive them an 
opportunitv to ex]iress freely their wishes in re-.ard to the cession. In addi- 
tion to this the option clause retained.'' 

It now rem.ained to take the vote. On October 1. before the tre.aty '.id 

' Dintiimiits, (•ost. p. ''59. 
= Diicr.mriU.';, ¡"''st. \\ '^'?'> 
3 Documcms, t'osi, p. "'''•. 

ST. TI K (MAS AM) ST. loi IX. Wl-.ST IXDII'.S, ISf.S 




ÌK-vn sÌL;nc-il. < Ìl-ikt.-iI Iviia'-l'ilï, iiou ihc 1 );ini-li rniik- ,Miiii-tcr. h:iil -nL;L,a'>icil 
t(i .\lr. ^'^■.•ml,•ln tliat .1^ ,111 .ii^ri'ciiu-nt -t-riiu-il i)ri>lialilc. the Anni in Ikivi-ii- 
niiiit -liMnlil -•■ni! tu the i>lanil> l)"th ^lii|)> nf war and a^uit-, " iiri'iicrl) pru- 
\!ik''l with in^truclinn< ;ui.| ali that ni.ay ho n-ci'til in a->:-l ihu Dani-h 
nii^^iMiitT in hi> work anil tu di whatcxur oKc (.■ircuni-ìanoe-. may ri'i|uin-." ' 
Kcar .\il:niral l'alincr wa-. acr. .nlini^ly nrilcicl tei St. Th. 'ina- with the S:is- 
ijitciuiniiüli. .and tin- Rcvircml (liarle- llawlc> ni .\nl)iini. Xfw ^ nrk. w.i- 
apiinmtfd !iv Sccrctarv Seward tn act a- ci mtiik'Htid rc-])rc-untativc to hcl]) 
-LViuv a ia\iiral)lc dcci-inii. Hi- iii>triK'tinn> were !m lirociU tn the inhahit- 
aiit- the ad\,nila^es '<i the ehan.i;e of -nxerei.i^uty, .11: 1. e>pceially, the -reat 
market that ihe\- wduld f^^ain lor their ])rodiict- as well a- the further ¡ir' i-perity 
whieh would rc-ult from the |iropo,-e(l iia\al .station. In all ihiiiL;-, however, 
he w.i- to Cooperate with the Danish coniniissioiier, deferrinjj; to hi iud,i;ineiit. 
Ilawlev. accompanied \)\ two a.->isl;ints, arrived at the i-land- nil Xo\em- 
her M. d'lie Danish Commissioner arrived some ten days later, and at once 
iinited the .\mcrican aííent> to confer with the Danish oftk-ials. Tlie Danish 
ijovernment was as eaj^er for a favorable vote as was the .\nierican t^dvern- 
meiit. (.'haniherlain Carsten.scn, the commissioner, was frankly un- 
willin^j; to order an election until reasonahly a>sure(i that the vote would he 
favorable. The aj^eiits of both fioveninients were convinced that the mass of 
the inhabitants were for the cession, but that the mercantile interests of St. 
Tiloma- would be a unit ag^ainst it unless they should receive some assurance 
from the riiited States that the stattis of St. Thomas as a free port would be 
l)re-erved. at least for a certain period, ami thus the trade with the other 
i-lands, which was the chief source of their income, remain unhampered. This 
demand of the merchants was ¡iresented to the .\nierican representatives at a 
formal conference convened by the (¡overimr at the rerpie-t of the Dani-h I, om- 
iiiis.-idiHT. it was a demand to which the .\merican ai;ents could only answer 
that it wa- a matter for Conj^ressional action, but that no doubt such action 
would be tieiierous. The Daiii-h Coniniissioiier, however, was unw illiiiL,'' to 
chance a vote on such a vafjue declaration and decided to take adv int.aije of 
the disorf,^anization due to a recent f^reat eanlupiake and tiik'il wave, and to ijo 
himself to \\'ashin,!a;ton ho])in(T to obtain >onie more detlr.ite ¡iromi-e which 
wnulil insure a f.avorable vi.'te. 1 Law ley went with him "H the journey, lîe- 
fore their departure the ])roclamation of the Kinf,^ of I )eiiniark wa- read. 
ac(|uaintitit; the i-lander- with the provisions of the treat\. Dissatisfied with 
its content- the merchant- of St. 'I homa- ,al once forwarded to the ('oiiimi-- 
-ioner a -et of ;iddition;d articles containiii;^ the sti|nil;itions as to trade and 
other matters which they desired.^ The memorial and articles were duly hid 

' Documents, post, p. 957, 
- I loctimciits, fost, p. 971. 


i'i-i:i;is( iTi:s 

lnfi.rf ilu- l'ri.->iil(iii ai \\ :i^liinL;i(iii. and Si'wanl ix'plu-i) that iin Uirtlu-r 
iR'.Ui it iati, ill i. mill III- iiitei\il ii|m iii litliiT w itli tlu- I )ani>li t '■ iiiiim-~i. 'lu-r i ^r the 
liical auth'. ritira. I'hi- rc|)I\ \\a- adilrc-^i'il td ila\\lc\ ami at thi' -ami.' tiiiu' 
hi- ii):---inii \\a- trrmiiiati'il. ilu- l)aiii-li i 'i>iiiiiii--ii urt ha\iii^ inínrüird ilu- 
>tHVc:ary that the jir. i-pfct inr a I'avurahli- \(ii(_' \\a~ ^hihI and that iim t'iirtÌKT 
actidii ¡"riiin Mr. j|a\\lf_\ w a- iR-ic-^arv . 

( Mi t ar-irn-rn- return t.> St. IhciiM- on |aiiiiar\ 1, he at miuo anm mnced 
that the \..te wdilld lie held .in the niiilh. ( »ii tin- f.inrtli the eili/eiN u li. . ha.l 
drawn ii]i thi- ineni.irial were invited t.i I i. ivernnient llnn-e ti. hear the re-iih 
dt hi- \i-'t td W a-hiniitdii. The ( 'dinini--idner e.intined h;ni-ell' td ilu' -late- 
nieiit that " the inh;dr.tant- ni St. Thdina-. Iiy aniiexatidn td tlie I'nite.l State-, 
v\ ill -ernia- , lunt- -nperidr e\e!i l.i lln.-e w hielt ihev have -. > Idn-' eiijdxed." ami 
alter \\an1in14 lliein that i r" the I'nited State- -Imiilil l.n\- a naval liti-e írnni 
-.line dtlirr I'liwer in the W e-t indie- their i)rd-]ieritv wmild he -eridii-!\ ini- 
liaiml. he nrijx-d dn them that wliile d]i|i. i-iiidii t,, aniiexatidn niiyht iireju.liee 
the intiiia' e.iinniereial jid-itidii .if the p.irt. a L;reat inainritN- I'.ir the tran-Ter 
\\. iiil.l reaet l'a\. .raliK . 

Ilie i|i;,> t'nr the I'ranehi-e ha.l heeii .li-eti--e<l liv ^ (.■aman and the 
lianidi t'allinei a- I'ar haek a> July \2 ni the |)re\idii- \ear.' ^■eaman had 
tdld .^ewanl that he w.nild m-i-t that all inrei^ner- ddim'eiled in the i-laii'l 
mirel\ idr lui-iiie-- piir]). >-(.•- -hunlil he e\eliided. ami that all native hdrn -nh- 
ie.t- di lieiimark, white nr hlaek. -h.uild Vdte:---thi- iidt ..nlv lieeaii-e the 
\dtc .if tlie eiil.ireil pedjiK- wauild ]irdli;ihK make ;i fa\.>rahle re-itlt mure eer- 
tain. hnt al-d hecan-e it w.inld hetter eumji.irt with their future a- 
l mud State- eiti/en-. Althnn^h nianhudd -iilt'rat,^' wa- an inn.ivati.iii in 
the i-lan(l<, such were the linai jìnivi-inn-.'- 

1 he!- were .ijieiieil dii Tlmr-day, January ''. at ."< ..'eluek, under the 
-uiier\i-;.in .it a edUtmitU'e df li\e. whd-i' ehairmau wa< a iudiie. .ami in the 
I>re-enee ..i the Dani-h ( dmnii--idner and tw.i nther r.i\al ntfieial-. The 
halldi- were m tud, thn- prevetitini; aii\ -eereev. in. leed, the 
Iiaper i;ive- the it.ame ,aud v.ite df the t'lr.-t man 1.» drop hi< in the urn. 
i--ither the ce--i.iu w.a- reall\ de-ire.l . ir the pe.iple h.a.l lakt-u the ( ■.■1111111- 
-idiier - wdr.l- td, the re-uh w,a- l.O.i'' vnte- fdr ee--idn .an' .mlv 
tweiite-iwd a,L;ain-t it. In St. jdlin the v.ite w.a- Jo.^ in and 11. me in 
dpp..-itidii. .\- ^ eaiiian had ,antiei|>,ited, the eokirr.! \..te, en fraiiehi-i'.l fur 
thi- diea-i.iu, \\,a< \\hdll\- in favor ni the cession.'' 

The w,i- imme.jiaiely ratified hy the Ri--il,a^ an.l -i-iie.l h\ tlu' K'iii.u. 
.\eli..ii v,a- luwer olit.ained in tlie rnilrd State- Senate, lidwever. lu the 


' Pin'.iiunt-, !"'-^l. I'- "?1- 

- .'^I'c I- \tr;irt tniiii .*-! Th.nii.i-. Tii!\ D.jc'iiminl-, /■'i/. p. '^'74. 

■■ I'liciunont-. /-¡^s!. [i. ''7; . 

SI 11 \l< I ll< il.i >^ , Wl'.s 1 l.\l)II>. 1S77 



l'(>ri'ÌL;n Affair-, ( i miiiiiiii'i' ilic irt'ai', i.i^l iim cl'aiii|i;-i' am! in Siimiicr. !!u' 
ilia !)",!!i "! !!v ( DiiiiiiiiU'f, il bail ;i strdii^' ni)])nin.'m. Xi.r .va- there any 
(.•oii-iiileralilc public m'IUÌhh'iU ¡ii ii- i'a\(ir. Tlu- treat\- wa-- laiil nii the • iMe 
iinlil. in 1S/(I, tlu- ( 'uiiimil'-e repi'iUil iinaitiniMU-K a.^ain^t it aii'l ! was 
allowed tn lap-e. \ ^ermi.! 'reaty, ilrawn iip iii !'»iM. faileil nf ratilica; . m li\ 
the LaiK^thiiìL:, Tili- treaty ((Hitaiiied im iiieiitiiiii ni a \ote. ii'ir d'i^i tlie 
final ireaiv. ratilied m l'ii7. hy wliieh the i-IaiuN. ik.w im Indiii.L;' St. I'i-mÌn, 
were lnial!\ eedeii ti> the l'nited State- in eoii-ideratiMit df a paMiUT.t c.i' 
iwellty-live üiÍHÍmh dcllar-, liefere the ratilìeatioii tit ihi- la-t treaty, m re- 
-li"n-e Im a iiM|)iilar ileiiiaiid. a ]ilehi-citi' wa- held in Deiiiiiark cm the -nlijeet 
dl the i'e---hin,' htit, eMiitrar\- tu the rnrrenl ini|ir('---ÌM'i. no i.lìieial Mite wa- 
lielil in the island-, d here were -e\a-ral ma-- nieetnii;- held and infcrinal 
\<ite- taken which, tlidw^h naturally iiu'i .iirln-i\ e, a])¡>ear tu imlicale an luer- 
whelinniL;- -eiitinient fur the ce--;"n. hnt llie 'ml-, lurinal t'\|ire--i(iii "i npinimi 
came ironi the i-land lei^i-latiire-. which had \nied (i\erw helminth fur the 
ce--i(iii and had -ent delegate- tu C n|)enha,í;en tu ¡ire-- the matter. 

'\']\E l'I'RIOn Oh 1S71 1014 
St. r.AkTiiiiijiMicw , \\i:,-i Indu..-, 1S77 



The i-land of St. l'.artlK ilmncw . in the W e-t Indie-, .ai'ter havin- lieen iimler 
i'rencll -()\erei,t;iit\- fnr over a century and a bali, bad been ¡;iveii to S\',eden 
in 17X4 in return for the economie achantado about to acerne to l'r.mce 
from the e-tablishmeiit al ( iothenhnri,' of a warehou-e for l'rench 
ili-e lite i-land, which mea-ured tw eiit\--iìve kilometer- in circumference 
and h:id .a popuL-ition of about J-IOD inhabitant-, proved to be of little ii-e and 
cou-idvr.ible liurden to Sweden, who had no other |io--e--ioim in the ueii^bbor- 
liood. .\ccordint;l\ . the Swedish Cabinet, in 1S77. offered to ci^le the i-l,ind 
back to Irance, to which Power, with colonial po--e--ion- alread\- in the 
immediate \icinity, it would be of coii-iderable value, (in \ii-u-t ID. 1,^77. 
the treaty was sic^'v.ed by tiie two ( ¡o\ernments.- Hv .Xrticle I, the ce-sion w,i- 
made on the coii-ent of the populaii, ,ii of St. lìanbolouiew . The 
Ireiich Muii-ter oi |-orei¡j;n Ntïair-, on pre-eniin;; the re.a-on-, f,ir the treatv 
to the ( 'hamber. on .\o\einber IJ. altribiued the initiation of thi- coiiiIíumu to 
the Swedi-h (ioveniment. It wa-. be -aid, lio\\t.\er, ,a ilemand " loo miudi m 

' Mie WW Daiii-li c-t.|i-litntinii lia.l d^'ulilol the i-lrrti.riili- l.y i-nlr:iiuln-iiiu uotimi all'I 
(l.inir-tii- -. r\anl-. and rcducitiii llu- aye ro|iiirciiient fur clcitof;. Owint; t'< tlii- there 
af'i-r a Mininu'iit iliat tlif dt'l l'arliaiimit ua.s not '■uiiinctciit to pa-s on tliu <iiK.stii.ii. 

- 1 lociiinoiil-. rt'ft. ]<■ ''"". 



l'I iiiliinii!t\- with (lur -i-iiuiiiriit anil a'IIi the nilc^ "i oui" ¡uihhc law lur u-- {n 
iiiaki' am i ilijcclii Jii--." Siuh. ¡iiik'cil. iiia\ ha\<' Ijcl-ii it> pariiita.m-, and yet 
tin- thiiiiuhl -iii;,L;r^N ÍI--1.-IÍ :hat ihr \"\<: "Í 1S7S in St. Harth^lcnicw. like the 
Xdtriif ISiiS in till- l»aii;-h JManii-, ¡iri ilialiK >i;,''n!!ic^ the de-ire nf a I'nwer, 
reeeiith Iiei'eit di it-- terriiiir\ li\ l'rii~--iaii a^<;re^>ii ni. tu puini mit the ueak- 
iif" 111' iht- \iitiir'- mie 1)\ ni-JMini; n]Min the xalidity di the priiuijile ui ~elt- 
deierniinatii'n in niternatÌMnal law. 

It hail liecii agreed that while the terni> ni the jirdtdCul whirh wa-- tu .--ettle 
he >e\eral det.nU .if the iraii-íer were liemi;' d]-en---ed the \iite -huiild he 

taken. Thi- wa- dune under iini\er-al iiianh 1 :--ntl'ra.i;e ni the Swedi>h eiti- 

/eii- nf the i-land.' \hhiiiij.dl the\ had heeii under .^wedi-h >i i\erei^nt\" liir 
a eeiitur\. there liad lieeii |)raeiiea!ly nn edlnni/alii ai and the peuple had re- 
tained their i-'reiieh en-tdiii- and lansiiiai^a'. The re--nlt nf the plelti.-cite, whiedi 
<;a\e ihri-e Inindred and tift\- vn'''-- I'nr iiiiinn and niily mie a,^MÌn-t, <icea-.inned 
Ull -urpri-e.- The pri iti id il, wiiich wa-i imi cmicluded tinti! after the plel)i.>citc. 
eniitained a miiermi- pinxi-imi allnwin:; tlm-e wi-hiiii; tu retain their Swetli'-h 
citi.-'en-hip In dii -u withmii le iil; the i-land, unie-- tlie\ -limili! lieemiie a 
tuenace ti i ])nlilie nrder 

fin January _'_', 1S7S. tlie re-i ilutii in approviii^f tlie treaty was adopted !i\' 
tile iM-eiieli ( Tanner nf l)'pulie-. Deputy I.aea-t ide in -ecmulin^' it referred 
tn the nri^iiial autneratie cessini: tn Sweden with the eniiiinent. '" inday, thank 
(mil, piihlic i-".urn|)ean law i- i^reatlv ehaiiL;ed in thi- re--])eet ; the retrocc--sioii 
, . . has lini heeii -nliniitted tn \iiu until after a -nlenin and free vntc, ;i rea! 
plelii-i'ile nf the iiihaliit.ant-." \iintlier deputx, frniii hi- piare, added, " W'e 
sh.all Mite fnr it the innre willin^lv ,i- il ren iLTlii/e- tlie ridili ni plehi -cite in its 
full e\teiit," '' ;iiiil with a vote nf 42.^ tn S, tlie ("liamlier adnpted the resnlutinn. 

l'ili TmvS-NkIi \ ()ll-llnN, l,S,S,v 

Tlie T;ii-na- Arii'.i i|ue-iinii d.iti - fmni ihe War ni ilie l'anlie, whieli liei:;;in 
in 1S7". iKlweeii t lide nii ihe nn,' pari, .uni l'.nliM.i ,iiid l'ciu mi the nlher, 
and wa- leriuiu.Uid li\ the Tre.ilv ni \iu-nu. in 1,*<S.^ 

I 'mi in^ ihe W ,11 ( hile h, id m eilpied Uní nu h ,dl the I'mllX i,-|U llttnr;il. Imi ,ll-n 

the three -mulurii i' httnral prnvuiee- ni l'.ir.ip.uà, rieh in niirate-- 

'\ .\! .Maiirtii,-», '/Vi,- ('».■.Wimi ,•! tli.- J\hiii. Ir.ui-l.iteil liy I'. .\. V-n-\. \>. J4J. 
f|iiotii* extract* frrini corri' -pondcnce between the .Swedish ami IVeiich Governments, 
«•hiiwiiitr that the latter had raised the rinestion whether foreiRn residente niiisht \i>tc am] 
that the .Swedish Ginemnii tit Imd answered mie>|nivocally in the ncyatiM 

'•'The tnhic Riven m Documents, ."híí. p. OX,!, noti-, nivi- llu- iimiiiIh r t inulis over 
l-l years of aye as (d". 

'Iranstation from .IiiiiiiI.'a iUi .S'i'iiiii if ,!,■ hi llmnilnc i/,-.ï Pi-puli's. Session urdiiwire 
de isr«, vol, I. p. l.'il. 

! i 




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rf/r/:/ro^/o prfîw/vo cr.o//.'/'/i chile rt^ ri ¡RAfADO nf a^co, 


lic liV.'^. MM. I. 1' 1.^1 

rill". 'lArx \-A!,;uA ( iri's 11' ix, iss,>— 

;iiii| miaii'!. ainl iIk' -miitcc ot uin-i ¡,i \hv itxcimu' oí l'rru. aiiil I ;uii:i ai'.'l 
Arua. w liH-h ci iiitaiiicij tliL' iiii]ii iriant ])i .n oí Arica. lA lik- l'rcatx "Í Víumu. 

1 V'fu ix-iK'! I ar.ipaca i>iuri,L;lii i" (Inic. Slir ilal imi, lii iw l-\ i-r. ccilc i!k- 
|iri '\ iiu'i.'^ 'li l'aciia anil Arua. liiit a;;v(.'(.-il thai ilu'\ ^linulil rciiiaiii m tin/ p"-- 
Ni'^^iMii Ml" I 'liiK-, aiiil -iilijcrt In i liiliaii Ia\\^ aiul amlinriiy f'T u■\^ \oar-; at 
llu' r\|iirai !i 'li ni ilii-. term a plc'ii^i :k' \\a> tn (k'liili.' wlii'lliiT "V imt the prnx- 
iiici'- ^iionld " miiaiii liiialiv uii<Irr ¡lu" di ■iiini:' 'ii aiiij m )\crri;4iH\- <il ( hik'. :ir 
iMtiiiir.u' In filiali a pari ni rrnu'aii U'rritnr\." llu- deiaiU ni" llii- pU'lii-ciiL' 
a~ 'Ai'll .1^ ni' tlic pay:in-iu ni ihc iiii niiüii'ii dnlLir^ winli iIk- wiiiikt \\a~ in 
iiiaki.' n\ir 1,1 the ln-(.T, Wire in Ipc c>ta!ili-lK-(l li\ a -pccial prninml.' 

\-. tlu- ^'ih-ciiik-nt rniiirn\ t-r^\ Iiini^ nii ilir ^ÌL^aiitu'aiua' ami inU'rpiTlatinii 
i<\ ihi^ .irliili'. 11 Is iiin.-rc->tiiii; tn trace i;^ nrij.;iii, \\hni\rr liad lniii llu- 
aLiLjre^-nr in the war,-- ami il i- a ¡mini >tiil in di-puic- it -nmi heiaiiu- 
e\ii!i'iil thai < lille wniild he the \ letnr. In nider In pre\eiil an niiiieee^-ar} 
prnlniiLialinii n t" lin^tdilies, Tre-ideiil lla\es niieied ihe inedialinii nf ihe 
I lilted State- w hull wa^ accepted in < »ctnlier, ISSn, .-md t lie ne^niial imi, i\ere 
held nil hnard ;lie / . -S. .V, / ,;(7nírc(í)í,'M. The nu'ilialinii w a- iin-iicce-^nii. 
( hile. alread\ in ncciipatinii ,ii' 'rarajiaca. Tacna, and \rica, iii-i-teil nii al>-n 
lute ce~-'nii ni ihe lir^l ]irn\ince. and ncc ip.iiinn ,,\ the niher- until pea^'e 
^Imnhl he ~ii;iied. a> ^ecnriu l"nr indeitinilx. and I'eni .ih^nhueiy rel'n-ed llie-e 
cniidilinli-- nr aiu ce---inn Ml" lerrilnrx whalexcr When hn-iilitie- were re- 
-Mined. (lille nccii]iied Peru, ;irre>led i aldeii'ii, ihe I're-iilenl, inr al'ei^ed 
rl't'nrt^ l.i re\i\e I' re~i-I,aiici\ and exiledi him Im t hile. I'rt--iden! 

\rlliur llureiipnii renewed the elinrl- ni the I leled St, ile- In hriii:; .ahnin an 
;ii;reeineiil. The I'.laine- I i e-dl .Mi^-imi v\,i- in-iructed In e\ert it- ell..n- 
tM indiue I'eru in cniicede a -iiilahle iiiniiet;ir\ indeninily and In |,erMiade 
('hile In he cniiiriil with tili- and tn relimnu-li her claim in aii\ ce--ÍMii ni 
terninrx. I hi- elïnrl ,al niedialinii liein^ aNn itli-ilcce--iul, in lune, IS'^.v ,i 
tlur.l allempt wa- inaile In eiiil Im-lihiie- ami ihe I'liiled ,Sl,ite- .Mim-Ier- .it 
l.iin.a .nul al ^aníiatin we;e iiistnicled hv .Seeret.iry hrelin^hnx -eii '-' in sa\e in 
l'"r!i a- miuli 'li her linee ¡irnvmce- under nccupaliMii ;i- wa- ]iM--ilile ni 'he 
ire;U\ >i\ peace.' 

.Mr. I.n;^ail, I'lliled .'^lale- Mnii-lei In I hile. ]ir 'Ceeded a'iMrdm-lx Innptii 
iu'(.;iitiatinn- with Seimr Mditnale, (idean Secreiar\ inr hircauin \'i,iir- 
;ind witli the captive i'eni\i,iii I 're-id< lit. ( aldermi. I .ni;,in siiliiiiiiied \ari- 
(iii^ I'uriiial pidpii-itinn-, -.nine ni In- nwii ijevi-in^, in Imtli ])ariii'N. ( )| iIk'm' 
pn>i).isitii>iis. wliicli iiulnded arliitralimi, limited i>ccti|iaiii>ii. >alo, and division 
i>f the two pr<)\iiices, one, wlndi w.i- mÍ i liilean orinili and wliicli \va< |uit intu 

> Triaty of Ancnii. .Nrliclc X Ui «1111)0111*, f>oit. p. 992. 

.^i-crctiiry of Stal>- iiiuliT rresidcnt Artlmr. 
1 Mr. I"rtiinRhiiyscn t.i Mr I ogan. June 26. 1882. r)iK-unieiii "«.r 


I'l.i-.i'.i^c ir 

furnial Ava\k- l.v l.-i;an, ua^ in c-ciko tliat a.lnpicd m the Trcatv ,.I Ano.n. 
with i!k' .Mürrciuv that the mihfin la-aipatinii ,,t ( Itile ua-~ to he K.r a live. 
a„,l ii,,t a ten year jRrio.!, Thi^ prupoMtim,. a^ udl a^ the oihcr^. ua> 
■iii^eil liv I'ahk-ruii. Citile, liitdiiti;- it inii»--]!) 


e to make an a.ureeiiieiil witli 
fahlei-nii then eniiceive.! the plan nf inv the ottice ut' ^'re^il!e^t oi 
IVni the remvian (.ruerai l.uU-ia^. uh- ha.l a e. m^iderahle hackm- iti Peru 
,rnm thn-e «ho ,le-ire.l ¡^eaec. I'.elote ^upplyini; liim \sith anii>. h,,wever.' 
,he rhileaii ( ,. .veruineut ^ecure.l an a-i-eeiiieut inmi him a> m 1 acua and 
\riea. on the hue- ..1 the one Mihmitted hy I.o-an to CaUleron and uhich i^ 
-nl,.iantiallv the .ame a^ that e:nh,..lie(l later in the Treatv cil' Anam.^ 

i,de-ia. lormed h,> -ovemmenl m Au^i.^t, ISS.v and it havm- l.eei, duly 
reco.rni/ed In Chile, the Treatv of Ane.-u wa~ M-ued at 1-ima on ( k'toher _'0. 
ISS.r. ,and ratilie.ation. uere exchati.ued ou March .'S. 1SS4. l-n-m liohvia. 
(hile ohtamed a truee a.^reemeut .i^ivin- mderiuite oecnpation oi the líolnuau 
littoral,' and thu^ ae(iiiired po-e-wm of a eoniimiou- eoa^t hue to the north- 
ern lioiiuilar^ ot \riea. 

The Tre-ilv oi \neou, i'l ^tipulaliuu ,i i>lehi^eite at the eu,i oi the teu-year 
p,nod had Mated that a >pee,al protocol .hould e^ahli-h the lorm m whieh 
ihe ,,lehi~ei!e diould t.ake i.laee and the eouditio,;, and i-eiiod^ oi payment ot 
,,„, „„ „„,l,„u d.illar- uhuh w.a. to he paid hv the country remaimu,^" nt po^- 
,,,.iou of Tacua and Anca. The plehi^eitary clause ,u the I reatv oi \ucou 
.,,Hs certamlv not due to the idea that there ua. a,u apprec.ahle doire lor 
uiuexatio,, u, the inhahitattt^ at that time. The pr,.MUce- had ttever 
'„...,1 Chilean nor were the fhileau ,unu.i,'raut>. thou.^h numerous, m .ttlticieut 
,„„„,„.r. ,o -uu,e-t a clo.e vote The ceUMi, o, 1S7.>. the la^t o.ncial ce-wi^ 
„re.ion. ,o ,he war, ,.ut. .he IVrnviau popularon a, xvh-le tne t hileau 
re-i.leut. unmhered '».i.fU.' The tir^t „e;;otiatioiw, alter tne treatv wa~ 
.i„,K.d were oecupied w „h the IVruvia. otter lo hvpothc.atc the t mlean 
..,a,m^ hv mean, o, tlu cuMom^ re,eipt~ o, the por, o, \r,ca. . hile, ou the 
„,,,„„1 ,l,:u -he ua. uuwillm, «o surrender her expeCati, .n o, p,,.M..Mou o, 
The provi.tce. refn-ed th.^ '^ Thereupon a .ene. of eon, ere ucc, kuowu a- 
,,,, |,„H.uv-\ lal Solar ue,o„a„..n.. followed. ,..r the dr.iwm, up o, the -pe- 
, ,„.r „> tlu. r.u.ol S,a,., Mrn.ter ,. IVrn. r, Mr I n l.n.l.n -, n. c^■..^..■ -^ 1S>*J. 

- Dm-utiiiiifi. fiìst. ,'. ''"1 
■' The treaty «if truer w 

;,,l,v,:, u.„ Mum.l ..„ \,.nl 4. 1SS4 >/„'.• f\,^. 

,, .,„7. TI,., treaty nf ,,oac. .u,n. , .^mom. wa. M.n.M Mas 1, . 

"\yiZ/L.U... ne Quesúon ,./ ,/„• /WiÄc, F-mlish clition hy K .V IV«. P 14S^ 

• r„r the .nL.otiati..n5 írm« lí<".' WKI. «t Minister,. Je -, •;.,.,..».-., e^fer.nd,l I .ru 

, /„;.,. r' ., a,es,i,.„ rae.., y Anea, aïs- htRañ,. TUe Taeua a.J Anea QucsUo,,. 

,,8^ .- a-' 1'"-"-' '•'■ '"" .'-/.-'' ViCnr \,. It-I e-n.l... V ,„,W,„ .-,.,■.</ 

ii'H Citile. 

11-; I Al .\ X-AKKA ( iri-;S IK ).\. iss,^- 

15'> pn.t.H-.l TIk- .|tR-li..n ,,i tin- an-pia's tin.k-r uiiicli the i)k-l,isnir .h,,;il,l 
\k- lu'lfl «a- \hv tii-^i t.. arise. IVrii damiol that ihi- treaty uas -n uonlcl a^ 
tn indicale ihat ( hile^ title tn ,,eeii|iati(iii Au<uU\ expire ten \ear-. i-r,.ni the dale 
ft ratilieati.m. iliat -'w ¡.r.^vniee-, should then ret,.rn \n the aiuhi.niv of I Vru 
as the lei;itiniaie -mn , rei,t,Mit y, and that the ¡ilehiM'ite slmuld llieii I,e hel.l nnder 
i'eriivian aiisjiiees. t hile, deiiNin- the i)n.|)riet\ nf this mterj. retali, in of the 
treaty, insisted that, aeoinliny i,, )i, terms, her . H-eiii.;itii .n was i,, ee.ise (.nly 
alter .an nnia\ Mialjle voji.. In.],! imdcr her i.wn anspiees. \. a e. unpn mn'se, 
l'erti'ered U< ailow the pleLi-eite te. lie held nnder the aiispia-, ,,|- ;, 
pnwer. This I lille rei;i-ed.' i'ern h,is r..minned sjiue this date t.i pr.ip.ise 
nentra! .nispiees as ,a s,,liui,,n .md (hue held e.nisisit-ntlv tn her first 

I he deterniin.atioii .if the prnjier eleet.iral <|iialitlc-aiiiM,s wa- fnmi the first 
aihitlur .hllieithy. IVrii h.ail asserted .inl_\ th.ise l'enivians l„,in ..r .l.i, i- 
eile.l m the pr.ivmees sli,,ni,l vnte in the |ilel>:scite. ( hile elainie.l imi ..nie 
slii.ul.l all ( liilean as well ;i. I' resi.K-nls he all. .\\ e.l t.i v.ile, lint .iK.. all 
resident I. .rei-ner-. As n.i a.Lireeinent I.,- iv.uile.l the l'ern\i;in I'.ireiun 
Minister pmp. .se.l that the jir. .Mines he divide.l int.. /.mes. earh e. .initrv t.. 
estalilisji the elect. .ral (|nalilieati. uis its res|)eetive / This pLui fai'- 
in.i;, he ¡ir. .p. i-ed arliitratn m . .n the .piestMii .if elect, (piahlicui. .lis. a> wfl! 
as .,1 the ;nisp;ces nn.ier win. h the \ \\,is t.. lie taken, li;it with..m success. 
■| he Jiniene/A lal ."s.Tir pr..|..c..l w ,i, |¡ii,ill\ s|n|H>,l, i,. the nuleliiiile pnrp.irl 
that the pleliiscite sli,„;ld he hel.l nn.ier th.ise c. , uditi, .ih ,,f rc.-'pr. .I'ltx which 
l.ith },^(ivernnients sh,,ul.l .k-ein necess;n-\ in , .rder t.. iilit,iiii ,111 hmiest elect!. .11. 
the iia\ineiit ..f the in.leiniiit\ t.. he li\ piiMic' Whichever cmintrx 
sh.inld l.i-e the ]ikl)isviie slmnl.l li,i\e the nulit t.. rect!f\ its frmitier li\ ;i.l- 
vancin.L; t.. a certain piiinl. \\\ the time the pi. it.ic .1 h.a.l heen sioiu'.l. h..wi\er, 
tile ( hilean ;i'liniiiistr;iti. 'ii li.i.l . hanj^cl, an.l the ]ir..¡i.. ..I ii,.i r.itilied, 
'Ihe IVnivian pn.pi.sal ina. le ..11 lcl.riiar\ _',\ IS'4, in el.ah. .r.iii. iii ..f the 
| ;iii.| pr.iN hIiiil; ihal the l'iecln.n he 1111. 1er ,1 niixe.l c. .minis, 1. m ,if .nu- 
< Inle.-in. .'iie reriui.m, .in.! ,1 ihir.l memher app.nnted li\ a I'.iwer, aiul 
•hat .ill I 'iT'.i\ Mils ,111,1 ' hilean- "wv _M ..r in.irrie.l, and .1. tii.ilA resident m 
the pmv mee-, -¡i cikl \ me, .lid n..t meet with I hue's fav,.r. 1 hile |i.irtunl,irK 
• ilijecte.l t.. the pri.p.ised exchisi.m vntin.i^ ..f ail armed forces ami piihiu ;md to the re. ¡mreiiuni ..i .1 iw.. \e;irs' res;. lei, re. as practicaliv ex- 
cluding ail ( hile.ills. The ten \e,ir perio.l pr. .\i.le.l in tin- h.i.l ii.i,\ 

' lÍKiiñii, p. 85: .1/<iuMi(n. p, 181, 

• Praflior-F.'rtiTc, article in AVr »,• dr ./i-,.t/ hiti'rndtionn! • 
\i<\. ¿y. l.'W, p, fi60. Maurtiiii. p. 182, <:. s tluit tin prc.|Kisal came first from Chile aivl 
tlist thf IVriuiaii rmiRrf« repiuliatcd it. 

•' Diiciiments, foit, p. W5. 

1,,0 I'l.KlUMlTKS After N.irnm. new ,,n.,H.-.aK i^ ,liv.,l. th. tuTiiory ium /> .n.>. * hile 
,, ,1„. ,„,;„, n, -Ik. „.,. .tMtu.n. a-li-tcl the ,.,.lu> ,,, ,n.;-tiH^ upun an aL^rcc- 
,„,m a- tM ,!u- .iK-ih-.l ana ^narantce <.i paNnim, ..f ihe ■.n.k-n,nn> oi u-n 
„„lln.n. a. Mu- ..n sNlnch -l.n^,..,, ua, Winv. ,1k- actual^ n, 

llu- i.lrln-i-ilr -hnuM Ik- .K-tcrnr.n 

r<l. Tlu-rc í.iIImucI K-n'4tli> m-^. aiaiiun^ '-n 

the snhicct ,.. ^narant.c. n,>K- ,,n.u-,.n,, a u-ar that IVn. u,m.,l In- nnal.u- 
t,,,,av tlu- ,:„k-n,n>tx -luuiM the x-.t. 1.- in Ikt iav,>r---a u-av -,.nu-uhal jn-f- 
n,..l Kv tlK- inianaal ..n.ln.un ^n IVrn and l,y ,1k- fart il,al I htle ha,! 
,l,,,nu.,l IV,-a ..f IK-,- n.lK-^t ,.n,vnKc. Ta,-a,.u-a. l,y tlu- hvaty m \no,„ ^ - 
,„.1 ,„-,.iH.Mn, ,ha, ,lK- ,n,.,K-y a,„nld he paM ,.,-aetu-all> tnnne.hately ..n ,he 
,,Ki„„ ,,,- Ik- vnie. I'e,-n aru„e,l ,ha, a^ I h'le «a> ,n ¡....e-^a,,, m 
,lu- t«..>e^ ^k- heM Mitheie,,, -nannUee. Th,- rWuv .le.lare.l f . he 

nKu-eep.ahU-: u-r d:\ the in,-:he,- |,n,i,....l .., ^„annUee hy a ,,en 
,.„ the ^alt ,nMn.,,M,!x ^ati^A hev. The «ine-t.on .■: uhethe,' ..f im, the .li^lVK-t 
,,, ■r;,,;„a ua^ in-:.i.erlv nu-hale.l in the i„-,.^i,K-e ■>{ Taena funhe,- e. .ntuheale.l 
,h, -.IV-,^,- \leanuh,le, a -eei'el ,,-ea,\ ,le!-nii,;iK; I'^^ntier^ ha.l heen ne^m,- 
;„e.l helueen Unie an,l l^.hvia. \ ^f-in ,,f l.r,„e~, v,a. ar..n-e,l u, I V,',, 
,1,,,, ,h. ,e,-,n. heea„K kn..un, an.l iV,-u ;ea,-ne.l ,ha, ( h,le :„ ,-e,-.,rn l.-f a 
,„-,,n„^e ..Í live nnllaa, d.^lla,- ha,l ee,le.l Taena- \,-,ea ,o l;..hN,a ,n ea~e the 

,,,,„ ~h..nhl he lav-a'ahle. a,.! ha,l ,,f.,n>e.l t^. .1^ all n, her ,..uer, eUher 

'e,.ara,eh or t..uether llnMvia. h;an, linai ,. .--e^-f .n. hurther, ^k; 

1,,W ,n-.,n,.-a .,,.,-,,ht t. i;nl:ua a IKU-, M the aisu,,ea te,-,at..,-> the ( .p- n^ 

\„,; .l.ether .r n. . the ,lel.,M-ne ^h^nM he ,av,„-ahle.> Al,n,n„h ,he 
M■eat^' la.le-l ■., ,-ati,u-at a ,n. ,.^ neu^ ..,a.,. .n th, an ,tnere^t,n, h,h, ^n 

I Inleaii .liiilnniaex . 

|„ ,1k- ,K.-..t,at ..n. I'rnn, IS''? „. ISWS ,1h l hilean Mn,>Ier ^leee^Mvelv 
,,,,,,.,..e,l thR-e -ohninn^: the llr^t. that ( h^ie -hnnhl hn> the ,„-.,sn,ees ..n,- 
' ,„l!, ■ ,lK- .eenn.l. that I V,a, ^hnnl.l take Taena. au.l Chtle. Anea, w,th.,,,t 
„vkn.tntv ana, la^tlv. tha, ea.h e^nntrv .hnukl aavanee „^ ,.-.U,er. !Vr„ tn 
,-,,^,,, ,,,„1 rink- ,n \ ,nu-, ,he i,leh,~ene ,n ke hekl n, ,he n,ten„ea,ate area. 
111. lV,-UMan .4,Ae,-nn,enl ,-elu^ea ea.l, -TlVr ,n mm, ,1,1.1 inM^tea n„ ah.a-n.^ 
l,v ,lu- featv .tipnlataaiv In e, ,n-e,|nenee ,., the IVruMa,i ^tana. a,~eu^^,..n 
,.,:.,„„ cenieia-a . .> the ha^-^ ni ,he ¡.lehi-eite. ana it ua^ re^nUea that tne^e 
a"..i,ia he m the i^.lk.uni- nraer: eleen.iai .p'alitieatinn- .'lien nr 
M-rrel hak.f an-l'K-e-; at.! tin-,t,..n> ai.l L;na,-,,n,ee .,l the n,aenltnl^. 
n„k. ,„s,Mea that ,ai inhahnan,. „-ivs^vtue ,., „alaoiahtv, ^h^nM v. .te a,.! 
,lnt tlie lull.-t -h..nia he iVr,, enntenaea that ,.uU na„ve. h, „„ in t Ik- 
u,■nt..r^ ..r t-e-.k-n, there .hunkl W ^'ivet, the halln, ana that the v.„e ^h,.nia 
i„, ,,,,„ V,. o ,n' I he reaehea > ■„ the-e ,...,nt~ ,n,a m the o.nven- 

1 DociiiiKM-.ti, h'st. 1' ''"■ 

Till". TArX A- \Ki(\ ni-i'>Tl< ix, jsW- 


tioii. calk'il tlu- " l'.iilin.yliur-t-i„it(irrt' I'rdti n. >1." wliirli \\a- luially >it;iK'il. thf 
(|iu--tinn^ I'f (.-lecinral iiiialilualii 'U^ and the -(.\Tot iiallni w cro ^iilmiiucil [" tlu.' 
arliitrann'iii at Spain. Ilu' ]ir(it''C(il. h^wi-wr. (K-tcrnuiicil iiutrÌL;lit that the 
ati-|iici.'-. -liiiiiM lif a (l)rccti\i- Cdnnnittuf nt thrcu. urn.' r(.-|irc'^ciitiiii; IV-ni. une 
». h lie. and tin.- third niiinln-r rc|iri.--i-nliii.i:- Spain, 'ihr dt-taiK <ii the olertinn 
inaehiniTX' and the l'uiidiiinn ni the payinent dl' the indemnity were aKn ^et- 
tleil.' rill- |irc>t(HMl, fdnna'iy -i.^ned li\ the tw" pleniimtciitiarie-. \\a- -iili- 
niilled t(i their re-peeti\e L;n\ eminent-. it \\a- ratified 1)\ the l'eni\iaii I mi- 
,i;re--, in whieh any uppM-itinn \\a> -ileiu'eil li\ the aruninent that the Schle-.\iu 
tia-id imi-t nut he repeated: and it wa- aKo ratilied hy the ( hilean .^enate. 
whiih w a- then appreiien-i\ e I li war with \ri;(iitina. hut liie ( 'hilean (hamlier. 
after having;' ap|)rd\-ed it in priiri|ile. withheld it~ -anctidn nii ImdiiiL; the 
dit't'ereiice- witli Xr^entma -etileil. and, in l''(»i. relnnied the piVotm-nl with a 
reei rintnendatiiin tliat the pnint- there lel't tu an arliiiratdr he >ettled direetl}' 
li\- the two i;. i\eriitnenis and that lU'W dipldiiiatie ])rMeeedinL;-- lie undertaken 
fnr tile I'nllilment m' tiie tliird clause nl the Treaty u\ .Nnciai '- 

Iripin tili- lime the ( lliliaiiizin;;- (it' the l '. " pri)\ iiu-i.'-. wliicii had lieeii ^I'liii; 
nil I'nr \ear-. appear- t<i ha\e lieeume an aeli\e poliey. I'iie -elini .U. tn wliuli 
tile Permian 'nivernmenl liaii (■• iiitinneil it- -nji|>iirt. were elc-ed. teaehiiiL; "i 
Term ian hi-tdrv wa- fnrhidden, the pnlpit riiid pre-- were .L;aL;L:ed. I'enuian 
lai Hirer- were luiyrntted and there wa- enti-Iant interierence in enmnuMiial 
matter-.' i'inalK-, in l''(il, diplnmatic relation- were lirnl^en liv I'erii, wim 
recalled iier mini-ter and addre--ecl in tile tnreif^n eliaiu'elidrie- a imte plaeini; 
on Ciiiic tile iiiirden df ¡ailnre to I'nltiii her treats' niiÜLTatidn-.' Reiatinn^ 
were re-timed -iidrtlv. Imt the exeiian^e i>\ ndte< df l'K)5 and 1''<'X were a- 
futile a- e\'er. fdr ,!ie (lue-tidii df an-pice- and electoral i|naiit'katidi!- were 
•itili in-, liiiiile. ( 'iiiie ci iiitimu'd I' > ¡n-i-t tiiat tiie pieiii-cite -lii mid iie lield under 
her dwn anthnrity. witii tiie aid of i'ernviaii cdrmiii--idner-. and that all in- 
Iialiitaiit- wild had lucd m th.e ]irdviiue< fdi a cert.'iin time, whetiier citi/eii- 
nr iidt, -liditld Mite. Xdt diily were tiie-e Cdiiilitidn-. -till nn-ati-fartdr\ t.i 
I'eni, Inn a tre-ii L^rn'xance wa- ]ire-ented Iw the new iidniiil ir\ treatx helween 
' hiK' and i'ldhA'ia. -iL;ned dn Se])lenilier J.i. l''i'J. w ri'ii. in delinin^ the 
ÌMiiiii(lar\ line !iet'>\een tlie two cnmitrie-. treated 'i'.ii'iia and \rua a- an 
inieirral |iart ni I Inle. and wliiili further pruxided fur the CdH-iriKtidn >.f a 

' niic'.iiiuiits. ii.i-t. ]i. Inno. 

- Muiirluil, ]i. J"8. 

••'//■I,/. 11. _'5lV it is vai.l tluit tlii- |„i-n^!ti..ii li,,- ri-ullr.l in tin .■niij!.i!|.,n m' -.mie 
IS, (Hill faiiiilir- to I'rrii. 

'ft'. Ilu .lu-ilar n.'lt to tlie I'lTiiviaii r. prfscntati\f- in l.iriinii cuiiiitrics. imlilisliH 
in I'tiyli-li ill |,ani]ilil.t f.irni by the Peruvian Dep.irlnicnt of Inrcinn Affairs, Novi-nilicr 
.1. I'liiii 


i 'i,i:iii SC I ii-.s 

r;i!lua\ irMH, \riia t.. I.a i ',1/ \-am.! ilir,r -, i ,,>■ 1 ,, 

vaii «..Ann.nrni ,,n,ir.tol ,m ihr .prati,! ihat Ch,],. ua. ,„,t du- .-nm-n 
'■nl nuMvly the ..v„,.ant ..f ihr lu,. ,,r,,vinu-v' T,, thi, ( hik. a,,. u eroi th"^,! 
\nu-h- Ò ,,i the lreat> ,,| \„om. a-.le,l U, (Inle free aii,l ah^.hile ^,Acr- 

eiLMitx ,,\rr ih,' pr,,\iiia-, uilh,int anv Hniitaii. 

n -a\c thai ci the ])uriii,l ,it" 

'"'■"■""- IVrn rq.hol hv relVrnn- t,", the l'.nhvtaii reo.o,„ti,m ,,{ her n\;ht>- 
-^^•'- lania aii,l \rua ;n the h,.iin,lary treatv l^'tweeii iVrii and i;, .lixia" , ,1 
Septeiiiher, l"l)_'.- 

\M,le in,n, lite exehatt^e ,,f vieu . re;;ar,H,t^ the IVntvtat, pmteM the 
.ie,^..t>at„„t. ,,,■ IWM5 att,! l'»..N uetv o.nceme.i utih aitentpts l,v ihtle „,\„h- 
MUme a e.,tt,ttierc,al a.i^feentem l,.r the v,,te. at„l. thi, tatht.,. a pr,,,,n,al 1. ,r 
■■'1' maaa.e,! :tt,leitttmy t,, he |,ai,l l,y the untiter mi' the ¡ilehi^cite. Thefe 
"a. aN,, a ,letaile,l ,!i,cu~.i,,tt ,,i- the i),.Mii.,it ,,t the i.\,, n.iintrie. ,.it the 
tiiatier III att-iiue- and elect, irai ,|italitìeati,>ii~. 

It i^ at liti. ,,eri,i,l that .ve fin,! l'ur the ùv< the ar-.ttneiii Mtiee he- 
^-nie the ii,,.,latt,ental ,i,.e ,,i the Chilean ea^e ; iiamelv. that ,,i .im„late<I 
ve><i,itt. IliN iit-eni,i;is an, I iiiteresttitu- ar-nntent i^ h, the etïect that, as in 
all the hiM.ineai ea>e. ,.t plehtvote- the v,ite has -,.ne f,ir the annexini; i'uwer, 
the Mipnlatiiin t,.r a plehi^eite in the dVeaty ,,|- Ancm \va, nn,jerst,„id !,y l„ith 
parties 1,1 he nterelv a el,iak tor a definite ce> and that therefore the plebis- 
cite ditoni,! either ti,,t he hel,l .ir, il held. >h,inl,i lie -urrounded hy such c,indi- 
II, m- that the \,ite Would surely .lto for Chile as the anne\itt<,r Power.'' To 
-npiiort this arL;itinent two ca.-es are eite,l, those of Savoy and Sclileswi«^ : It 
I- -eareelv -nrprisini: 'liai fern ohjects to the attempt to ilraw analii.tjies tmtn 
ea~i'~ ,litlenii- -, 1 widels fnun the one tinder ,li-eiis,i,in. The ar<,ninient ,if the 
-iinnlated ce-ioii uould, t.i an American, apjiear to lie thrown ,nit liv the fact 
thai Ihe .\nierican Minister to Chile was so intimately concerned in its incijii- 
eiicv ;iiiil. iiidecl. there can he (|ii,ite,l conteinp,irary statements of hoth Xovoa 
an,l Aldnn.ite M the purport that the proposal was genuine.' Chile sh,i\\ed 
.irther iiit;eniiit\ m the ar-iinient which slu- advance,l for .allowinii 

' l"-r Ih. lU'u.ili.itiniis ir,,„, lOili, t,. I<)(1S. M-o n.i.-niiuMits. f-'t. m MI J ,-l ao/. 

- Uvcaw],^. !■■. 1:, .-Ml,! 1,. k.„,,M!t. A'.vk.'Í/ inU-rmilunuil des íoii/.-.í ,ìi, W'«- s,,-,-/,-. 
I^ 4J(,: tr,in~!;il,,.ii in . lu;,-,/, ,iii J.nirnal of ¡ntrriuiliiiuil /.„re. Vii/'/i.Vm.-iii, ■,,i|. .5. ,, .ÎSI, 

■>>■,■ Xntr ,,| th, Cliilcui MiiiistiT. March l.i. I'Hi;. n,Hinin-nts. /^.i.f/, p. I014, (f 
.-il-,. '"..f,-,.; „.,•„„.., ,; /„ „,,,„ ,/,,/ /,■,.,-„,,, sr Sr.'a'ir. ,/,■ ,S' ,/,■ M.,y,< ,/,• ;.„i,V, /-,'r ,■/ C.;m,!l,>r 
/.'.,„/,. ,/,■/ Miiiist.-ri.. ,!.■ A',/„, ,„„,•.,■ l-Mer;..n-x ,/,• ( VnVc. ,c-ii,.r .ilri,iiidr„ . Ilrar,:?. Chllr. 
Mnn.<l,-ri,< dc r,-/,i,iei/,-.< .•.\l,-ri.,r,s. Coiititnicanoiir.i uinihuuhis rulr,- /„.,■ Cnuiilcrins ,/,■ Clillr 
y ri r,-ni y ,il^„ii«s aitl.\.,l,-iit,:< .ud-rr h, ciicsti.h, ,/,• V,,, 11,1 v .ín'oi. lOO.Í -DK), c.unnuinlv 
,:il!, I tl'o K,:u' fí,<„k of Cliil,-. -M ol.. .'^anti.ii;,! ,1e Cliil,'. l')].' 

•<T l'chui.ui.: l>Ii. % l!l.l Ti„ .statum-iit !.> \,n,,,, ,, .p.otc,! mmi ;, u..rk In Sr 
I.aralM.rc. al ,.ne time vie. i.rcM.l.iit ,.f Peni. Those fnmi M.liinatc an' fr,-ini Mmiorin 

di A' A', /■ / „'.• ( Ili!,-, ìhh:^ |,].. rs-'(i. 



■lili': TAI XA ARU A ( ìflCSI K i.\. ISS.V 


i"'>roii:n i.ii¡A'n^ l'< vi ili' in whiili >1n' dcihiri'd that ,111 mtcrnatiniial ]ik'lii-t.'iii' 
i- ilitifi"cnt fr"iii an cUh-iÌiìII I'diircriKd only with ilnnu'^tu- altair>, atiil ihat 
tlicri'ÍDre the I'l-i. itnarv riik>> ^hmild tint apply Rc-nk-iit t'l irt'i,i;iii_r-- iii>t niily 
ha\i' an iiitcrc-t ni the (HU'-tinn- ni -(i\ cr(.'i.L;iit\ , ntii- the ( hüeaii rea-' >nin¡,^ 
lint, a- nentraU, their V(iie wmlil eorre^punil in the -er v ice m1 a third per-nn in 
arbitral ])r(>ceihii'e. li>r thi- i>n-itiim Chile i^ I'orceil tu aeknuu !e<l^e that -he 
ahaiidiin- all ¡irecedeiit and ha^e- her claim mi c. m-ideraiimi- ni eípiity in- 
stead. \- it i- well kiiiiwn that the iCreinn re-ideiit- wmild \'ite to cnntmne 
the I hilean rnle. Tern i- n^t inclined in acknnwled'^e the ei|nity n\ the iia-i>. 

'l'Ile next exchaiiiie ni prupd-td- fur a prntocnl occnrred 111 l'»(l''-Iii, In 
ihe-e Chile still in-isted nn the proprietv ni allow iiii^ all i'ureii;iier-. a- well a- 
Chilean- and I'ernvian- 1" \cite.' deniandiiii;: mily the (pialitk'atinii- ni' literacy, 
and a residence of >ix month-. Althou.uh coiicedmii a mixed board, of one 
Chilean, one I'ernvian and one representative of the foreitiii re-ident-. to ad- 
mini-ler the plebiscite, -he iii-i-led that the chairman of tin-, a- well a- of all 
-nbordinate committees, -liould l>e the Chilean member, in all other matters 
("hile -ns^ested that the provision, ot the r.illint,dinr-t-I. atorre IVotocol 
-hoiikl be followed. I'-rii ;m-wered bv re(|uiriníí tliat tlie ri^dit to vote U- 
limited to Peruvians and Chileans of _'l year- of a<;e. who had been born in 
Tacnn-.Xrica. or had resided in the territory since Jnly 1. l'>07, and who shonlil 
be present and rej^istered at the time of the vote.- public employees and mem- 
bers of the armv or police .alone to be exchide(k .\s for the literacy te-t, 
alth(iu<:h I'ent has snch a te-t in her own elections, she has alway- insisted 
th.-it in (piestions of so fnndamental a nature as that of chan-je of -overeicnty 
onh- universal manhoo«! -ut'fraj;e i~ Miitable.'' With rei^ard to the electoral 
board. Pern in-isted that the presidency -hmikl belong to a neutral member, 
a]>pointed bv a friendlv Power. She further jiroposed arbitration on aiiv 
di-piitcd points. Chile an-wered the IVrnvian ])niposal- by a note of .Marcii 
.1. I'Mik makiiit; oiilv verv minor concessions, and refn-in^^ arbitration. Twice 
Chile has arbitrated boundary disputes with .\rL;entina. Slie ha- consistently 

' \n stati>tic> arc availaMc riKanliiii; tlie ilittVmit ■^r..,!,,- in tlie <lispiit<<l pruine- 
.1- the riiilcan ceii-n- umit- tu «ivt any tiniirc'; fur ttu-ii a- di-tinKiii-licd Iroin tlie re-r 
Ml ilie e.Miiitry. The total popnlati"!! is prt.tiatily mnv between ten and thirteen tlinnsand. 

-Cnder 1>otli tlie Peruvian and tlie Chilean law the fiualilications for Hie electtirate are 
eiti/<nship. literaey and attainment of the aee of -'I. In Chile donie-tic servant* arc di- 
(lualilied. Chile require- a year's residence before natiirnIÌ7ation. Pern rciiiiires a still 
-horîer period. 

■ I'urther. since ihe closim; .if the Penuian -cliods by the Chilean :inth. üitie-. in l''in, 
the I'lTinian iiibahitants ..f the provinces have been mider ^;reat disabilities in Kcttinsj .i 
-VIM. I, ¡ini; for iheir ehildr.ii. vvhiili -tioiild lint at the same tinic destri.v tlieir Peruvian 
patriotism, a matter which, in view 'd' tlie future plehi-cite. ua- nne of iinp.'rtance to tl'.e 
Perivian inliabilaiits. 


ii.i:i;iS( i li-.s 

I (.-úi-fd Im arbitrale that with i V-ni. ami, ilo i|i u.I,! wìiliit m niiiul. ha- iiiatk- a 
point oí ali-laiiiiii.i; íroin acia-ptiiiL;. at Ica-i 'Milioiit a r(.->cr\atioii, aii\ and all 
jiropo-aK iiir ionipiiNor\ ari li t rat ion of an\ -iR'li i[in.--tion-i, Imili at '1 lu' i ia,i,'iit' 
ami at i1k- I 'an Anu-rican I 'oiil\-n.iu-uv.' 

In iirou-t auain-t i!h' tri-ainu'iit of tlu- I'lTiuiaii inhabitaii;- oi lavila ami 
Arica, ami u-piiialK the c\¡>iiI-ioii of ihr jian-li pra'-t> who. in -pi it- oi ( hi'.. .;i 
ar^unimt- ilirvctcil to tin- 1 h'K .Src, wi-rc -1:11 nmlcr the (.-filc-ia-iiral jnri-- 
ilu'tion of tin- I'.i-hop of \ri'i|iiip,i. ihploinatic relation- were a,L;,iiii hrokeii hy 
l'eri!, in March. I'Mn. In I'M.' I're-nlent 1 '.ilhiii^hnr-t. -oon .after hi- in-'al- 
latioli a- t're-iileiit of i'erii. opeiieil tile i|iie-tioii once more. In acconl.iiice. 
it i- -aul. with ;i previo.i- ;ii.;reeinent with the ( hilean 1 lovernnienl. a lelcL'r.ini 
\\a- -eiil to the Chilean ( io\ eninieiit hy W eiice-lao ^. alera. Mini-ter of hor- 
eii;n Relation- for Tern. ]iropo-in,u- the plehi-cite lie held in l".-i.\ that tin- 
-ntïr;i-e -hoiild he limited to n.ative- of the province- and to Peruvian- and 
( hileaii- who -honld have enjoyed three year-' re-idence. that a literacy i|U,iii- 
lic.ation -honld he included, and that the pre-idini;- ofticer of the directing;- com- 
mi--ion -honld he the ' hief ju-tice of the Supreme ("onrt of (hile.'- ( hile 
at once accepted the propo-al. which '- referreil to ,a- the \ aler;i-l iiinee-i- 
ai^Teeiiieni. hilt ,ilthoiiL;h the ne,L;oti,ation- were -ecret. it hecame known m 
l'erti that e\chaii,i;e- -iirreiiderin.i; two of the cardinal point- oi ilie Penman 
contention were tinder way .and indiLrnatioii on thi- -core -ervetl to mcrea-e 
the popnl.-ir di-coiiteiit with the 1 '.illin-hnr-l .l;(.\ ernment and wa- a coiitrihu- 
n.rv ean-e oi the revolution which followed. Relation hetweeii the twn 
colmine- lia\e never heeii re-iimed, nor have further excliaii-e- oi ,in ollicial 
ii.atiire occurred. \- ;i re-tilt of denioii-ir.ition- in l<|iiii|iie immediately alter 
the ani"-"' ir ¡lie l-'in,pc;iii war. even cm-iilar relatioai- have heeii hrokeii 
..IÏ. The -nnaiion i- now further conii.'.'cated h\ the renewed exodc.i- ot 

' 111 arrrpiini; \r\k\i' .''» ..t tile i lamie ('..m ciiti-n of l"ii7 i,.r tlu- pucitic -. ttloim-iit ot 
inirrn.-Ui-iial <li-iii!t(-. tiir Chilean reiTr-t-nlalive earet'iiUy exruptol all lUu-ti-n- ,.f nriLiin 
IiriAJoU'^ to the -it^iinii.; "f the l'oiivciuion. "La 1 Ulei.:,ition iit I hili iloirt- fire la 
do lar.itiuii Miivante an nom de son ( inim riunii lit .'i i)r.|i''- de oit article. Xi^trc IKlcua- 
ti'. 11 an ni.iinent do -iuner !a Cmncntion ile IS''"' I'oiir Ir n-ulenient iiaciti(|iie dc- C'lilht- 
Miti rnati"naii\ l'a fait -on^; la rr-ir\e (|ne l'adhésion de -on ( i..iu eriunn lit in ci- i|iie 
concernait l'article 17 ne eoiiipn mirait p.i- les litiüe- on ipie-tioii- anlcrii-irc- .i 'a edehra- 
tion dr la ('.ini. niiMii, - 1 a 1 irli -jati' -n dn Chill croit de s^ii duoir reiiomeliT anionrd'lmi 
a pmi.i.s dr la meine disposition la reserve iin'iUe a di là faite aniiara\ant. iinoiipi'il ne 
■•i'it pas strict^'iiient necessaire en vue du caractiro inéme de la dis|iusition." — lKcI:irali'>i\. 
IKii.Vhmr ioiitt'r,tu\- ¡hnni.iti'iuil,' i/c in f"''-^'- '•■' "''.vc. ¡.^ iuiii-lS cf.i/'rc. I'/»-. . Í, /c.r 
!■/ (/(ICKWCIl/i. vol. J. p IJl. 

Article .í'í oí the 1 latine loii\ eiition of l'"l" for the pacific scttlcnieii! of ¡nt.riiational 
ilispiitcs. reails as follows; " I.a convention ci'arlpitrai;i- e-t eoiichu- posir dt - i oiili-t.itioii,- 
deià nees mi pour des contestali'.ns i\ iiitiielles, — T'ile lient coiueriu r tmU litige un srnle- 
ment les litiges d'ime catruorie déterminée. 

- Docniiiciits. fost. 11. lo-l'i. 

■i:i'Ak \TI( i\ 111' .\"( iKWA^' l'R()M S\\ ''.Di'.X. I":i5 

If .5 

I'triu iaii- frulli Tacna ai;.! Arica and l.y t lic ctt'urt uf I'mlix la t" i^ain an ciitlcl 
tM the -ca li\ -cciirinji I lic i\\i> ])ri '\ nice-, an arrani;cinciit w Incli certain I liilcan 
j;riiii|i- icj^ard with iaxnr, Init which i- ili-plca^inii Im 1'crii. 

'l'ili: Si I' \i; \ 1 iii\ n\ \\ i imm Swii^i^-. l'Mi5. 

The iinicin m' Xoruax ami Sweden, which wa- e-talili-hcd li\ the \ci nf 
I niMii ni Aii^ii-t il, ISI.^, ,ind \\a- inaintaiiied until l''ii3, «a- a Nulnntary 
¡ nnii.n ut two -cji'r.iic and e'|tt;il kin,L;i',i im- under mie -nvcrei;^Mi. ' 
'I he Milunt.ary nature ni the uiiinii wa- eiiijiha^i/ed li\ ihe ]ireani]ilc nf the 
Ad il l ninii, entered min liy the ]iarliainent- ni the ••e-j)ecti\e kint^'dnni-, 
which dcclareil the nn nn had lieeli etì'cctcd ilnt li\ fnrce ni arm- imi li\ a 
iree and \iihintar) re-nluiinn which cnind iint ;iiid iiii;,;',it imt in he maint.iincd 
e\ce]ii liy a mutilai recnuiiitii in ni the IcL^iliinale ri^ht- ni' ¡lie ¡icnjilc-, l'nr the 
-up|)nn (Il the cniiiiiinii tiirmic llie ei|uality e>talili-lied In the act w.i-, Imw- 
ever, periect in theory mily. '> moh each kini^ilmn il- nwn pai lianient. 

army, navy, and cii.-tnni> >y-, r-ate cninmercial tla,u, ,and, in ,a certain 

exteni made .-^epanite ireatie-,- the li ■lalinn- m' the iwn kinj;ilnin- and 

the di]i!nniatic ami -cr\ ice- w. t!ie hand- ni Sweden. 

< n llie i|iie-tinn- rcL'.ardm^ the relalinn- i<i the ìwd 
kinf^dnm- which aro>e in tiie -ncceedinj; ye;ir>. the iim-i important w.i- ni 
the -erx ice. The demand ior .i -eparate .-ercice wa- 
m Xnrw.ay i;i 1N''_'. '! he two kin^■dnln^. which were in many w;iv- cninmer- 
cial rival-, had ditïerent cnniimTcial -y-tem-, Sweden liavinL; pmtcctinn and 
Xorwtiy .ippmxiinately iree ir, 'le. In -nine pi ice- where cnii-nU were 
tained, .Xnrway nn intere-t- whate\er. The inin-tice <n' thi- w;i- a-^ra^ 
v;ited inr Xnrway hy the iact that Xnrway paid 4V-:; |ier cent ni the e\peii-e- 
<ii the -ervice. The matter wa- the siiliTct ni ince-s.ant ne-nti.atmn lief,\een 
1S'».Î ;md l''n.>. Sever.d jnint cnmmittee- were ap|ininted !.i cmi-ider ;i -nl;i- 
tinii. liut wh.atever agreement- were reached hy them were nppn-cd le the 
Swedi-h .Mini-trv. The Xnrue.uian- in ISl.^ de-ired independence, and 
It w,i- not -iiriiri-in- l.alk ni -ep.iraímn >hnuld reviví'. 1 mm the lie^iii- 
niii- ni it- innnatinn. in iNfi'). the ( l',iri\ ni the 
l.elt held di--olution a- it- tenet. The ( on-ervalive- -till ni-held 
the union, luit the oli-tinatc -t;ind of the Sweili-h ( ",n\ ernnieiit w;i- ^-radnallx 
alieiLitiiiL: their -iiiipnrt, 

'"l.c K'i'.aiiiiR' (le\.'i;<> foriiicr.i tin Ro.viuiiiic IÍIm. , inili-jniiilniíl, iiulivi-ililc tt 
niaiiiiKilik-, reiini avec l.-i S.udc s,.ii- iiii iiu'iiu' K..i." .\. t <,í l 'mon. .\iii,'iist (>. l.Sl.S. .Nrticlc- 
I. /.'ii(u7i cni,l /■ ordini .V/.j/,- I'nfn,:. \.,1. 5, p. UM';. The I'nion wa.s ha-eil nn thi- a.-f 
and n..t ,,n tin- Tnalv df Kid ut 1814. 

-■Ilio fiiitid States in 1,W,' si.mml -separate c.sira<liti.iii tre. die- ui.ii .\..|-ua> ai.d 
Stt.deii. 'he (Hie uiih Suelen ^iyne.l .l.ccar.v 14 and with N'..r\\a\. pnie 7. 


],,(, i'i,i:i;i-i 11 I-s 

Till- cun> i|u<.'-tiun liii.i'ly n.-;u-hc(l ,i iri^i- m l''n5, I'.nth linUM'> of the 
X.irwcgiaii Murtiii.i; in May pa-cd a lau jir.ividinji lor a sq)arate oin- 
>iilar servici', linpnifi that ilie l^iiiii \\"uU\ i;uc hi- r(Ui-.cnt u> the unaiiinion- 
\M>h i)i the Xdrueyiaii pci.ple. This t!ir Kini; rrin-c.l. I he Xorwei^iaii 
Ministre liiereupnii reMj;neil. aii'l ii'i niie ..I ¡he ¡Mihtieal le.nler- cur.ld lie 
¡ircvailed >iih'1i ìm i,.nii a iiei\ -ne. On jinie ." the Slnrtini; ,\a- a-eniMol 
III take actidu. The I'nnie Miiii-ter infunneil the SturtiiiLr that all the nieiii- 
iRTsot' the (iuvenmient had re-i.uned, thai tile Kin.t; had reni-ed td aeeept the 
rcsiiinatu.n-, and that a~ at; ailenialive u..\einnieni v>>\\h\ ii 't he inrined the 
r,>\al iiouer had cea-ed tn and llie nimin u a> therei'-re .lis-^nlved 
The Stortinir at (mee adnpi,d thi- re.nluli.m, c.ntVrnnu: "u the Nlini-try the 
pnuer hiihrrn. helnu-ni- m the Kin-, and voted an ad.dre- tn the Kin- -et- 
tinp forth the rea-on- nr the .li-Milmion and a-kin- pernn-Mon to elect a 
prince of the Hon-e of I'.ernadotte a- Kin- of Xorway. 

Sweden had to lac- a ,t:ra\e proMeni ni her answer to thi- decisive action. 
■n,e Suedish nohiluv wa. -tron-, iealon- of Sue.iiTi honor an.l proiid of 
Sveden's former -reatne>s. Sxveden vva- tu ice as popnlon-; a- X' rwav. \- 
was natnrallv to he expected, a Swedidi uar parte ua- at once formed. 1 he 
situation was, b.uever. ni,-, ,nifavoral.le to war. even in the eves ot the 
miHt.arists. Xorwav. thou-li small. well prepare!, wlide not onlv wa- 
the Swedish militarv orj^atn/ati-m ni a transition state hnt there was the ever 
present fear of Rnssian agsressioii in case Sweden slvaild turn her hack on 
her ea-lern ir .ntier. Asi.K from the intlnence of these >,.--atue torces ni 
Sweden, the Kinfi of Sweden. Oscar II. w;.- a sincere friend of peace, atid tin- 
lower classes in Sweden were a},'ait'st resortni- to amis. 1 he lahorers. s,,- 
ri.-dist- and the inthiential leader- -f die inteniation.d peace movement spoke 
wid, earnestness in hehalf of a friendly settletiient of the Xorwe^ian -ptestion. 
and their inihi. nee was felt in the snhse.|nent action oi the Suedish (.overn- 

meni ' 

1 he Resolution <•! lile Slortini; ha(' at once evoked a jirotest Iroin the 
Swe.lish (mvcrnmeiit asainst neh .in .irhiirarv iliss,,lmion "d a special ses- 
sion of the Swedish Riksdag liad iuen sniniiioiied to consi.Ier the in.iller '! lie 
de-iu' of theliovernnieni for a peaccfnl settlement was set forili in the speech 
of the Swedish ,<ecrelarv of State the Tntmcil on June l->. Sweden. 
he sai.I. would no ,l,ml.i he leiralK jitstitied in maintaininti its position wmeh 
was foiitidcd on cniitr.ici, and in nsinR force to perpetuate it ; stich a proceeding 
would, iridccd. be in view of the jirecipitntc action of Norway: vet 
snch action would Ih- inconsistent with the true interests of Sweden, for the 

M,i.r»et tiivo* a .UtaiU-.! account of tl-r May T'nv dcmonstratú.n^ for " Ji.Micf for 
Nomsv" «n.l the »pcfcl.c, of the Swe.lish statoMnen an,, '-a.l.r« of tl.e peace movement. 

M-:i'.\k \i K ).\ ( ii \(>R\\ \\ i-ix'iM <\\ i:i)i;\. r-M,: 


great .uhaiitafíos wlrcli ilu- iini'iii li.ul . jM inr die twn c-iiiitrii.'- cailil "uly 
lif ciijoM'il provi. k-il tlu'ir nr.iiual rcla' ms wore conlial. aii>l ci-riaiiily iiniM 
Hill in- retaiiU'il !iv a iinmn ha--i.-(l cm Inrce, whuh wnnM mate -iieh ill-leeliui; 
that it would Cdiistitiilc a source ot weakne^- rather than .it streuiitli. Mie 
(lis-ohttion must he le,i;al, however, ami lii onler to ^eiile liie in.'-: vual .|ue>- 
lioiis eoiuenie.l -n ilu- liuia-e relation- oí the two eouiitries. the KikMla.t; -IduIiI 
Ik- a-ked t.i till]) .wer the ( ;.'\eriin!ent t.i lie--, itiaie uitli the St.irtiiii^'. 

1 he kik-dau, t.i whiih ihi- ]ir..i>"-al \\a- -ui)iiiitled .11 June J!, at oiiee re- 
I'erre.l ihe matter t.. a -pecial e. .luiiiittee, whieh alter a ni..iiiir- .h-en"ion. 
rep. .ned ..11 July _'5. Ihe .-.iih-tauee ..l the rep.irt aii.l the reM.luti.m taken hy 
liie kikxla-are o ntained in the \.l.lre-~ t.. the Kiii;^ ..i jnlv J.^. 1 . .11. .wni- 
the report oí the ...mniitiee the Kik-da- t.... k the p.i-.iti..ii that ui a matter ..1 
Mich r,mse(|ueiice a- the di-M.lutioii ol the uni. .11 a -nrer esjire^-ion ..I the wili 
oí the N'orweuiai; people shouM he ..htaine.l. It -r.mle.l the autli. .ri/atMii re- 
(|Uested. hilt on condition that the ne-, itiatioiis sh..ul.l he -nl.-e.|iu'nt ; < a vote 
of the i)e.iple .>t Norway, either a new Stortm-' to decide the matter, ..r hv 
a ilirect plehi^citc. Should -neh a vole re-nlt m I'avor of di-'^olutioii. th'.' 
K'iksdau' would apree to it. ..ii e.inditi..ii that a.L;veenieni> re:;ar.liii.t; the arliitra- 
lion of future di^pute-. a tifutral zone lietween the two eountrie-. ])astuia-e for 
the Xomadie Swedish Lapps, eommerce in tran-:i and e..mni..n wat; -way- 
were made in a manner sati>iae;ory 1.1 Swe.len'- inlere-t- ' \llh..nL;h t..rmal 
i'.ppr.' v\;i> uol t;iveii to 'hi~ décision ,ií the l\ik-.l.i^ until \',ii;ii-t .'^. thi> 
resolution was at once telef^raphed to the Sioriiiii; li\ cmniand .11 the i\mu. 

On Inlv 27. tuo days after the i-ommittet '- report to the Ivik-ciají and the 
(lav lit-fore the addre-s ret'erred to ah.. ve. tlie Norwei;ian 1 lejiarlment .ii Jus- 
tice had re¡)orled to the Slortitii;- that as out-ide .if Norway there appeared to 
lie a dotiht of the -treii^'ih of the popular de-ire for di-Milutioii. a .l.mht 
cxpressi'd in ihe i..niimttee report to the^', it w.i~ ..f the nitr.o^t im- 
jMirtanee thai a plehiscite should he held, not -o mueh t.> asceriain the wi4i nf 
the people, for that wa- Miiticienlly, hm t.. .h-ipaie the ol out- 

The resoluti. .11 .111. 1 draíi ii';4uI.ition'- for the iilehiscite. pmpo^eii hv ihc 
Department, were adoiHed hy tiie Stortiiif;: iin Julv ?>* - Tlie nrpartmem'> 
reeommendalion ma' he siinini,iri/ed a- fol|..w> ' ,.n..n- were t.i take 

place tlirotinhont the l\in^fd..m on Snnil.iv. \uL;n-i i' m ! he elec- 

toral <|na!iruations liveil ..ii the last election of the .^i.irtiii^ were to lie tnl- 
loweil except witli certain moihtii-.itioiis. - ehielly calculated to allow tlit)>e 
til vote who had att.iitui! lluir m.iioritv or completed the necessary period of 
donneile «incc the last clecti..n ' In \ie\v ..f liie -h..rtnc-> of the time certain 

1 I ><)cuiiif lit«, /'..j/. p. 1051. 

2 IVvimifiils, f^tl, pp. 1053 ••( ieq 

■■■ TI... ,.I,., 

1 "I' ill.i.. ' ill 

11. s 

ri.!;iîi>( ni-.s 

s])trial ]iriivÌNÌ(iii- won.' iiiadr- Apm'IK' ciititlt'i! tn id iln' l.i-t Mnii'ii:,' 
ciiH-tiiiii ulin li:ul -;ili^t'i|iK-ti!ly i-liaiijjvi| liw ilniiiu-ilr wa^ all"\\i'il to v.>to m In- 
fi tiiut (.■krlnral distrili un !rr ilu' rrt:i!!atii iii- roiK-crnin.i; ali-ciilcc \^.tniL;. and 
Icnii-ui-v as lu a rca-unaMc c-\i'H-i' fur Ìk'Ìuìx ali-iMU \va- ■ lu ¡iraituril I lie 
lialli.t- wwc II. r..niain \wvc\y tlu' wonl " vt-- " "V " n. ami \mtc m.l Im Le 
sì.l:iici1. riu--r rcLiuliitiiin-. were ~n]>i)KnunU'.l li\ a fircukir ni lu-triu tnui- 
fniiti llu- 1 )i-]iartnu'iit m' In-tiri- ,l;-.\1!i,l; inll (lircriiMii- rctr:ir'li".ii ''h' mni]»'-!- 
tioii and imiction- l'f rUvliun Imard^ and the liki'.' 1 1' tlic \otiii-- ci.iitd iimi lu- 
liiii-hcd nii \;iL;n't 1,\ it was t.. lu.' coiitiink'd the ne\l dav. A -pccial « ir- 
i-nlar Kv tlu- 1 Vi>artnK'iU oi lùx-k'-iastii-al Aiiair- t.. thf cli-r.^y Mi-trui'tcd iliciii 
In linld diMiM MTvia's at the iidlliiií,^ places it" the jioll-. .-h-nild he s.) I'ar di-tant 
i' the chnnh as t" make atlciidanrr ai -rrvii'e nitt-rùi-e witli tin iianici- 
patidti iti the refercttiidiiin - 

All partie- in \'iir\\a\ iiniled in stt]i;i'Mt oi' the di-snhiiiun ; l.iheraK, (. nii- 
'.crvativcs, Mnderales. the Lahor i'art\. the wnnen. the Swedes resident in 
X(ir\\a\. all i-stieil a)i|ieals to the électorale ni it- favor. The vote tor di-- 
soltiiidii was iiMrwhelinini;. < >i the 371. ''11 votes cast, the nepartmetit of 
Tii<tiec reported that .ViS.jOS were alVirtitalive and 1S4- neiiatne. In spite of 
the short notice. S.^.4'r' of th'>se (|n.alitied had voted. ^ 

'I'lie Storlin^;, on receipt of the oflicial re-ult of the vote, therenpon oxtendj<l 
a formal re(|ncst to the Swe<lisli flovernment to cooper.ite in the dissolution oi 
the union liy entcrin;; into formal ne;,'otiatinns for tin- pnr|io-e of arriviti, at 
an apri-cmcnt on the (|nestions raised hv the rlissolution. The re(|nest was at 
once afireed to .-md each countrv a|)pointed a committee for the pnr])o<e. which 
met at Karl-tad in Sweden, from Ani,m<t .^1 to Septeinher J.ì 1 lurinu their 
sessions ^reat anxielv was felt throit'..4hoiii l-'nrope over the outcome and each 
n\ the two (¡overnmeiit^ st;itioiiei! troops .u the horder. Tile Swedish projio- 
sitioti called l'or sulimiwioti to the 1 laLTue iriliunal of .in\ di-inite not involv- 
ing the independence, integrity, or itUerest of the two countnes. .ind a 
neutral zone williin wliidi the fortresses were tn Iv ra/ed. I'he conditions ot 
the neutral /one and the razin;„' of the fortresses createti ill-will in Norway, 
where they ivere Ihoti^dit humiliating;. Tliev were ultimately accepted hv 
\nnvav, however, on the loncession h\ Sweden two historic fortresses 
should Ik- alloweil to remain. On Oclolier Hi. the Kiksdaç ajiproved a jrov- 

VOti-. «li" Wire tint llisillulifliMl tl>r.ii! in.ll.lni, lit f,.r ,iinir iir lMnl<ri:|.|. V. Wninrn wrrc 

n>ii (¡ivfi) ihf vote until \<M)7. 
' I).«'iimrnt«, /•ri.i», p. \i¥it\ 
■ I )nrimienf^, (•nsl, )> IfV.') 
' itimnil«. f'dsl. I>. hW It i» intiTiiiiiiK ti> iiitiiji.irr itusr iiijnr. < with liu-c .,i ilir 
u- "M tltr (inolinii iif Prii'.rc Charlo» of Dfiiniarti a* Kintj. «Iiicli was Iiclil a few 
latir, tn llii* only .Í28,S27 votrH ami. allhonijti tin- voto «an ilcci^ivr. tlicro w«" a 
. ..iitf nccativr vote. The fieiTcs are 25''..í().í fur. aii<l (V0.264 .luatnst BraekMad. 
I n, \rl,<r ■ •!!,! /Iri/iiimrVit. 

^i'l'Mv \ïli ).\ ()!■- .\M|<\\A\- !Kii.\l S\\ i;i>i:.\'. l'Ni5 


(.■niiucni R'^mIiu;..!! t'l aiiiuil llit- Act i>i riiiini. m li.iU' in. m tiic dax wIk'u the 
l\arl>t;i<l a};T(.'t.'im.'ms >li.iiil(l liaw liccn inrmaliy .si<j;iii-.l ii\ ilu' iwn c niiitrn.--. 
and atitliori/nl the Km- tn ilci-lare tlic union dissuKcil. .lud, the aí^rivuiriits 
liavini; \)wu -i^Ticd i.n the _'ii;h, oil ( )ct<>hiT 27. I\inj,'- ( ¡scar ¡s<ued a pniclania- 
tiiiii t(i ilie Xiirucjiiaii iieii]ile aniiiiinuini^ his abdieation as i\in.i^ oi Xorwav. 


The Period of che French Revolution 

WKiXOX A\i) Till- COMTAT N'I^X AISSIX. 17^1 

/'r„fl /VO-.V ,-/ Cluu-h-s I nn.O'is Hondu- for - the !nyr.u.,h!, mi,,,, of ;/;, 
(o»,/.,t I ,;,u,ssi„ ,m,i of tin- City a„J of .Iri..,.,,, to the Co„„ty of 
I ro;;i,ii' and by ,t to l'i\,i,o..\" Xoirinbrr \1. 17S'i.' 

i.-A..eml.k-cnatinna!.. i„.tnnic(k., Tl,c .\a,„,nal As.oni,Iv, intorniol 

tinv, ct -Iron. ,|,u. !. om,t. .k- I'n,- a. ,o ,h. ,itks an.l ri^hN whicl, th. 

Nc.uca.urlco.mtc Wnai..,,,. .nr Ic. (Amntv ,,f frovencc cnjnv. „ver the 

vile ct I'.tat .1 Av.^mnn, ct .¡„e. par Cuntat \\nai~-,n an,] .'.vcr the C^u 

. >-nne .le I'n.vencc. le> un-. ,le an-l State ,-> Aní^,,,.,, a,„l uh-', .mt Mir ee. pay,; tenant pnur thnni.^l. the (^.untv ,,," I'mvenee the 

"i^ixnne l.m,la,nentale .|ne le> ,1,,- Ku,t(> n,h >a,.ee et^juv nver the.e' ter- 

'";'r\''" '^' '"""^■"■'"^ ^■"" '"^'1'- ■■■•"nc^: l.nMn,;, „ a: a mn.lantental 

".■'Imc.. a nium. ,|ne la natmn n'aeee.le niaxm, that the ,l.,„,ani ,,f ,he rnesn 

'■>. n approuve let.r M,enat„,„; ,|uc .^ nmhenal.le. unle^, the nati, .„ a^.ent, 

ic. peuples pn.v„u;e. et villo u, peu tn ,,r appnn e. , ,1 .ueh aheual.ou ■ that 

veni être ed,a„ues, ee,le. nu pn ,ple-. pn n uue. an,l euie, eau unt he 

SUN leur cn-euteu.ent: ^ etani enn- cxehan.Lrcl. ee.lcl - .r .. ,1,1 u uh- mt the.r 

vanteuc que la uatmn pn.veneale ua e, .UM-nt : e, ,nMnee,l that the l•roven^■al 

appr,,mc. .lau> aueun te.up. laheua- uati.m ha. n,,| at aus „nie ,,ppr„vc<l of 

tu.n .llcj;a!c ct iaUc ,; „o,i do,„i„o ,ln ,|u. ille;;al aheuu,..,, ,,, ,he („una. 

<^_.mtc \cuai.sin. .le- ville et h;,at Wnai^^.n ukmIc ;„., ,ion,u;o „t the 

'lAvtpnou, paitics tnleurante- ,le l, ( mv an.l Slate ,,i As,^u,,u iute .1 

>^;uveran,ele .le rr,,.euee: v,,vau. part- , „ .he . ,uTei;;u,v ..,1 'n.vcue 

-I a.llcur> -Ian. les aúnalo irauvai,e, n, v,eu, m..ic,e,er, i.i the elauu, 

les reelauiat,.,n< .|ue plusieur- n„,- '^v h„h ^ev eral n., „ureh, have u, 

nar,,i,cs ,.1U taUes p,„„- eire ren.,, ,1,. .,nn,,k , ,i Irau.-e l,,r ihe po^.o- 

en p,.sso.„,„ ,1,, ..,.> paxs p,,..v,les par .„.u .,f tl,e,e e.,,intries, he!,! hv the 

Ic. papes, san- ture valaMe et leu,- I '■ .pe u„l„,u, t:,„,.| au.l tule has 

""'■'■■ '"'^■'■'•"■'■^■'■"''•^■'«^•: .leelare.l an.l .lelenuiucl : 
'./ii/iitrí l'arlt-iiifiitairft, |it geric?. v!. !'.). i-.ti i .::■.:! 'M 


i)i It i M I". XTS 

1" ( Mu- K- K. il M-ra i-ru- par T \^- 1- I M:'t lin- Kniç; aliali L. io|:u'>tr.l 

semble.- .,at,..,aK-. rqnv-.nur par .. .„ l.> tlu- Xat.nnal \-^cn,l,l> , rq,R-M-„lol Cl MX ,lr T. „K-inl.n- M'" 1'^ "~ 1">-''1'-'" -""1 ^'"^ "' "^ '"^•"' 

lui sen.nt <U-i.iU.-~ a cet rtlVl. ,1. .Lm^ l.rr-, v>h.. ^l.all 1.- a,.], anlc-.l i-r ilic 

„,-r .11- urda- a m,„ anila-.a,U-nr a i,nri"-r. t.> iiiMnict hi- ami.a^-a.l. .r at 

k,,„>r i.nnr nrlanu-v. Mir-U-dianii.. U. .nie lo at ..„>-.- .-nin- a dann 1- t tlu- 

1, o.mtc- \niaisHii. 1>-^ mìU c-, l-.tat » -inia' \ .■tiai-iii an,l tlu- i ilv and 

,r\vi'M,..;i .■] irlaiv tMnti..,!. Sialr ..Í Am^.i-h, an.l i- ..l,tani aim- 

arannal.l.,.l:n,-|..n,/. ,-ur-. anvlu. tal-K- u-imtta-n mÍ th.a.. u.llnn hl- 

..^,.,1 ,,^ ,,„„,,,,,, ,i„ j,,„, ,1, la rccq,- vcn <la> ^ al latent, dat.n.u ir-tn the 

,;,,„ ,k-nnlf>-. .Ir Ni Maii-U-. dat.- ni fcrq.tinn m 11,-. Majesty- 

_"■ 1 Un- M Sa Saiiiteu- -v rt-tu-.- a _'. I hat :i lit- ih'hnr-s sh,,uld la- 
ia,R- cette re~tituti..ii -m- r..ltVr d'm in-e t.. make tilt- leMiuni. .il m letiifii 
,K.,,,„i,i.. -'il y a lien, laipielle ne i. ,r an nideniml v, there he . .e- 
l„inna e\enler la »minie .¡'nil iniü'a.n eaM..n t . .r it. uhieh -hall n. .1 e\ee.-.l 
de livre-, ninnale de l-raïue. sa .\l.i ihe -nin ..t a nulli.. n lure-, m l-retieh 
H-te -eia priée .le i.rm.lfe .rah..rd in.inev. Ili- Maie-tv -hall he re- 
al, r.- ¡e-.pirati.m .le- -it-dit- iiuin/e .|ne-ted. -.n the expirata.n ..I lUe 
„„„•. ,„,„i.-i..ii ;i main armée du niieeii da\-, t.. t.ike iinnie- 
c.nite \enai-iii. .le- Mlle et h.tal diate I. .ivihle p. .-e-i. .n . .1 the (, ,m- 
.r \vÌL;ii..n, el .Tv le repinte tal \ eiiai-m an.l the i it\ and ."-tale 
p,,l,ti.|ne. eivil. ea-le-ia-li.|ne et nuli- ..Í \vii;n..ii. an.l t,. e-tahh-h iher,- ihe 
taire <|ni va elre etahli dan- ful le p. .liticai, en il. eeete-ia-tieal a,-.l mili- 
re-lc .le la 1-raiue. larv re,L;ime uliieh i- l- he e-tahh-he.l 

ihr. >ni;li..iU the re-t ..Í I rame. 

,V' ( in'an m-sen .le .e. a cinte .v I hat l.> lin- mean-, the ('. .miai 

\tn.-ii-'-iii. le- Mlle et liai .lAx i.un. .n. \ enai--ni. an.l the l il> ami State ..t 

a'. ce lenr- appartenanee- \\i,l;ii..!1, \Mih ali llu-n ri-hi-. appm- 

ti depeiiilaiK-e-. n i,-\ . .i ahle- triianee- an.l .lepen. leiieu-. -hall he ir- 

nu-iil et n--ler..nt a i.nnai- renili- au ;m.l Í. ' r nmte.l L . the 

e..tiilc de i'r..\eiue. e! par hn a la ('..nnix .■! l'n.veiu^. an.l tlir..n-li it 

l-'ranee; n. Ir,. tue 

4" ( lueeepeii.lant. et m-.pra e.-.|ne 4, I li.n me.inuhile an.l niitil ih-.' 

la i-i'-tniiii..ii .In e..nile \ eiiai-m. .le- re-titmi..ii ..i the ( \enai-in. 

ville i-l l-'.tai d'.\\i^n"ii. -"it an.l ..Í ihe i tx .lud Stale . .1 ,\\i,L;n..n 

et la renni..n aelievee. t..n- le- pu- -l'ali le ma.le aii.l the niii..n . Iteeied. 

viK'i^'fs ( Ics '.!;iljit;iiUs iU-mIÌI.- cinte ali the priv de.^e- wlneh lite 

,1 l-".t:it jmii'^-ent en l-raiiee. t..ute-^ ,,i ilu- >ai.l l '..lutai an.l Siale en|..\ m 

;.- pen-i..ns. um- le- .I..11-. traite I e. all the peii-i..n-. all ihe .L.iia- 

„,^.„t, ;;rat!lkati'-'iì- fi eni..lnnunt-. ti. .11-. salaru-. t;ralnilie- :ni.l ein. .In- 

.\\Ii,\().\ A\i) lili, \i;\\isMx, i7u| 


U- r,.ii,vrnanl, ,lr .¡m-\,^uv namrc iiicnt. atl.ulir.l ihrrct,., ni wlialwrr 

'111 iN ^■'U-nl. i..,;c- Ir. |,1;kv^ .i ,1,^- „.„„iv thrv niav Ik-, all the p.^Mtmn. 

nitc-. 1,.,N Ic^ eiiipl,.,.. ^ .l-m an,l .li-nitK--, aíl iIr. rniplnMiini!. an,l 

!.- < ri Ir^ \vi,^n..nai> ~..„t rank, hrl.l iiv il,r C.Mita.htN aii^l 

iv-'ln. .Ian. Ic. mIIc-.. >-Mr,K. r.,vi,..- Xm^,,,,,,,.,,^ „, ,|„, „„,„^^ |„„|,^,^ ^., ,_. 

'■'"""- ''• ^■''•M'l'H- ,lr la l-ran>v. .,>ni ,.,„aiinn. aiM rliaptcr. ,-i I'ran.r. a'v 

Mi.pcn,hw: k-s r.vinn. ,1,- Irniluv. an.l ilu- ,v> .nnc, -t tiichai- 

-|n iN |H..M',U'H1 vn Iran.c M-r,,ni ar- ilio p,, .-,■,, ,„ |.-,;,nr.- 

"■'_'-■ .-iiall I.f.t..pp,.,l, 

3" !-■ \"cni!,ki- nam. naif. ru-civc 5. I liv Xaii. .nal A.-cnil.K iv..,r\v- 

'li' n,...litRr. urn.hv, ,„, ivw..|1!,t k- ihr n-hi i,, m.-diu, L-xk'n,r,.r ir,..kc 

'l¡ii.,.,tit\ o.nicnn. .Jan. rartidr n tin-;..n. r-.nianu-.l ni ihr al...>..' 

'li--n., -,1 y a Ih-u, rt .i.iNant Icxi- ariuk', if ,i .|i.„il.l lie cNpc,lu-nl, ar 

ciclin.L; I.. i1k' f\i^cn ■i(.-. ,.f \]w ca-c. 

UtiU'f ik-. ca.. ' 

.hìJrrss of the ¡'„risi,, s „/ //,, C.nntat I\n.,issu, in .lus:.rr /,. //;.• .1/,,//,,,, .,, 
y. I'oui Ili-, X,i;riiihn- Id. 17S'» - 

Mi:.~ii:ii;> ,■ 

'■I.MI.KMKV : 

liiinnnc- .Ir la<lite ni.iti.,n p .ur !c inr,.t- 1 . , -1, i 

,.. I , , . , . I ' "- ..| ilu' .ani 111. .11. .11 nur- 

'""/''"'^•'"^■'■•"■'■-l-=^''''— '"'■'-■. -n....|Manu-.,lu.pan.lK-..„il„...n,l 

" ''■"•";■'■"" ••-'"^".'j:. an,lu.n:„„K- .,,n„at. „ „■ ,1,. ..,!,ii,,„„,„ ,,, ,|„- 

"';^'" '""■ ^';'-'-"' — ,-„: .■,„,- h,.,i.,ral.k. a..r,iii,lvan,l a. a n.nnal 

^"''■'■';"- ''"^' '^' -"■' '"'"'-"H-n. ].„- ,.-,„„.„,. „, ilini- an,,,., .,.,r,„.„ 

'"""'' '"'";■ ^'^'l'"^"..,, ., ,vvn„li. ,k.da,. ,l,a,: o.n-„k.nii, iha, .mJ 

""""'''• '•' ->'-'-nuU. .., k. .1:„„, ,, ,.„„„,„„„, ,/„„,,,;„„;. 

^"""~';"''"-^' ''" '-l.!.'. .1 .,n,. .anl... iaufnll. „.nii.k.l ,.nK „n the 

'',;'""■ ''"" '"'■ "•^""-'- ^'^^"" Mxv..,n..n, ,„ tlu.,K.,,,l Iha. ,h. 

'in .1 pa... .nn. aurun. antiv ,l,,n,nia- , xpa...„,n ,„ ,1,..,. „,]] „n,., 

'■-n: ...n.i.k.ian, ,■,„■,„. ..„-„n ,„■„- anv ,¡,an;,.. ,„ ,. -v .ninimt : o.ii.i.kM- 

''''•■''■'''■''^"■""-■•;"""'-— •)- :n.. ,n..r..,,u.v. >ha. a p.,,pk. han.l.,! 

."H.m.nn,..n.,ankrauo.., „vn I. p,„a.,lni,. ni uhuh h ha. 

"";'"■• '•' '■"^"">- '"■■""■'• ''•■ 'l'i"-'- I'-i ,1,, p,.„, ,,,„,,, ,,,„„„1,, „„.„- 

'.'' '"'-'":"'-■ '1- Il ">"..■. nr p,,•,^anl aLan.], „u.l an.I llunai. .rlh n,a.. -r of 

<'trc trafiques cnmu ,1,- .i;npk- pi,,- „, , „, „ ,,,,,. ,,, 

"!■ men ran ii .t la- 

Thf \s.ciiilily onk-rcl the printiiiK (if ih 

\. ri.-a.| In the .\aii,,iM \.. in, III lu il,, mi,,' M,.,. .i , . "• 

J í I . i.Min ,i\ III. \Mi, M,,.,... ITI the SI.. mil ,,f \iiril ?n 17>)l 

.•/r,7i. mW. K, viTies. ..ol 2= i. J(.- ' '^" ' • '' '• 

IM )Lr.Mi"..vis 

prit'U''- niii|iilu-n~ il trriiinriak-^ ; i-n- 
liii. iirr-u.-uU--- cin'inir riTlaiiritii iii ><.■- 
i.iii il Uli c\e-iii|iK- imii-tt'. iiiii-i|U au 
lui-jiD- ilc-- traiti-^ K- I'll'.- -I 'IrunrK. 
v!k- n'ftal li)'ait |Hoir t^'tiic rr^K- ^nv 
ívWv (Ir la í. 'i'n- (■! ill- la xinliruT, f! 
(■\|M.-fraU la uaiinii i|ui l'auraü Uíhc- 
raiianu-iil aili ip'uc. a -r mmi" (irpMinlk-i.-, 
]i;!r !a iiirnii- miw. ilf- UK-illcuri'^ ])"r- 
li.'ii- iW -mi <.-]\i]nrv: iU ri\L;arik'iit la 
iiii'tiiin (11- m. I'hiucIk- iniimu- aiunta- 
tiiirc au (111 'it iK-- .mil' ct ci'iurairc 
au\ iirincipi'^ di- 1' V^^ciiiMir (Imn il 
«■-t nn-mlirc : lU iK'claitiit, o?i pn-Liua.' 
■ le i'I-'.irc -upiriuo, (|iì(.' neu uè ^aurait 
li'- (klicr ¡amai- ihi M-rmcnt de tule- 
lile a 1 e,t,Mr(l de leur léi;itiiiie MiU\e- 
raiiì, tidélité il'autatit ]ì\v.- inaltérahle. 
i|u'eile rep"-e -ur de- l)a>e-' a>>nrée>. 
la iii"déialiiiii et la ueiiern-ite a\ ec 
le-ipielle-- iK -"lU L;nn\eiiii- depui- 
]ilu- de eiiii| -lede-, et -ur le uiain- 
lieu de k'ur- pri\ilei^e- et iiuimiiute-. 
11- pii'te-telil, a la taee de l'univers, 
enture ti m- traite- tail- a leur iu-i. et 
-an- lent m!er\ eiitii ui diieete et un- 
ti >ire. el nil I'l'ii di-p"-erail d'eux -ali- 
titi enii-eineiiieiu iiiealaMe. el -an- uue 
ratilieatii ¡ii -ul)-éi|tieiile. 

\u -iirplu-. le- eili'Wn- a--ei!ilile- 
iie piiinaiH en I'l. iiii'ineut reninr le 
\.rii ^eiural. et ne \iiulaiit ¡la- -e 
t'l'iiteiiler dun \ieu partiel dan- une 
atïaire d'une ati--i plaude ini])i n tance. 
I'll! .aii'rle i|ne l,i piie-ente deliliera- 
til '11 -era uiipi linee ^1 .adre--ee .'i |i niti'- 
le- ei iiiiinunaiite- ile celte pii'\iiKe, en 
le- uuilant ,i 1.1 lane ralilier |i,n- le 
<'ii'|i- kL;!-lalii, et .à í.iire ]iai\iiiir 
,iU ]ilii- l"I nil extrait C' iiili n ine de 
leur- dellkeral 11 '11-. 

1.1. nulli .-ind -l'Ili likr mere l.airl- and 
I battel-; ]ier-uaded. in -ii"!!. -ueli 
a el.aiin wnuld ci .u-titnti' a i.i'al ]ireee- 
ikiit. -iiu-e. 111 xanlati'ili cf the iii"-l 
-nkiiiii treatie-, it wculd -et u]) the 
law 111' minili and l"ree .and exp"-e 
the natii 'U u-uil;- it tn -pnliatimi "t it- 
I'.iire-t ])ri'\inee- li\ the -ante iiieth- 
"d-; tlie\. the ]i,ari-he- "f the ( 
\' re.u'ard M . 1 lnuehe'- tili 'tii >ii 
a- ciiiitr.are tn tlie l:u\ nt natmn- .and 
tn the priiui])le- n'" the .\--enil)ly ni 
which l,e i- a niemlier. I hey declare 
ill the ¡iie-elice ni' the Supreme UeiiiL; 
that iinlhiiiL; ^aii absolve them irnin 
their <iath nl' Inyalty tn their lawtiii 
-n\erei;;ii. .a ln\aliy the nmre nn.iher- 
ahle ill that it is a-sured b\- the tiind- 
eratinii and liberality with which tlie\' 
have been j;n\erncd tnr ninre than live 
ceiiiune- and Ia- the pre-ervatmn 
"i their |)ri\ ilexes and immunitie-. 
1 hey ¡irnte-t liei'nre the uiii\ei-e 
a^aiii-t all treatie- inaile withmit their 
kiinw ledj^e and their direct, |)ulilic ]>.ar^ 
ticii»atinii, purportiii;;' tn di-pn-e i<i 
iliein withniit their pre\inu- cmi-ent 
I ir -ub-eiiuent i .itit'ic.atii ill. 

Mnrenxer. the citi/eii- here a--em- 
bled. un.ilile at tin- time In -ecure .i 
general cnii-en-u- nl rpininii, and iini 
-ati-lied \silh a p.irtial \nte in ;i mat- 
ter nl -ucli j;reit impnitaiue. li:i\e de 
cided that llie-e re-nliuinii- >hall be 
lirinied .md -liit tn .ill the ci immunes 
nt llii' prn\ nice with .a reipie-t that 
tliev iia\e the -ame ranru-d b\ the 
leui-l.aturc .ind iliev -md b.ack as 
-null a- pn--ille .1 cnp\ ni ilieT re-ii- 

-\\ i(.X( ix Axi) Till-: \i:x.\issix. \7[ 


//;. / r.-iiJi \,i/,.;, A',-,,../,;„v.v C,',¡.¡iirs'. /',r/vr ( ■,.;;. vr;;/;;,/ the Ri, /ht of 
MiiLui,/ /',■,/(,• ,;)(,/ // ,!)-. Max 22^ 27, \7W ' 

Ai^i 1 ■ Ia- dr. II .k- la pais t.i dc Xkiki i: 1, 'Jlu- ri,:;lit ,if makniL; 

la ,mRTi\- aiipartKiit à la nation. ],l-:,vv aii.l war lui.n.L;- to thr nati-u. 

I..I ;;iUTr>' .r- ir.tirra vlw ,Kvu]v,- Wai iiia\ nut ho 'Ictfrnii'U'.l . .n <.-\- 

MiK- i.a: till iKcrrt (In C, ~ JAL^i-lant". rq.t liy i ilucrco ,.1 tlu' lci,M>laiivc 

Mill ~cra rrn.lii MU- la ]. p .-ilnm f. .r- 1.m,1\. u1,,.1i .hall .,„lv he ruii.kToi 

MR-llf ct :KiL->airi- ilii RmI, ct i-uMiitc oii the i..niial |, ■,.]„,. in ,n n\ ihu knit;. 

^aiicIiMiiiH- ¡lar Sa Maif^tr. and a ÍHtw ar,N saiu-lioiu-d hv llis 

Mait-t\ . 

-'. I.c ,k' m'ÍIUt a la Mírete i-\- _'. Ilio .Intx mi' watchitii; n\er tlu- 

lirit-nit' .In r. ixaniiK-, (K- nianitciiir MS ivtcrnal -at\t\ .it' the kniLjil^ni and 

(Imit- ft M'- p.."e"i(.n~, e-t drleL;né ni inainlaiiiiii- ils ri-hi- and il- ]u>~- 

an Iv.i par la CMii-titiiti. m ik l'iMat; -cs-iotis i~ drlr-alnl t.i the Kiiil; \>y 

aiiiM, ini M'iii ptiit ititri-tmir dr- re- ihr eniisutnlaiii ni the Slate; tint- he 

lati. ills iiMlni.ine-. an delmr-, e..ndnna' alune ina> Imld political relations 

If- lie,L;iHÍaíinn., en elmi-ir le- aL;eii~. with t'ureii;!! -tale-, c .ndiv-t iie^^tia- 

taire le- piepaiatil- de inerte ti^ti-, eh..., -e aL;en;-. tiiake piepara- 

tt'iiine- a ien\ de- h'.tat- v..i-in-. .li- tii.n- f. .r war ni pr. .p.irtinii u> th.i-c 

irihner le- |..tee- .le Iene et de nief, ..i' neiyhli.irin- -tale'-, make '-neh di-- 

am-i .|n'il le in-era e. in\ eiiahle. et en Irilinl!,.n i.f the l'.ifce- -ea aii.i . .n 

re.t;ler la direni. .n en ca- de -lierre land a- he -hall -nilahle, ami 

l'unir.'! iheir direction in ra-c ..! war. 
.V l'an- le ca- .I'll, i-liliu'- ininii- .ì. In ca-e ■ .l' iM-tililie- heiii-- iinini 

nenie- «m e. minicncee-. d'un .allie a neiit .>r .airea. 1\ he-iin. ..t an al!\ t.i 

-..iitenir. d'nn .Imit à cm-erver la ..r a ri-lit n. he in.ainiaiiie.l li\- 

t..r>-e ile- .irnie-, le p.mvuir evécntii' i'.,rce ,,|' .arni-, the executive iiiil-t 

-era tenn .l'en .1. .liner, -an- .menti ,i;:\-e n. .Iitic.tli. m in the ¡e;^;-l,ilive '.. ..Iv 

.telai. La n. .Iilicati. .il :iii ( '. .rp--l .ei^i-- \Mlli..nt .lel:i\-. .aii.l nin-t ac. inaiti: :t 

latti, .leu l.aire ccmnaitre le- uan-e- w uh the aii.l the re,a-..ii-: ,aii.l 

et le- ii!..lii'-; et -i le Ti irp-1 .e^i-lali f ii tin- le-i-Iative h.)d\ i. n. ,1 m -e- 

e-i eti x.acince. il -e ra--aiiil.ler.i -nr -i.m. n -li.ill re.i--enilile . 

4 Sur cette II. .liticali.. 11. -i le I '..rp- ;. ( ),, receipt ..f tlii- ti. .tillcii i. .il. 

l-i-.L;i-l,iti;' inj:e .|ne le- ln.-tilite- cui- if the lei;i-lati\e h..d\- i- ..f the 

meiicee- -nient mie a.i,'re--ii .ii c.n ;.,ii that the h..-tilitie- alnielv l)ei;ii!ì 

p.ihle .le la ]iarl ile- nimi-lre- . .n .le ,ire a cnlp.alilc aL:i;re--i. .n . .n tlie p.irl 

'|neli|ne .antre a^'eiit (In pi.uvoir e\ecu- ..f the imni-ier- ,.r .»f ain .aher 

Ut railleur de eette a^'res-iun -er;i ,a-etit i.f the executive, the antlinr nf 
"' nuviTKicr. riii"/t-r/i.)» C oiiifl, te tl,s /.....t, viil. 1, p. l'il. 


[>i iL( .MI'XTS 

li"nr~ui\i ctinimc criiiiiiu'l de lc~c- tin- a.iífjre^^i'Mi ¿hall I c inc-fnufil I'l ir 

iiatiun: 1' \--i_-iiilikx' iiatii iikiK- ilcila- tlu- I'rimu ni an alírioii ai;aiii-t tin- 

r.ini à ect cite! (|U(.' !a nalh 111 ii'ani;ai-c iiatinii ; Uu- Xaimnal .\->omliI\ iiiak- 

ri'iiniKi- a ciUuprcndia- aiuiiiic i;iii.Trv ¡w^ a (k-claratinn tu tlu- I't't'i'ci tliat tlu- 

ilaiH la \iic ill lairc t\v> fi .ihjiu'U'-., ct 1 ixii'li iiatmii la-ii. luiice-i the iin(ier- 

i|u'(IK' irmipl' .ina jaiua:-- >r- i.ii'ce- taking <<{ an\ war for the piirpo-e ni 

u'litre la iiliei te iraiuim ¡leiijile.' e()ni|iie-t. ami that it will never em- 
piii} its ii'ree> anain-l the lihertx ui 
any peuple. 

3. Sur la meine iiniiiK.uiun, -i le 3. Il un the -ame imtiliiatiMn, the 

* 'i>rp--l .e,L;i-lali 1 dei ide i|ue la j;iierre ieL;i-lati\e limK decide- that the war 

ne dnit ]ia- être l'aite, le ]iiiii\oir mii^ht unt tn lie waited, the executive 

e\eiiitil -era tenu de prendre -iir-le- -hall !je iililii^ed. in take immediate 

ehani]! de- me-uie- pi lur taire ee--er uiea-uie- tn -!i'|)ur tn prevent all hns- 

nu ]>revenir tniite- lin-iiliic-. le- mi- tilitie-. the mini-ter- remainint;' re- 

ni-Ire- di'iileurant re-pnn-ahle de- de- -pnii-il>!e fur anv delav-. 

il. Tnute deci. iralum de guerre .-era (>. .\ll declaration- ut war -hall he 

faite en ce- terme-: /',• /d [^,¡rt du made in tin- f.iriii: ()n tlic p'.irt of 

k't'i lit s liiiii^tus. all nom </.■ hi iia- ti'ir Kiiuj of tlic iii-ncli. in the iiaiiic 

tion. of titr iiiilioii. 

Foniuil Miiiiitr of tlu- (,\ii,-r,¡l i'i'uiici! of tlir C>niiuiunc of t!ir i'it\ of . Ivii/iuin. 

June M. 17'<0- 

1,'an mil -ept cent quatre-\ ini;t-d;\ In the \ear I7"'0 and nti the IJili 

ei le dDU.'ii'iiie i' 'Ur dn nini- de jniti, i\.\.\ ni the mniiih nf [une the ( ¡eiieral 

le enn^eil u;eiieral de la cnmunine ( 'mincil nf the ( ninmmie hein.Li as-em- 

t'tant a--einlile dan> la -alle du cnn- hied in the cnuncil hall, alter ilne cnn- 

-eil, ajilé- due cnnvncatinii, M. I. ami, vncatinn, M. {.ami. nftieial. 

ntVicier municipal, pre-idant le cnnseil President n! the l/mincil in the ali- 

I ft. CnTistitiiti.ii .ii .'-^fptcnilKT ,î 14, l"''l 1 iiiM-rmir, Coiicili'":. \o\. ,i. p J54. litre 

\'l, /'c.t r¡i¡'p.ils Je l<t mitiini //mmu'Í.vc ii; .•.■ /.'.f im/i'./ii.í ,-/riJMi:i'i r.v I., i nation Iraii- 

çaii-c renonce à entreprendre .lucnne K'ierrc il.m- la vue de l'aire de- cuninute'i, et n'emplciera 
jani.iis se.'i fnrces contre la liberté d'anciin peuple, i Translation). Title \'I. TI:,- A'c/tifi'i/.v 
«f tlw hrriiili .V,iíiii)i tei//i /mii-iVh .Vn/iini.f. The 1 rencli nation renounces the niidcrtakini,' 
of any war im tin- purpose of conquest-, and v, ill i!e\er employ ¡t- iorce,- against the liherty 
of .my piople 

2 Unuiiipr riiti.,;,.- ,1.- I,, h'/-::,t',ii,n, ,r tr;.:,,,,,, %,.t 1 I. Ì16 i,,ni,. r> 

\\|ii\ii\ WD Till: \ l-:.\ \IS>I\. 17"! 


m lali-i'iu-i- (¡f M r.laiic vi >k- M, W- 
inane M. I V-\ ri', autre dVuiL-r i:innii.i- 
pal. a (.■\|i. >>(.■ i|iic (laii^ k- tt'inp^ inu' la 
inuiiici]ialiir i-t k' innnU' (k> rc- 
ilnTrlic^ ■- ..rciipcni a >ui\n- k- tran.-- 
<lf- iiiiiiN idinpldis, (i,,iit Ic- ^uitf- 
ilt-a-lrcii^i'> mil t'U- iatak- a nmnlni' 
inliiii ik' citi'vcn^ ilaii> la jdUimk' ilu 
II' i(inranl, cnmiiic il ^c- wrra par k- 
viTlial (|ni v(.- ilri-->c a inc-iiii' ipi'ini 
liar\ K-ni a ikti mvrir k-^ irinH-. iiiul- 
li|)lii.-.- ik- cette mallienreii^L- imirnee. 
I'lii^icMi--. pi-i-^(!!iiu'^. iiiciilpte^ il'i-trc 
i-Ik'Is I. II laiitcui's (k- 1 e^ eriiiK-- 
ati'iici'-, (Jilt etc arretce> à la claiiicur 
Jiiililii|iie, et (k'iá meine le peuple 
jii-tenieiil iiuii^né cmUre celles d'entre 
ces licisoiine-. iiii'il ciii\ait les phis 
cciupaliles, a exi^'c cl cuniniaiKÍé leur 
s!ip|ilice et s'olistiiie iraiitaiit |ilus à 
taire CdUtinuer rexécutimi des autres 
liersoiincs arrêtées, ,|u'il >'inKi-ine ne 
piiiu'ur oliteiiir justice daiis l'état 
d'anarchie (Hi la tiéj,di.L;eiice. et ])eut- 
etre iiieine la cunnr.eiice du .;;> nu erne- 
inent imUs laisse depuis plusieurs 
mills, (jue piiur mettre ce iieu]jle ¡»lus 
a portee d'oliteiiir cette justice par de« 
\iiies re,i,uilieres, la nuinic. i])alue a pris 
le ¡larti de cniui)(|ner une asseinhlée 
^a-iu raie des cituyen^ par districts, 
dont les délibérations ont été mises sur 
le Inueau par >!M, les présick'ii- de 
chacun d'iceux, et a reipiis itve ¡ait 
lecture desdites délibérations; ce (|ui 
ayant été fait par nous notaire, secré- 
taire t^i'ettier de la connnune soussijrné, 
i! a été reconnu ijn'il a été dé-Iiueré 
à l'unanimité, dans chacun des ^U<- 
triits, (pie la nation avijinoimaise et 

les ( "( iltlt.'lrlin^ ^íitlt lihri'^ ^. .M\ ,.r-i in. 

scuce ol .\1. r.l.iiu- .umI oí the Ma\or, 
M. re\ ri\ another nuiliicipal oliicial. 
lias s), lied thaï diinni; the unie de- 
moted hy the Miniici])alits and the 
cotniuittei' (it' iiuesti^alii III in the fol- 
low in- 111 the clues ot' hlack ioUs|i!r- 
acics, wliiise dis.istrous eltects ha\e 
keen lalal to cotiutless citi/eus duritiL; 
the lOtli da\ oi' ihis mouth, as is t.-\i- 
deiit Iroiii the repor, to he iliawn ii]! 
alter the disco\iry oí tlu' luultitiide 
ol rrinies oí that uiihapp\ da\ Se\- 
«.-ral jiersoiis, accusici ni heim; lead- 
ers or ;ihetlois m those atrocimis 
crimes, lia\e heeii arrested m le- 
s]ionsc ii, the pulihc clami ir; and al 
ready the jicople, just|\- iniliL;ii.iiit 
against those amongst llv nuiiiher 
who are considered the most i^uiltx. 
ha\a- rc(|iured and coiiiinandi'd their 
liiinislmieiit and are the more deter- 
mined to cause the exeuition oí the 
other ]iei"soiis .arrested to he ( outinued. 
hecaiise the\ iiiia,t;"me that justice can 
no! he ohtained diiruiL;- the stat«.' oí an- 
archy in wiiich the nej,di,;,;ence and per- 
ha]is e\eii the connivance of the ,t,'o\- 
ernment has allow eil lis to remiiii for 
some months past 'I'liat to ].ut tlu 
people more in the \va\ oí olit,.iimiL; 
this justice hy re;;ul.\r methoi.s, the 
.\lunici|)ality has com.okcd a ;,'eiieral 
assemhly of citi/eiis li\ district-, 
whose delilier.atioiis ha\e heeil jilaced 
on the hureau hy the presi<lent of each 
district. The .Municijialits has le- 
i|uired that the s.ud deliheralioiis he 
lead: this h.i\ui^ heeii done In oui" 
iiotar\. ieiordin,i; secretary of tile 
cominuiie. whose sii^nature is iielow. 


pi )C I ^lI'.V'I'S 

CI iiitK'i}i.'nfl;in^ ; iiuV'ii (.'I'li-t'iiiRint.'-- la 
\ilif ilVxiuiKin Lt -<.•> (UpciidaiKX'.-' 
cHii Hi lilt pu l'ire ^r]iar(.'-i-^ ik la iia- 
tinii I'laiK'ai-f. y scrd'U rfunu-. A 
IV'ti'i't (k i|ii(i:. M. k' Main- (t (ittit.-ici> 
iiiuniuiiai!\ --l'I!! U'i|Ui^ ik' i iri' ar 
lidViT sur k' clianip k'-- anm'- 'k' 
I'l'aiuc. (.11 íai^aiit ikplaicr |ircalalik-- 
iiieiit L'i'lk'-- (lu Si-S¡<.'l;c, a\ci' Ir rc- 
•-]ici.t lili ,1 ^a Saintclf. imiihih' rl;i-l 
NÍ-ikk' .1. rr.-li-c; .lo il;ar-rr MM, 
Ik \ ri' i-i l'iipiai. le ])rcniKr, aviiLat: 
le M-i'iiii(l. iH',mn.iam. l'IiituT- iiuiiiiri- 
]iau\ ik'ia iii'iliiiu-- liar la iirerrdriitc 
(k-lilieratiiin ih: ( niis'il ,L;eiKTal ilr la 
1 ' iiiiimiiU', (Ir --e tran>|i(irlcr ediiidime 
iiii-iit avec M. I insili aii-~i a\iiiai, pro- 
cureur (le la C' immune, et iidiis L;rettkT 
secretane d'icelle, ■-an- retatil a l'aii>, 
pdiu" l'aire aiipre-- de l'aii^ii-ie a^-em- 
Mée natidiialc et du ivc de- l'i aii(,'ai^, 
ti lille- le- (leiuai'clie- iiec(,'--a!re-. a 
Tett'et d'iilileiiir I'.mu ejitatii ili de celle 
reunicll. el traile! tnUl (e i]Ul Cdll 
cerne le- mterel- ile tii ire ville: -iir 
i|iidi ledil -ieiir 1 i--dt. jni n iiieiir de 
la cdmiiiiuie a rei|ui-, (lu'allendii (pie 
(•ette delilieiatidn e-l unanime, elle 
lut llli-e à exécuti.iii -ui le ( liainp , il 
en l'I in-ei|Ueiu e k- arme- de Iranie 
avant eie placee^ m'II-. un dai-, le t'dU- 
-eil ^t néral iireeéde il'un (letu lunieiit 
(li's jiarde- a\ i-^'Uniiai-c- el de- L;reii.i- 
diiT-. de la j;anii-(in di celie \ ille, et 
ilo ia imiM(|ni' militaire, ;. ai ( diiip.ii.;ne 
k- susdit dais, suivi d'un autre d( taclie- 
tnelit. s'i'-I remili au |i,d,ii-, dii le-dile- 
anius ont été .irlioiees ^ni la pu'- 
niicro pdrtc d'entrée, el eli llleiiie lenips 
eellfs dn St-Sié|.;e (Hit ( le enk-véc"» rcs- 

delikerated tinaniiiìdu-ly liv each -if 
ill" disincls that llie AxigiidUai- na- 
tu ■ ind lite L'dimadins are free, Sdv- 
ereii;n and independent: that, in coii- 
M'(|ueiiee. the ( il\ di' Avi^Udu ;uid its 
depeiideiicie- which Cduld iidt he >e]).i- 
r;ited frum the |-'rench nation, ,ire 
united tu il, l'.y rea-on di' which the 
UMViir :iiid Ine miinici]i,il dl'iicKal- ;ire 
!'e(|iiired tu al unce di-])l;iv the aini- 
dl Irance. lir-t di-|ilacinL; iho-e di' the 
lliily .^ee with the re-pect <\\k- Io lli- 
lldliiie--, a- \i-ilile head di' the 
( liiirch: aiid tu iii-iruct MM, Pev re 
■ ind l)iipr;iì. the t'drnier a l.iwvei, the 
1. liter :i niercli.-ini. nninicip.d driici:iU 
ahe.Klv a]i]idinie(l hy the preceding 
deliheraiidii di the ' dmmunal t'diui- 
( il. id repair tu l'ari- at mice .and wiih- 
diil dehiv 111 cdinpanv w uh .\1, 'li--()I. 
like'\i-e a lawyer, ,uid (.dnimun.d 
att.iinev and lecordiiiL; -ecret.arv di 
tlu- lid(l\. |d t;ike ali me.isiiri's liefure 
llu :i,umi-i \--emlìlv di' the 
Kiiil; di the 1 reuch. which inav he 
ne(e--ar\ ni udì r td dlil.ain the accep- 
Litidii et the unidii. ,uid lo iiei;dti;iU' 
i'e;;ardm^ evervihiiiL; wliuli Kinceni- 
ihe niiere-t- ni oui ( il\ : un w Inch ilie 
^■iciir I i--di. Cdiniiiinial .iiidinev, ha- 
iei|iiired ihal mi \ levv ni the mi.immiU 
di' ihi (lehliel.illdl! Il -hi.uld he ;it 
(Ilice put in execulidii: iiid in Cnii-e- 
(pielii f the ;inil- di' |- lance weie ]il:iced 
lindel .1 (.ind])v .iii(| the L;enerai Cdiin 
111, picdded hv d( I,ii liiucills di .\vi^- 
iidiiais j^ii.ird- .md ::i(iiailui- di ine 
^'arnsdii di tin- citv. .md di ihe mili- 
tary h.ind, .•iccdmp;iiiied the aidre-:ii(l 
canopy, and iiil!.iVV(.I liv aiidiliei de- 


Wì<,\'>\ .\\l) Tili-, \í;\' MSSIX. l?ì! 


Iifctupusc'uicnì, placees le inrmc la> linicnl, RpaÍR,l i,, tlic palacv. \v hwc 

<lai-, et areniiipajíiuV-, par le iiimie iln .ai.l arni, uere di-plave.l .m ihe 

f( lítele a la inai-. .11 ccninuine. du lii>t entrance -ate. an,l at the -aine 

elle- ont ele ,iep.,-ee- dan- un en, Inni tniie tli.-e ..f the ll,.lv See were re- 

•lecent; et pnnr rentiere eNecutn.n -pc'tlnlly reniM-,e.l. „laced un.ler the 

desdites delihératimis. le cnn-ci] a au- 

-aine caimpy and, accmipanied h\ tlv' 

luri-é le Inireaii de ré-ie a t,,nrnir .les -anie pnHe--iun, were carriel tu il,e 
mandat- -ur le tre-nrier de la cm- coininniial hall, where they uere ,1e- 

■■inne pnnr la depen-e de la -n-d,te ited m a pmper place: an,l i,,r .lie 

deputati. ,11 p,.iir la -munie de .|niii/e cúmplete executiu,, ,,,■ tlu- ^aid dehl, 

ceni- livre-, et une lettre de civ.lit -nr eratiun the ( uuiicil ha- authuri/ed the 

l'an- m-nra cuneiirreiice de la a.lmnn-traiu e • ïlicer |, Miirni-h re.|m 

-uniiiie de deux nnlle Iure-, -:ml a mIi.mi- , .ii the cumniiina' ti e,i-ur\ lur 

re.i;ler , n-nite le- de celte .lepn- tin. espen-e- ui the ,ilure-ai,| deputa^ 

';"'""■ "'•l'l'>^''-^- 'l^- l'I"-'. qne le- liuii, tu the -„m ut (itteen linndrcl 

dq'Ute- partiruiu ,jail- le iuur, ,^^^\.■, \nv,-^. an.! ,1 letter ,,| credit u„ i'.ni- 

trait de la pre-eiite délil.erali.iii et up tu the hnnt uf the siiin , .t' lu u ihun- 

celle- des di-ti,ct- leur -erunt .lehne- -an.l hwv-. pu-,pun,n^r Uie IÌmiil; uf 

l'-nr i.aire cn-later ,|e leur inan.Iat, the esp-^i,-,- ui il,,- depntatiun. ]', :- 

qnil -era .■nv,.>e ,111 e.nirrier extra- Iinlher that the .lepiil,..- 

..r.hiiaire a .M. le pie-ident .le la- ^hall .lepan diirm- the .lav. that a ., ,px 

M'i.d.lée nati,.n;de. avec une .a.lre-e uf the pre-eiit .lehl„n,i„'„, ;„,d riu-c 

puni le prévenir .le .ette .lepui.iti,.ii. ui' the .li-lnct -hall leguen t , m 

l.a-emhlee .hai-enU le-,l,t- -u,n - nrder lu hear uitiie- tu their mandate 

deputes ,1e pre-eiiler a laiirM-te a - that a -pecial nie-en-er -li.dl he -.iit 

M-mMee ii.aii, ,n,ile riiuinni.iKe .le -un t,, the pre-„leiit ,,1 the X.ati, ,n,il \- 

re-peet, .le -,,11 a,imirati,,ii et ,1e a -.'mhly u ni, an a M, .-- „ . m |,„ „, ,lu-m 

-'nnn-.-„,ii -an- l„.n,es .•■ se. , leeret-, hei, .idian.l ,,t the .lepiiiati, .n'- arr.v al 

et la-nran.-e .le l,i (l.Ielite .1,- \vi I he a-emhlv m-tnicu -lie -,n,l ,l.p 

Kn.mai- a l.i nali,.n. à la 1,„ et an r,„. „tie- f. pre-..,! t,, the aii«ii-t Vatmnal 

'•' -""n.l,, ,i„e ,iun-,l„ -ecrétaire-.^rel- N-.-ml.K ,¡,, l„„„,., ,„■ „, .^ 

ner >,.mme- uhh^e .le „u.k ah-..i„er r- a.hmratiui, .ni.l „- ni,ln,„te,| -,il,- 

l-nr eette ,lepmati,„i. av..i,-. di, .-..n- ,m-„,n ,,. ,1- .lecree-, a,„l the a-nr- 

-entemem ,hl ( ,.„-e,l o,„,,-,,l. ,„„,„„- ,„,,. , „■ „„. u,,^,,,,^ ,,, ,,^^. ^ ,,,„,„ ,„.,,^ 

cl^ cliu,-, p,„,r pn. -,vretaire-;;relher t,. th.> n,„„„,. „, ,I,e lan an.l ... the 

■M. Xaniiir nutahle, ,,,i, a hien vunln K,,,,, an.l m mcu u, ,he lae, .hat we 

amnu-r l.eln.. .haiKe, e. a pi.u- h- -e, - ,1„. ni,.|er-„ne,l recur,l,n,-eeretarv.' 

metit re,|ni-. De qtu.i et ,h .,„„ e are uM,,..,| ,„ „e ahscn, with thi. .iepn- 

.|.u- .I.-n-. le.hl sienr ¡,n,e„ren, ,|.. 1 , ,,,,iu„. v^e have, with tl.o c.„i-ent ul 

cm.n.nne a re.pns acte, et .se sunt, K- the ,.„„iic,l. nanie.j an,! .hu-.,. 


1)( »iTMi'ATS 

('it-- ^idr-- a- iiililo. -c)iiN>ii;ncs a 
I'ni ¡¡linai, utL'. 

( nllatiuiinc. Siiíiiú; N\Miu. ¡^rc- 

I'cir rc-fordiiijj; >ecretar\-. M. Xaniiir, 
a leading' ciii/.cii, wlui lia> Ijccn ^¡oihI 
ciiiiu.l;1i to aL'CL'[)t the utik'e atuix-.-aid, 
and lias taken the rec|nired natii. 1 he 
■-aid attnnu \ tur the euiinnuiial attor- 
ne\ ha^ reijiiired a inrnial act ot this 
• nid 111' all the al)H\e. and the saiil j;eii- 
lleiiiei; heiiiL; a>>enililed, liau' --ii^ned 
the i/ri^iiial, etc. 

Collated and -i^ned; Xami k, .ict- 
nuj h'ccoiiliììi/ Si'iirtiry. 

. Iiliiirss of tlu- l\,pi\scnUü¡:\- ¡ùniy nf ihc í'oiiilüt ! \-iiiiissin. June 11. 17'M) ' 

\ i.'A.->i'.Min,i I X M loNAi i; 

'Id riii: .Xaiionai. \>-i:mhi.v 

Ml --IIM i;>. ( iK.\ 1 1 KMi;.\ : 

( e-t |iar ror;.;ane di- -«-^ deiiMte^ \\\ the \oiie oí n^ deputies, ir.'ely 

lihrenieilt ehi--, et coil'-tilue^ de])ui-- elected and eoii--tituted. a teu da\> 

|ie\i de joiir^ en \^--einl)lee leiire^en- >nK'e, a- a iei)re>eiitati\ e a>>einl)ly, 

taii\e. i|iie le comte \'enai'->in \ ieiit the Coiniat \ enai--iii come-, to hrinj;; 

])oinr a rauj^u^ii- A-seinhlee to tlie .ui};n^t X.itioi, ,1 ,\.-.enilil\ of 

de I r.iiur ce tnlitit un. mime. Im.iiui tin-- uiiammoiN nihnte. 

( )m. .Me^^ieiir^, r.ido|ition de-, loi N e^. gentlemen, the .id'|itioii ol 

i"iaiiv'ai-e-, il'ou \,i dépendre line I'reiili law--, on which will depend a 

partie de notre iioiiluur, ne ^.iMiaU p.m lí .>nr li.ippiiu -^. will luwertlie- 

iii aii-moin> jiorter 1,1 iiioi :ilre .itleiiili' le-^ he iin.alile to do the ^lii;hte~t m- 

.m rc>perl e, a la lidclite iil\ -olaMe ipie inry to the m\ n il.iMe le-pcct ,md lidel- 

i.ou- coiiver\ el on-- |nv(|n'an deriiiei il\ tow.ird-- oiir )ieiieli''eiit iiionaich 

^oi'pn a notre luenf.ii-.ini nioiiari|ue. whuli we ^h.ill |\e to onr l;i>t 

Xll.iihe-- .1 --on (;on\ei nemeiil pai' lU-^ 1 le.ith Xll.ulied to hi^ j^overimu'llt 

hen^ ipie no-, ca'iir-- rendront ton jour-- \>\ tie-- w iinli oiir hearts will make lor- 

iiidis-oliil li^. lien ne altinr ewr indi>^olnlile, notliiii^^ would he 

IlDs senilmente pom ^.i personne i .i|i.ilile ■ >l ,il' iiu: oiir teehiii;^ lor in> 

^acree ;N repo-enl --m de-- h,i-e- in- -.uied jiei -on , tliev lol upon immo\ - 

ein , ml. d'il-, notre "iweliteiiunl lihre. .ilile Im^c-, olii Irei- coii-ellt, the niod- 

la modtr.itii'ii et I j;éiiero--ile de no-- er.ition .iii'l );eneioeU\ oi mir prince-.. 

I Ar, h flit I . Ut •icrioí. Ull Ui, p 4il,> 

A\ I'.Xi i.\ AM) I III-: \I-.\M<S1\". 1?)1 


ITiiKo, ct l'amour .|ui c-^t k- iu>to pnx and the love which i- the .iu>t price uf 

'11111 M î^^rand hieiilait. kien no -an- -iich a <,rreat heneilt. Xothintr \\,,iil.l 

lait délier du >eniieiit que ii,,u- he . ai)alile ,.i treeiu- u- from the ,.ath 

axon- -I Minvein répété de xculoir we ha\ e -o ut'ten re])eated of w idimj; 

\ivre et mourir sou- >on empire. Ser- to h\e and .lie under hi- rule. Aii 

mem 'lue iioii- veiioii- de reiioiueler oath wliicii '..e have ju-t renewed in a 

dune maniere encore plus authemi(|ue, still iiDie autheiilic maimer, -uue it 

puis(iiiil e-t emaiiL' du unaniiiie emanated fr^m the unaniniouo vote of 

de nos coiiimettaius, exprime dan- no- o,;r cou-titiieni-. expre.-ed in our 

mandat-: serment, enfin, (pie nou- comini-sioii- ; an o uh, tinally, -h.-u „ i. 

•>enon- de lui offrir, cimine ie- pie- have offered limi, .a- the lir>t truil- 

mice- de no- travaux, comme l'element of our lal.or-. .i- the hece>sary element 

néce-saire de notre honheur. (jii'il of , ,ur -ood fortune. this au-ii-t 

-oit connu (le l'unixer- entier, ce -er- oath he known to the whole world' 
ment ;ui!ju-te ' 

[]i\ il e-l con-ol,i:it pour nous, (lu'il 
e-t j^lorieux jiour \ou-, Messieur-. 
de -linger (pi'eii m\o(|uani le- |irui- 
eipe- eleriiel- de la \ ente el de l.i 
iit-fue, nou- ne ri'peton- (pie vos pin- 
lire- priiici])(-, nou> n'iiu (kiuou- (lue 
\o- propre- décret-' . . . 

(Juelle crainte pourraii dt'-ormai- 
iii-jiirer une nation pui— .mie. à la 
\eiite, mais (|iii \ iellt de decl.iier 
-oleiiiiellemeilt (|u'elle rem uce à toute 
e-pece de coiii|ueIe et (pi'elle n'em- 
ploier.i j.imai- ses forces contre la 
hl erte d'aueun peuple i' \h plutiil ! 
«pielle coiitlance -an- ri'-er\e et .-,an- 
hornc ne doit-elle \ki^ attendre, non- 
ne (hron- pa- d'un peuple (pielle pro- 
le;.;e et (pi'elle \ i\ ilie (ian< son sein, 
mai- c|e ton- le- de l'unucr-. 
de tous les vnii- ,mn- du iHinhcin et 
de la hlierlé des homniesi' , 
1 h • il l--f- XlM . /'/,-.ï(,/,;i/ 
k \nii ' . \I m; lixi. 1. .\,-( li'-tiiirr.f. 

l|o\\ coii-olatory it is for u-. how 
l,dorioii- for \(iu, gentlemen, to thmk 
that in iiivokm',' the eternal principle- 
of truth and iu-lice, we are luit rejieal 
in,:; your own principles, we are hut 
iiuokin^ \our own decree-' . . 

What could .i nation in-pire 
heiicelorth. which, thoU};li m li nth 
powerful. h,a- jii-l decl.ired -oleinnU -he reiiouTice- all kind- of coii- 
'pie-i .111(1 -he will iie\er u-e her 
lone- ai^'iin-i ihe hliert\ of am peo- 
ple' \h' rather, what contidence 
without ie-(r\c .111(1 without hunt 
-houM -he not expect, we will not s.,v 
iroiii a people -he proied- .md iiour- 
i-he- in her ho-om. hm from .ill the of ihe world, fr.iiii ,d! ihc 
Mile tîieiid- o' iln- h.'p|ime-- .an. I the 
hli( it\ of men - . 

I >! ( il i<iM>!:, i'rrsiilrnt. 

I\ Gl'Ili I . M \l< MM, 1. \,\ l,l,)li,S. 


[)( )(,r.M!'.\TS 

././(/»■,-.s-.v ,./ lì,,- ¡K-f-ntütifU fr.nn !lir L ity of A:i,jnon, ¡)cii:rir(i brforc the 
\\i!i(>ii<il .¡s.u-iiii'ly. June 1(\ IT'iil' 

Depilici par nil peuple libre, in- l'cputcd by a free, iiulcpendciit and 
di]itiidaiit rt -mivcrain. cc ii'c-<l pa.s -<i\ cTcii^n i)i.'o¡)lc, it is nut in vain that 
111 \am i|iK' ni)u> \c'ntai> ¡r.rcr une we have cnine bere to swear inviolal)le 
lidelite in\iiilaMe a la nation fran- lideliiy tn the l-'iench nation. 
<-'•• -t'- • • • I'lace an milieu de h I'hied in the center of I'ranee. with 
1 rame, ayant le- meine- ni^ein--, le llu; .-ame eii-toni-, the -ame lan,L;iia,L;e. 
ninik' lani^a-e, noll- a\on- \onln a\oir we ha\e wi-hed i,, ha\c the -ame 
le- meine- io¡- ... A |,eine ave/- law- . . . I laidlv had von declared 
viui- declare (|ne lon- k'- homme- -ont that all men are free than wt' de 
hliia-. ipie iioii- avon- \onln l'être. -ired I'leeilom. ( )nr miinicipaütie- 
.\o- mmncipalite- -e -ont ori:;ani-ec- are orL;ai',i/ed accordini; to the law- 
d'aprc- le- loi- établie- par \o- décrets, (-labli-bed b\ \ onr ilecree- and tlie\ 
it iioii^ rtioii- ileià coii-titiie- 1oi-i|ik weTe abcadv ct.n-titnted when the 
de- brei- incendiaire- et t\ ranni(|ne-. incendiary aii.l ;\rannical letter- 
lance- par le X'alican. -ont veini- lannched b\ the X'atican airi\ed to 
tr:i])]ier d'analbème la ( 'on-limtioii Inirl iiathema a,::;ain-t the l-'rn'ch 
iiani,-ai-e - . . , i 1 .'orateur l'ait le < on-litiiiion. . . . ( Ibe (U'ator here 
lablean de- di-po-ition- préparée- de-ci ibe- the -ecret arranj^'ement- pre- 
-ourilcmenl a .\\ i^iioii pour tenter une |.ared a! .\\ii;iiiin to brin^' about a 
comre-rc. oliuion en I'rance I. . . . counter-revolution in I'ranee. ) . . . 

I le- lioinine- arnie- parurent tout .\rmi'd men ajipeared snddenb in 

a coup an milieu de l.i \i!le; bientoi, tin.' centre I'i the town; -oon. bari 

pre--e- de t.iUIe- jiarl-. il- aband .n- i,,v —l ,„1 all -ide-, thev abandoned 

nereiit le champ dc bataille. Le -,m,;, th.- lìeld ol' baille. Tile pure bio, „1 .,í 

liur de- .Hoven- ]ialiioh'- fut con- ¡he ctti/eii patriot- u .1- minified w ith 

tondi, .i\rc celui de- ;i--a--in- i|u'on tliat ni" the a--a--in- who had been 

avait -uscite- contre iLut-, \,k al- -tirn'd np a-,iiii-t r-. < )ur albe- 

lics volèrent rtuin à ir.trc -ec.ur-; et tinalh ha-Ielleil lo ,,iir ai,l; an,| 

... ils -r.nt parvenu- ... à n<,n- ihey -ncceeile.l . m re-toniii; 

rendre la ]iai\. I c len.lcmain de ce- |ie.aci, 'l'he d.iv aiter ihe-e -celle- of 

seèiU's (le <an- cl ,li' ciin.i^e. K- . it"- bl,,,,,! ;ind c:irna;;e, the attive citi/cn- 

yens .iclif- de loii- le- ,h-inct- d, la i^i ,ill the ,h-lrM- ,.f ihe town ..f 

\ ille d' \\ii;niin s'a-semblèreiit le;;ale- \\ii;noii ;i--emb',,l m le^.al conr-e. 

nient, ( "e-t dan- cette ;i— emblée .|iie 11 w.i- in lin- ;i--cniblv ijiat the jici- 

le peuple, cn-idérant (|u'il ne pom ;iit pie, c. ,n-i,lerin,i; that thev cotild be 

> .fff/i. fnrl, Ui «crics. v,,I. I',, p 4rr. 7. \ l.ii.r fr..m tlu- offi.i;il- ,.i 

AviRTion a« to tlic vote nf iho , ity uas to tlic .\sscmMy l)y tanins un J.nie 17 ( i7,ii/„ 
p. ¿5(li ,iiii| „lu- frlliiiB nf simil.-ir votes in tlic ilislrict.« by l'.oiiclir. Iiiiif 10 iihi,l . \, .?(,!»). 

' Omiticl in tlic .,rii;in,i!. 

A\i(;.\(>x A.\¡) Tin: \i;x.\!ssix. i?)! 


(.'•tre ÌK'iirc'U\ ft lilirc (pic ¡lar la (, mi- 
-titiiti-ii irain;ai>c. (k-clara (|u'il ^c 
rcMiii-sait à la I'nnice, (|u'il sii])p!-imail 
Ic- arnn.'> du i)a])(.'. (|n'il y siili^tittiail 
iflK- (hi roi (lu I'Vaiue, et (in'il depii 
tail \or- lui pour lui tcin(ii<;mT k- re- 
^\Kct et la tii!elit(.'- (|nr lui vouaient le> 
A\ i^'iKumais. \0i!> eciinaisse/ ikk 
droit-: Ie> délil)ér;iti( m- de tout le peu- 
lile avii;iii uníais, \(iu> eonnais-e/. 
11(1- motif-: notre roi \eiit être de-- 
¡lote, et non- ne \oulons plus être es- 
clave-. ].;i 1-' ranee e-t lilire: iujus ne 
]ioiu<iii- le devenir (|ue par elle, et nou- 
nou- jeton- daii> .ses liras. {Des iip- 
f'Iiiiiiiissi'iiu-iils rcitcrrs iiitcrruìnpciit 
, t'niti-ìir.) \'ou- accepterez sans 
doute U': jieuple (|ui vous appartenait 
autrelois, un jieuple enlin (|ui a verse 
^on sanu pour le maintien de vos dé- 
crets. Xous remettons sur le Inireau 
le- (lélil)ératioiH de la ville et de l'Iùat 
d'.\v ÌL;non. 

lirijipy :iiid free only hy mean- of the 
i- rendi (oiistitution, declared that iliev 
were united to ¡•"r;mce, that the ]iap;il 
arm- were -iip]ire--e(l and ¡lio-e ((f 
the Kui^ of l-'raiice -iili-tituicd, aii'l 
th;it a deputation -hould he -ent to liini 
to te-titv to the re-])ect and lidehtv 
-wuMi to him hy the jieojile of .\\ ii;- 
noii. > ou are ac(|uainted with our 
ri,:;h!-: the deliheration of all the peo- 
l>le Ol \vij;non. ^'ou are aci|uaiuled 
with our motives; our \\\\v^ wi-he- t(. 
he a despot, and we wi-h to he -lave- 
no Ioniser, h' ranee is free: we laii 

I'ccotue s ily throu,!.;h her. and 

we throw ourselve- into her arm-. 
I Ki-pi-ali-il (ippUmsc intciinpts tlic 
.spi-iiL-i-r.) \nn will surely acce¡>t a 
(ieople who formerly heloii;;ed to \- 
a iieople who have now poured oui 
their hlood to maintain vour decree-. 
We place on lite Inireau the delih- 
eniiioii- of the (,'ity and State of 

.\v ii-lioll. 

rhst lu-porl of the rrauh \atio„al As^emhi: o„ the . ifíair of An,,,.,,,, nid 
JK-crrr Adopted, Au¡¡ust 27. !7'»(i i 

M. Tk.,xc,,,,t, rapporteur. . . . Tkox. mm reporter 

I.C- citoven- on, .te e^,,,-..- par The ci.i.en- had heen ' -laii^Iiiered 

, '■""'"".v<'-i-. ( e-t an milieu de hv tiieir fellow citi/en-. It wa- m the 

-- l-reur- ,|ue la ville ,r Avi.iion a mid-, of then^ hoiioi. ,hat tlle,„v 

;;:;•';'• -"' nidepemlanee e. a de- of Xv„n.,n declared ii- independen, e 

->. -le -a reunion a I l.mpir. .rainai- and a-ked „ „■ ,„„„„ ,,„, ,i,;. ,,,.,„,,, 

, '";' ''■""' '•''""' ''^'^ ^"''^•'"- ^■' I-"T:'v I- ,1 aimd -,uh -.ene- o, 
-lan-lenioi,K.„,„uuiief,nilede,ii,i m,,W, ,„„,,, ,„.. m,„„eii, when a 
'"^ """■'''■■;"' """''-"-"emanKi,- ,r„W(l of fu,i„w- have ahandoned 
•-■n-e. ,|i,Honanuu. ...Ihr uu von tlieir nnhappv , lu that ,. free ,-.d 
l-'"-^' '■! sutn-ant? . . . J,, ne pen-e -a,i-fac,. dv v.,,.. .;,„ h, .,,,,„. V 
' ./(./(. f'l . 1-t ■.(lifs. \,,l. 1». p|,, .V,(K.l;y, 



|ia^ (|iu' rA--ciiiMcc iiatiiinalc ])ui~M.- I <\n iint think that the Xatinnal Am- 
mali ■ihkt la léiinidii (If l'ette i>iii\ini'r -emhl\ eaii 'dialer tlic uiii(Jii oi tlii-^ 

a la Irama" \\:,L;ii(in c^l inic |in.\iii<,a' Ici i'laiice \\i_L;iii'n i-- 

|ir(i\iiu-e (le- h'iai- (hi ]>:ì]h-. (|in ne a ¡naiMiice of the I'ajial State-, and 
pent -e detacher dii >iir])lii> des sujet- ean not -epafate it-elt liauii the re- 
lè eelte iiiii--ance -an- I'aveii de t'Ui- maiiiderdl llie -tilijeet- d that I'^.wer 
le- autre- v'Iti i\ en- i|ni I'liiniKi-elit avec Wilhunl the ecn-eiit nl all the nther 
elle lelte a--i 'Cia.tii ill. tette letinidii iiti/eii- whn with it emniid-e thi- 
ne iliiit pa- -'ii]ierer (]iie ]iar nn traile a--iH'!atiiin. I hi- nnmn mi^ht nut 
entre le pape et la i-'iaiice -dii- le emi- tu he ei m.-uniinated except hy a treat>' 
-ente'iienl (le- l diiit uhn-. San- eela. lielween the l'dpc ami j-'anee, »ilh 
II- -eran ;;ne (1 imiiute interdite jiar le- the cnn-ent ut the peuple (¡1 the 
]irin(ipe- nuiiie de votre (.Mn-titiilinn. ("omtat. W'ithdtit thi- it winild he 
\iiiei en ei .n-ei|neiK'e le pi'djet e(in(|iie-t. whieh i- torliidden h\ the 
de dei. rei i|ne i'ai l'iidiineiir (le vui- \ er\ |irin('i|>le- di' Vdtir Cdiisliuitidii. 
pre-eiiler ; . . Here. edn-ei|iienily, :.- the dratt 

decree \\ hielt 1 ha\e the hmidr tu pre- 
sent to vdii : 

1 .' \--(nililee naiidiiale. apri!'- a\dir d'he XatKHial .\--enil)l>.', havin^;' 

eiiiendn le rappurt de ses cuniini-- heard the rei)drt ut it- Cdnitni--iiMier-. 

-aile-, a decrete et ilecri'le: ha- decrei'd and decrees; 

1". I 'ireii execntion du décret du 1. l' in execnlidii of the decree 
ir inni, -mi ine-ideiit -e retirera jiar ut' lune 17. il- iire-ideiii -hall repair 
(lever- le roi. a l'etiet de Ini coinnin- ln'i'die tlu Kini,' in order to ci itiiniiini- 
nii|ii(.i" le- iidiuelle- ])iece- et in-tinc- e.ite Io hnii the neu ddcunieni- and 
lidii- lelalne- a la petition de- .\\Ì,l;- iii-lrnction- relating; tu the petition of 
ni limai-, ain-i (|iie le- pid'e- et m-Inu'- the people of \\ ii^noii a- well ,is tlio-i' 
tioii- rel,iti\e- ,1 Telai .icliiel dn coin- docnnuiit- and iii-triiclion- relating; 
i:il \Cirii--in. pdin eiic, ]iar Sa Ma- io the pre-eiii -l.iie i if the C oiniai \'e- 
ie-te, pri']ii'-t, et r.\--eiiililee iia nai--in. that that which pertain- Io 
tionale decrete ce (in'il ;ipp;irt!eiiili,i the m.itler ma', he propo-ed li\ Mi- 
ei (|ne cependant le rm -era -up]ilie de .\l.iie-l\. ;Mid deeiee(l lu' the X.itioiial 
f,iire planr dm- le- eiuiron- d'Nvi- \--e!nlil\ ; and iha!, meanwhile, ihe 
i;non et dn i omlal K - Tdiipe- de liLjiu' Ixiiii; -hall he rei|iie-Ied tu ean-e tu 
(pili ili lira Ci III \ «n: il ile-, en i i;,ii d ,iiix he ]il.ii cil in ihe ein i run- df \\ ii;ndn 
ciii'dti-lance- : .uni of ihc i diiilal -neh troo]i- of the 

Ime a- he -hall deiin a(K inalile ni v 'esv 
oí the (ircnin-laiu e- ; 

4". I'\--enililei' iialioiiale eh.artie I Ihe Xalional \s-cnihl\ in- 

Ml pii-Kleii! de faire renietire illi'e- -Unci- it- I'le-ideiil to -eiiil a cop\ of 

A\ I<i\( )\ AXl) i-lii: \'l-:\ M.sMX, 17'M 


^amimnt uik' fNpciIitinn liu ¡irt-.-fUt di-- 
in-t. t.iiit aux (iiììci(.T~. iminicipaiix 
il't U:\uiiv (|u'au.\ k'piiti-, do la ville 
(\'-\\ ijiimii. I'.llf cliartif cii mitre x.ii 
pre-ideiit (I'trriK.- an i)ini])lc a\i!,ninii- 
iiai.-. pour lui tcii;^.i,L;iur la ]inii'(in(lc 
ilduk-ur (Idui flic a Ur aftVctce a la 
\ne ih-- niallirur- qui nut aeci uiipaj^iK- 
k'^ e\ci KM Utili-, arrnr- a Asii^m m, el 
limiter à eiii])|M\er le- iii<.\en- le- 
plu- ettieaee- iimir et'í'aeer iu-(ju'aii 
-iiinenir de ee- niallieiir-. et ]i, mr ré- 
talilir entre imi- le- eil(p\rii- l.i enii- 
eiifde (|i!e leur intérêt imitnel leur 

I. \--euililée, ajire- i|ueli|ue- nmi- 
\elle- Mli-er\atiiui-, ren.! le décret 
-nivau! : 

" I. .\--eiiililt'e nalimiale, apre- 
av'iir entendu le rappurt de -e- ( 
ini--aire- -ur I'aHaire d' \vi,i;tinn, 

Deeiete (|ue le- eil(i\en- d'.\\i;;- 
nmi, (k'lenii- depui- le li juin dan- 
le- pii-i.n, d'( >rai]i;e. -enmi ])rl■^i- 
soirenient elar.i;i-. à b eliar.^e de tenir 
la \ille d'i irauLie p.nir pri-oii. ou il- 
re-teiont -,,ii- la -anve.^arde ile la na 
•i"n !rai!v'ai-e, et .ni il -era |iiiur\u a 
la -uli-i-laiu e de- mûrier- (pii -e trmi- 
\tnt parmi eux. 

\i"uriie. au -uiplu-, le re-ie ilu 
piniel de dei ret i;ui lui a ete ]ir..p.i-,' 
pai" -e- rmniiii--a!'a'-. " 

tili- decree witlimit delay tu the mu- 
nicipal nl'ticer- ot' ( )ian,ue a- well a- Id 
tile depuiie- nt the ( it\ nt' AviL;nmi. 
It turther in-trnct- it- I're-ident to 
write tM the people nt' Aviynmi in 
nrder tu te-til\ tu them the prui'mm.l 
-iirruw which it experience- lu \ lew 
ut the iiu-i'iirtnue- which ha\e accum 
jiauied die eveui- which have taken 
place in \, i-uun, and lu in\ He them 
tu empiu\ the niu-i el-cacimí- nieau- 
whereli\ tu et't'ace the \tT\- memur\ ui 
ihu-e mi-l'urtiiiie-, and tu e-tahli-h 
that haniiuiiy hetween all the citi/eii- 
\\lnch their mutual miere-t enjum-. 

Ihe \--emlil\, alter -e\eral new 
uli-er\aliu|is. pa--ed ilu- I'uliuw m- .le- 
ci ee : 

I he Xatiiiiial \--einhly. lia\ ui 
hianl tlie repurt uf it- cuiiinu--iunei - 
mi ihe atVair ui .\x is^-nmi, 

■ 'ceree- that the citi/eii- ui \-, i-- 
nun detaiii-.'.| -iiue jiuie 1 _' ;ii the 
pii-uii- uf ( )ran.i;e. -hall he -el tree 
pruvi-iuiially, mi cuiulitimi ui' keepnii; 
lu the cilv ut' < ìraiice a- their p''-uii, 
where thc\ -hall •einain under the pru- 
''■'■'i"'i "'' the I reiieh iiatiuu. and 
where the-- .aa'l he pru\ i-mn t", .r uh 
-i-teiice ui the \'i>i knien aniuiiL; them. 
I he -1 ir.aindci '.i the dra I't .h-i ree 
¡Hup, , -ed !,\ It- C'lnniitlee i- ad- 

^'■''"'■''i' "' ■ ^'üti.nKil . Issriiìì'ìv. A .',-,;;//>,-)- Jii. 17'»()' 

l.'\].!ee natiunaie. apre- a\u,r Ihe Xatimial \-enil)h. Iiavm- 

entendu -uu cumii, ,l,plmnatiiiiu-. heard it- I »ipluiuatic Cuuimute. . ad- 

'■'■'. ,..l JO, |, ;Kn Tl„s ,l,>r,-. «.,. ,,rn|...M-.l U M„.,l.,.e.. ,i..t a- ilu- .„|,.-,;,1 


n« ui'.Mi'ix'is 

ainiirnc la iIi-liliiMaiMn sur la peti- ii>urii> (Iclilicrati'Hi (üi the pt-tition ni 

th'ii (hl |)L-,iiik- a\ i;;!i(inai~, et ile- the ¡lenple (jI Avìliuoii. and (lecrec> 

erele que le ¡''i ^era piie de faire tiiat the K11114 he rei|uested ti) >end 

]ia~^er iiu-e>>atiiiiieiit de-- trniipe-. h't'eiich tinop^ lo Avi^niun witiimU 

nanicai-e> à .\\ ii^iiMii, ¡idur y pm- delay, tu liiere protect under Ills or- 

le^er, .-oii> se- ordre-, le- étahli— e- ders, the hreneh e-tahìi-hnients, and 

meni- iranc^'ai-, et ¡ioni- y maintenir, m conceri with the ninnicipal olVicers 

de eoneert a\ee le- otVieiers nninici- to iheie maintain the piiMic peace/ 
pan\. la [laix et la tramniillite jiu- 
liliipie : 

Si\.iui! A'(-/',i/7 ()/ //;,■ Cniìiìiutti-rs ou .¡:i,/iion Rcjardinii tlir rnimi of .h'ii/- 
iioii and th.- dniita! I'nuiissin '..-itli ¡■¡■ancr. an,! Discnssioii hv tlic Assciiiblx. 

M. in. Mi;\iii , iiii nom drs ri)»;//,-.s- 
dil^IoiihUitinc ct d'Azitjuon. 

.Me--ieiirs, je \ieii-. an nom des 
eoniités dvilomatiipie et dWvi^nion, 

.M. Di: Mr.Ndi . in tlw luiiiu- of titc 
Coininiltccs on lh'f'on¡,icx and on 
. Iril/noii. 

(ientlemen, 1 come, in the name of 
the t'onimittee- 011 Diplomacy and on 

lirnp.i-itioM of till' Ciimmittcc mi .Avi^nuii lint a^ rc¡iroscntini; tlio iipiiiiim „t the Comiiiitlcc. 

1 )<crei-s ha.l Leon proposed on tlie lOtli an. I ilie 18t!i by IVtioii ami Robespierre rt-spect- 
tively. bnt not votcl on. T!uy were as follow- : 

Draft necno propo-c,| by r.tioii, Xovcniber Ifi, i;9l) (i/'i,/., \,,|. Jll. (i, 4S1Ì. 

" I.' \sscmbli-e naiionalc d.H-Iare que la \ille il'.Vviijnoii i-t son territoire font partie de 
1 1 inpire lran(;.-ii- l'Ile ],rie ile roi de lu'Mociir .ivis- la cour de Rönn- sur les indemnités qui 
IH.nrr.iuiit iri >ire ibu--. pour ir-nitc les arti.-ks .Tinsi lurocié- ."tre fournis à son e.\ainen, 
admis, modifiés ou rejétés par elle. F.lle le prie, on ontre. .l'envover à \vitnon une <iiiantité- 
<U- troupes de lu;n,' iraïK'aises sufii^ante pour prévenir le- troubles et iiiaintniir la paix." 


"Tlie N'ational .\ssenibly declare- that üe City of .\vli;non .ind its territory form a part 
of ilie [■•reneb Fmpire, ît reípiests the Kinu' to iieRotiale with tlie Court of Rome as to 
wliate\er indemnities iii,ay be due it. aiul that the resulting anieles of tbis negotiation lie 
fiiriii-bed t" it f-r . \.Tnilnali-ii, to be aei-e|ited. amende., .ir reie.t.'d bv it. It further re- 
quests the Kin^' to send tf> Xvisnoi, sufTieient numbers of F'reneh tro.ip- ,,1 the line, to 
previuit troidile .-ind maintain peace." 

Praft Dei-ree pr..p.- = e'' by Robcsfiierre. \oveiuber 18. 1790 ( i7'i,/.. v oh JO. p .-.ÎOV 

" I,' \vsei,ibl,e nali.niale déclare que la ville d'Avijinon et son territorie f.uit partie ,!e 
ri'iiipit.' irane.Tis or.lomie que tons ses .I.Vr.'t- y seront .lus-it.M eiiv,.yés pour y être exé- 
cutés cmmie .lan- le r.'sie de la l'arance " 

fTraii-lation ) 
"Tbe Xati.m.d \— embly .!. .lares that the city of .Avìruiui aud its territorv form a part 
of tb,. I'reneb Ijnpire. and orders that all its ileerecs shall b.' '■cut ilure at once to be e\e- 
.'utol .-.- ill the rest of France" 

1 .li:lt. f-.irl., 1st series. \i.|. 2.\ p. 4.s2 ,•/ u-q. 

A\1(,.\()X AM) •llil.; \|;\AIS:^I.\. ]7'n IS),v. 1. nouveau à vuirc,lcl.l,cra- Am^,,,,,,, „, a^a.n >ul,n,„ „, v,,ur 

lion uu. r.c^tu.u M,r la.iucllc ,1 .>. o .nsidcTat,, „, a .|uo-.tu.„ uh,,!. „,u>t 

temps n,in. ,k- piououaT .loiiuitivc- he tinallv «leeulcl ,i v,ni uis], ,,, pre 

ment. H vn„. vuukv p,■e^emr la ,ie- Nent the .k-trmii, ,n ui 15l)iH)(i n..!- 

struet„.„ ,le 1 5(),( .( .0 n„hv„h,- In re. M,luaK. ,^nen „ver 1,, all th'e hnrn.r. 

a I.-utes les l„,rreurs .l'une KU^Tre , „" a eiv.l war l,,s,,re,l hv ,hc „„,-• 

eiMle annieiuee par les payions le, violent passons, 
¡ihis \ idlente.s. 

l-'eiat ,^A^i;:nnn et le ( ,,n,tat W- Shall the State „t \^,í;n,,n an,l tlf 

nai-Mn s..r„m-,lsre.m,>ala Kran.e^ (,.„Uat \ena,ss„, ,,, „„„„, ,;, 

I, la .,nest,nn sur la,|uelK vous h.-anee: 1 hat ,s ,h, ,,ueM„,n v„u 

ave/ a .lehherer. have ,o cnnsuler 

• e,te ,,nes„on se suh,l,vi>c en plu- The ,|Uest„m mav l,e ,liv¡,ie.l mtu 

^'^■'"■^ l''""^'^- scerai parts 

<J„n,:ir„:r et ¡Wnirr, (Jursl,,.,, /w/7.v;,//, .„„/ /,,,,/ nu.stio,, 

Ir l'VU lirs . I:i,/ii,iii,iis rt ¡irs i'mn- 
tihiiiis i\<t-il siíítistiiiuunit ,\v¡^riii!i'/ 

l'hisii-ufs actes îles phis autheii- 
tii|"Cs. passis depuis le mois de mai 
(le 1 année dernière, iu-i|u'aui(iur- 
d hin. proinem é\ idemnient le Meu 
des \\iyn.jnais pmir se reunir à la 

I.'tui en date <l;i 14 juin 17<»0 ot la 
dclihüratioii des ') districts dWvi.iinon 
et <iependanees, \(i.,uii lorîuellemetii 
la remiion à la hrance. . 

Il résulte de tmit ce (|ni je \icns 
d'a\.iir riKinneiir de \nus dire. Mes- 
sieurs. 1" (|uc .s'( communautés du 
Ciiintii ont pris, de])uis le mois de 
juin 17''i) jus.|u'aii mois de fc\ rier 
l"''l, lies délihératiiiits authentn|ues 
jxinr so réiuiir :\ la l'r.ince; 

-" '.»ne depuis le 14 j.invier 
jiisi|u;iu JO du mi'ine niois, toutes les 

/■■'• ll:r ,-.'/,■ ,./ flu- pc,<pl,- ,<f .lri,i- 
i:<in ,ni,l ,,f the d'iiitat sii/Fuinitlx ,\v- 

Several most authentic acts occur- 
iin.tí silice the month of M,iy of List 
.\car, up tu the present day, prove 
clearly the desire of the ¡»copie of 
A\i^non II, uniie theniseKes to 

One, under date of June 14, \7'>ti. 
Is the decisi, ,u of nine districts of 
\vi;,mon and its deiiendencies, votui;,' 
iormall\ f,,r union with 1-iance. 

it follows from all that I have just 
liad the honor to s;iy to \ou. t^aMitle- 
iiicn. ( 1 I that tifty-nine communities 
"Î tlieC have, since the month of 
.lime, \7'K). and up to ¡he month of 
I',irv, 17'M, m.-ide aiitheniualed 
ilecisioiis f,, unite themselves uith 
I'rance : 

- I 'lat from rhe I4th of (,ui- 
nary to the JOth of thi',. ,,„„,(1. 


I)( ìlT.MF.XTS 

C(ini!inim'~ ilii t'niniat, cxccpti- \ al- all ilu' c-(imiiinnos of the Cointat, ex- 
róa-~, ont, a l'cNfiiipU' ile ( arpi-ntra^. cept \ alréa>, have. lollo'Aiiifi the e.\- 
arlioie le> alines clc l-'rance. cl mani- ample of Larpeiitras. raised the arms 
ie>le leur vn.u pour la reunion: of {-'raii'-e and mamfesteil their desire 

for the union : 

4" 'Jtiil n'exi-te aucun arte ¡lorianl 
revocation de- delilieration- de- r'' 
C(.mn:une- citée- ci-de--u-, ou éma- 
nant de- .ì'' autre-, pour nnmfe-tcr 
un \'eu contraire a la reunion; d où 
ie conclu- avei' ton- le- départements 
cnuronnant-, i|ue le Men de la m;i- 
jonté de- lialiUant- ilti ( omtat e-t en 
fa\em' de la réumon. 

k'rsiniu' (il ih rai 

J'ai prou'.é c|u'a\anl le- années 
IJJ", 1_'74 et LUS. Avi-non et le 
ConUal \'en:ii--in axaient toujours 
tail, (inoiipie -epare- entre eux, p:u - 
tie inte^r.ante ilu ( "inte de l'roxence ; 

I Mien ]_'_"', de l'axeu mente du pape 
'ire,i,;oire IX, le C omtat ne lui avait 
ete cède (|u'.i tUre de depot ; 

• Jn'en \2}r>. ce coi.u ' axait été rc-- 
tuue au Comte de I oulou-e : 

• ju'en 1_'74, Philippe le Mardi, 
auijuel il n'ajipartenait p,i-, ii'a\ait ])u 
le céder lé.nitimement au pape < ire 
}:one X : 

I Jn'en 1 1_'.\ I,H)S ft l.U,?, ce- <Wu\ 
etat- ;i\,uent ele i;revé- de -uh-titu- 
tion-, ;i\ec delcn-e e\¡ire--e d'aliéner; 

'jue, d';i|iie- n -uii-lilulion- et ce- 
di- len-e- il'aliéiier, et a def, ml de ma- 
jorité, jciiine n';i\ :iÌ! ])ii \enilre \\i;,.;- 
l^^ 'Il en l.vIN ; 

(Jue, en con-i((;ience, la m'UI.' ou 

4. That there exi-ts no act e\- 
pre--inL; a relocation of th.e decisions 
Ol the iift\-ihiie coniimines alioxe 
cited, or emanatiiiL; from the thirte- 
nine other-, to -how a de-ire cr.ntrary 
to union; from which 1 conclude, with 
all the nei^dilioriiij; :le])artment-. that 
the \(>ie of the inajoritv of the inhah- 
il.ani- of the ( 'ointat i- in favor of the 
unii m, 

(í'díiTi,'/ Slllllììliiy\ 

1 lia\e jiroved that hefore the \ear- 
1 _'_"', 1J74, and \MX. Xvv^mni and 
the ('omtat \ enais-in. althouj^h sepa- 
rate from each other, formed an iii- 
tej^ral part i^i the (."ounty of rnnence; 

Ihiit in 1_'_"' l'o])e (iregory IX 
himself admitted that the (.'omtat liad 
lieen cede<l to him only in trust; 

1 hat, m l_',vs till- t ounty was re- 
-lored to the I 'ount\- of 'roulou>e ; 

That, in 1274 I'lnlii» the I'.old, to 
whom it did not heloiiu;, did not h;i\e 
the ridili to ( cde it to l'ope (¡ref^orv 

That, in 11_'5. K^OS and KU.^. tho-c 
two -t;ite- were encumliered with en- 
t.iil- with expre-- ]iriihiliition af^ainst 
;ilienaiii in ; 

That, on account of the entail- and 
prohiliiiii III ,ii;ain-t .iIicn,ition, and he- 
i;iu-e -lie wa- not of a^'. ii.:in had 
no power to -ell .\\ i.L;;ni)ii m l.US; 

I iiat. con-e(|ueiUl\ , the -aie or ab- 

A\ li,.\i i.\ AXl) IUI-; \ |.;\ \is.v 



IX. 17"1 


a tni~; 

a-.n„ al,M,:„. ,1. cc^ d.nx lua.. .,a,t .,!,:,. a,nv.y;:,uc ,„ ,1„„. ,.„ .„,.. 

.Ic tnui. nulhu. c, „e ,„„,vau mm au ua. null an,l v,„,l ,„• ,,.„1.1 at ,„..., 

plu> arc cu„M,lmr ,|iK. o.mnic mi l.c reinan loi ,„, h a. ax-atin.. 
simple (.•n^Mi;ciiicm : 

<>>.,,.„ ^mu .lu ,in.u ,i-l>c>, 11,,,. l,v ,■„!„ ,„ n„u.,ma,u. ,1,. 

1- r,.„ .1, .\a,.k... c,.,mc. .Ic I'm- Km,. ,„ Xa,,l,.. ( n„,„. ..f l '....vnux- 

vcua. ,.m cmnm. ,r.trc. !.. v,aw luve o.mnmcl ,„ he ,!,. n^la.n! „u m: 

lM..i.n.tanT. ,k- ... ,lcux .tat> ; ,,-. nf ,1,,,.,. ,u,, ^,at..' 

un- Venn ,ln UMamcm .ic That. 1,, ,h, la-t . ,1] ami u..,amc,u 

Muilc. 1\, ,!,nm-,- o.mtc .Ic 1',-,- ,., , i,..,,,,, ,\^ ,,^^. ,_.,_^j ^_ ^.^^^ 

^"'''' '•""" ^'•.'- ^ '—■ -^ v,mc., I...m. X!. Ku„,., iTamv h,. 

smrcssc-nr. ei anjuunUmi la m.t.nn Muve.M.r.. a>„l „ , ,iav ,h, I-r,,,.',' na- 

•nn„a... .,„, .l.v.nn> k. l.,n.uc^ ,„„, ,,avc l.o.n.c ,hc lau n,l ..,n'r. 

pn.,.nc,a„T.,lAv,.,„,nc-t,lu(„umu ..f Av i^non an.l , „ ,h, ( „„„at Vcmu.- 

U.„a..Mn. ,l,„„a,no. ,„al-v„al,k. ,k- .„,, .„aluaiaM. cMa,.. a,,n,r.cna„t t,. 

pen.iani ,k la i'nnriKc: rniNciice- 

Un. la ,K....„„ ,k. pape, n'a That ,h, I'opc. ha., never l.a-i 

i-iMU,> et, pa.Mhk et .u, ,„u. „ux pea,efnl p„„ a„,l ,ha, all -h,., 

'!'" ""• ™ ''':■" ■■' '^' ^•'"- ""• -' -1- I'a.l anv n,ht. n, the pfenn.,. 

■k. ace. .,„t cnn>ervat,.ires, ...i: have exernte,! .ke,K euher „f enta,! , „• 

< )nc „,e„,, .|neI,|ue.-„„, d'entre eux ' ^1,^'' ,n, ,., U,e elannan,. ewn 

"".""• ''^' """^' '■'' '•'-"••"'^' 'l^' '-- '-1^- I>-^c...i„n „f ,h, ,u„ ,„u„tr,e. 

'"'"^ ^''^ '"■^■"••"» ' -^•"" 'l^' ^-^ an.l enjn,,,| ,h, ,nll ...e „f ,i„n- 

-kux p,ay.. ^,,,,,j^ 

.la, e,alemen, pnm.e ,,„0, .up- | have hkeui., pn.„I ,i,a, ,h, 

I"-nt,,mle.Av„n.,„a,.e,!,.t.u- Avi.m.nai. ami the t „nmulu' Z 

•Hin- .ta.ent autret,,,. .kux peuple. .nnnn, ,i,,„ , ,„,,, ,,^.„ ^,„.,;,^,,.,^. 

'■''"^ ^■' ""''•■'-'•-- 'N '- -ece.- nv., tree an.l u„l,p,u,l,n, p,, ., : 

.an-en,ent e,„,.er.e ,e earaetere ,k .nu., have pre..rve.l',h„:- ,„,,nv „Í 

I'i'riteet,lm,lepe.,.lance: .n.lep,n,lenee 

Une .,. ,1, kur piente et enttere v,,- That, ,, f„rn„rh ,l„v freeh .uh- 


"■• "^ ^'^ ^"';' ^""^^ """"-'" nu,tc.l„,,h, papaU,,.,n,n„m tlu 

^""7"""""'"'.'^""''"^ "■■''-''■- '-u.t„-.lav,h,Ulut,.,h,,n„e-,: 

^^J..nn,em. ,ehu , ,e remur a la n,ht t„ „ ,„ ,ne Fr.u i nati,. 
-;■-;.; 'ra,,,a,.e..,,. y ,n,uvent leu,- tl-y „„,.,,,:- .,„,, ,¡,„.^.. ,., „;,.;; 

a<l\a,ita,í;e : 

a. a,ifai.e 

-n.l. ,I„„n,,- eette ,-e.,„,„n, en vertu „ther, akr th,. uninn a. „f „. . ,, „ 

»le ...n ( .,.11 ,Ie 1 :,,-,-, ,,.,.r ,. lll.nvMi 

i" ' av . i 

pt ,1 a. lia. ed i.n il. 

102 DoCr.MI-.XTS 

(le (■(.■lui ilc> Avi-iiniiai^ fl riiuit.idiii?; ri^lu- í't the Aviyuniiai.-, ami ('oni- 


< 'n'il -i-rait ci^ak'tncnt dcsavanta- Tliat it uoiild he equally di>acl\an- 

-eiix ]i(iur la I'raine ct iiiuir k> Coin- taj^'i-mi^ lur IraiKc and lor the (.niii- 

lailiiw i;l .\vi.L;ni'nai>, «luc ictlc re- ladin> and .\vÍL;n(inai> if tlii> tini. in 

unii '11 nV-ui ¡la- lieu; c|ue eette nieNure did not take jilace; that this measure 

ne peut lai^oiiualilenuiit eau-er ui in- ean not rea^mialily eause either anx- 

qtiietude ni j.dou-ie. aux ¡ieui)le> et iety or jealousy to foreign ]!(■• .pics or 

Jinnee- étian.u'ors. [iriiices. 

.. • , .. T 1 i:i : I .l,.,t I r 

I'ai e,L;alenient prouve que, l.i or- I h:i\e likewi-e proved that hy or- 

■tniant eelie reunion, la I'ranee ne <lerin,ií tlii> union I'ranec would ni li m- 
iir.ievenau fi aueun de -e- deeret>; ínniLíe mi any of it- own deeree- ; 

< )ue le vieu des I onitadiu- et Avi- 'I'liat the widi of the L'oiutaihn- and 

11 mai- était sut'tisamnient exiiriiné. Avi,i;ii< 'uai- ha- heen -utticiently ex- 



le e' 'iiehis. en i'on-é(|uenee 

à la ré- I conciude, therefore, that Aviijnon 

' ''le ( 'onUat W'liaissiii should he 


le e^nehis. en idn-e(|uenee. a la re- 1 conclude, tliereiore, tua 

tiiiimi d'\vit;non el du (."ointat \e- and the ( 'ointat \'eiiaissin 

nai--iu à rh'.niiiire train;ai-. i.l/'- unitili to the I'reneh lull]» 

pìiUKÌissciiicnts à gauche.) f^liiiisr un the left, i 

\'niei le ])rojet de décret nue je sui- 1 1ère i- the draft decree which I am^e de von- pré-enter: instructed to pre-ent to you: 

•• 1,'A-seniMee nationale, après " 'The National Assenihly. its coin- 

a\oir entendu le rapport de ses comités niittees on Diplomacy and i ni Avit,'- 

(hliloniatunie et d'Avijiiioii décrète ce non havinii heeii heard, decree- as 

(|iii -uit : follow-: 

■• 1"'omtat X'en.iissin et la ville " 1. The ( \'enais-iii and the 

iT \\ iuiioii, avec leurs territoires et dé- ("ity of Avit;non, with their territories 

peiiikuiees. fullt parties intejjrantes de aiid deiiendencies, coii-titute intej,'ral 

riùiipire fr;iiKai-, parts of the French lùiipire. 

... ■• t ., ■) •ri_ 1.-. 1...11 1 . ..„1 ., 

riùnpire fr;iin;ai-, 

" _'" Le roi -era prié de nommer 

■11 7 . ... 

- Wl IIIV. l l.lii|/iiv. 

2. Tlie king -hall be requested to 

" _'" j.e roi -era prie de nommer _'. i lie Kmg >naii ne reque-ieu to 

le plu- iirouiptenient po--ihle, 3 com- name, as proni])tly a- possihle, three 

mi— :iires cliar,i;és de -e rendre ;'i .\vii;- comnii--ioners who aliali l)e instructed 

non el lians le ('iimt:it \'enaissin, avec to j^o to .AvÍL;uon and the Conitat 

iilein- ]>oinoir- jiour cou-nni -ler la \'enai--iu with lull power to con-uni- 

réuuií'U. faire ce— er toutes vuies de mate the union, to -top all acts of vio- 

f.iil et ho-tilite-, reiptérir, s'il est he- leiice and liostility, to refitii-ition, if 

-iiiii. le- troupes de li.ííiie et j;,irde- nece-sary, the troups of the line and 

natioii.iles de- déiiarleiiienî- environ- the National (¡uard id the -urround- 

nants, afin d'y rétablir le bon ordre et iii},r departments in order to restore 

la tranquillité qnii't and good order. 

la tranquillité 

i> I ., - .: ... » ,..-:.'. .1,. t'-iit-.. n/MurliT 
*-- : ■ ■: ^ -1 ¡ 'r. 

' rile kiu'J i- redue-tei! to enter mio 

A\Ii,\M\ \xi) -Jill.- \ i:.\.\iSM.\. 17 



aNcc la cu„r ,],. R,,,,,,- .„r li- !n,k-ni- ik-, .tiai,,,,,. uiili i1r. e.-urt < . I^mnc 

niti- ci RinlKmrH'iiKiil. .|ii, pnurm.u iv^anlni^ ti,,- „„Icnniii., and ivni- 

Ini clrc k.^.tniKMRni ,1,,.. ¡.ummk-iin >hat may l,c lau i;ill> 

lllU' it. 

■■.^" \-v l'rcH,kMit i,R-si,ikTa 'Ian. - .v Tl,.. I'n-.„l<'ni -liali, tin- stn-e 

l>M-nrk'inc>eni ,krr.t a laaq.tat.n, day. ,„c-cni the |„v-ctu .l.-riar f. t'ir 

"" -'"^•""•"1" v.u. K,„. .Mraaq,ta.,r,andapi.r.,va!. 

I. .\"i'n,I,kr nati.iiiak. diai-c ,^c> - 1 !„■ .\ati,.nal A--rnil,|v niMni, i~ 

'■■■nnu-. ,k ( ,MNtitn!„.„. d,,,], , mattine it- ( ntninnicv. , „i tin- ( . .n-t.lut .mi. , ,n 

i't .1 \\i,;;, ,k- Im piv-cntcr ,iue- Diplnni.u •. , ,n,l ,,n .NM-ii.m ¡..rtli- 

.-ainnR.ntct .lapre. ko.niptoMUi -era unii tn lax l,cin,v it. nf aa. .nlaii, c 

U'iKln par k-, cnninii-siirc ,ln n„. nn u,th a ivp,„t m 1,.- ni.a.k I,v tlu- vn^■.ú 

pn-H-t ,k .kvrct -nr k'- ni,,xcn- ult.- o .innii-M, ,irt.. a draft d.vrcr a-'i,. 

ranrs d .■xeriitin,, p,,;,,- cilotuer kin- i-„rilKT niran. ut' flÜTtn.iinin 'hv ni 

^■'■■P"rat:nn ,k' la \dle d-\v,^r,„,„ ,., o .rp, ,rati,,n ..i' the Citv ,,t .Xv-iim,, 

dn (nnitai \ cna.-,in à Tlanpire tran and ,,{ the- Contât Xcnai.-nt mu, t!,.- 

'''"^' liiiich Ijiipiíe." 

„^',' ^'"^'"''' ^'"■'^"'1"' M.t.'A,,,,,- M.,Kv. . . . Snuvth. 

A. k rappnrtntr v,„„ a dentando rl.atnnan !,:,> re,|nc-ted -everal dehu - 

i'ln>irnrs ,kla,. p,,,,,- ,a,re -,„, rap- in , ,rder t- , ;n,d.e in- re p. .r, u..nldx.V, 

|^,:u>,,;l•,Iycnt,k.^ln- tlinik U nidi-crnt t^ ad. that aetLm 

di-nvt„„i a v.u. ,,ne k tluren,, l,e adionrned: , l/'n-,.nnv 

rnppyn tut ajnnrner iMnruunrs .) „n thr l.cft.^ ... 1, von u,d, f, 

■""","■•' ■ ■ • •^' ^""^ ^""'''^ --i^'- .^ratit the n.rc-.arv ,klav ,,, th. d, 

o.fder aux delen.air, de. dn.,,. dn fender. ,,f die papal r.^ht. x . ,n ean 

pape le dela, ne.e^-aire. v.nis p,,„ve/ de.lare pr,,x„„,„allv that vi.u take 

'l''''a'-'>- pn>>enl ,p,e vnn- .\v)^n,,n and the ('nnu.n \ e„a,.M„ 

P'vne. .Xvi^nnnet kC.tntat Wna,.- nnder v,,nr -peeial pn.tea,.., and 

^ni s,,us v,.tre prnteetmn -peerde .pie that x,,n pp.hihn a:i Ir.-tde aeu 

'""V ''^■'^■'"'^■^ '■"" ^"■•^' 'n„,Mn,te. ,here,n. W halexer dee;-;,,,, v , „, .„ax 

'J.K'lle ,|ne ,l,„xe et.'e x,.tre dehhera- e,.„,e t... and alth,,.,,h ll,,. d'eeree .„• 

"""• 'inan.l k deeret de renn,,.,, de- ,:„„„, .1„,„¡,1 ],, ,,,..,,, ,„ ,,„^ ,^,,^„,„ 

^■a,t ette pn,n,,nee dan- eette se;nu-e. ,l,e ni,.-, ,„•,.„, ,1,:,,^ ,,,,„|,I ,„11 1,J 

'' ">■ •""•'" '"'•"""■^ '••^■" '1^' Plu^ nr- tn lr,n^ al,.,nt a ee-ai;,,n ,.f l„.-td,- 

^'■;" T" ''' """' ''""■'■ '^'^ '"'^""'^^^' •■^■- ^""' "•^' '!-■'■- I 'l^"^' ^•-1--: ■■- 

; ile deeret ,|„e,,,-e;nten,l,e de v,,tre x ■ .nr hnn,a,ntv u . .nhl ;n anv ea>e ha^ e 

l'nn,an„e antan t-.nj. ,•;■•- ddienvenx a h.,ppx elïeet 

< lïe!. ... ■ ■ ' 

,,/';,;';:''7^'';'''''''^ -•••'''- > ->< »-. .l.e V--en,I.h. al,eadx 

in-lin,.e de- ir .ni...- ,|,i. i,,t,.re-,nT ;„,-.,,- i . .- .i. ,• , , ' ... 


Ih iir.Mi;x rs 

il'aiuiim plii- -,i ^nl'. ¡iin'.f. i|n'i'lk' ;i 
.■i]:]in^ ipU' 1 'ct,-!;; an ii>'i'.i t\u la l-iaiiic 
i|iiiiii 'tiiiai! lie lain- di-- ci)iii|iK-ti'-, 
<K''ci:,rr 'lUrlk- ¡lUil'l -i.iw -a ¡H'l ilrc- 
li.iii -|m ¡all' ¡a \ ilU- il' \\ Ìl;iI' ìii i-l 
ii'üic- U'- ( I I'linunn--- (111 t'.Miiiai. «.-t 
i|u\'lir (k'íi'inl ]>i'i i\ i>i nix-miiH \><u'v 
i-|" IT il'll' i-Iililr, 

I II !iu'iiii>''r 1/ ¡¡iiiii Ih' : i'.I ik' i|ili'l 
ijniit - 

M I ' \!;';i M \i m , l-'ii \cnii 'In 

(lliMl SUIT '|ln.' Itll ildlllK'llt k-. lirll- 

tii iii> ik' la \ illf il' \\ little pii i-l ilii ( (liu- 
tai. (|iii ('III ri'(.lanic ^oii intcr\ i.'nti( 'ii 

I't -a pi ( itlHlK .1!. 

,M. hi I 'l I i; \l(i\ 1-1 (iN M".i;nk, . . . 
l'aiipiiH' . , . l'aiciinRiiu 111 in^(|u;ui 
(k'-lai (k-maii'k- |> ir M , I'aMn- Maiir\ . 
«.■1 ic (Icinaiidi- i-w (Hiin-. (|tK' M dt- la 

liiiir Manin ini|4, (|iii (■■iiiiiaii mik'Us 
"UK' II. (iw I'liat (k's <li(i-i -, |iiii-(|iril a 
I III k- \(Aam' (IVm^ikih I'll (Hiali'.c 
lie ("Ictu-l lilt I (■L;iniiiii di' Soi^xiiiai^. 
\rii:lk' liuii tidii- nidi.UK'i' k'> illnwii^ 
«I'.p liii |iaiai-^iiil k'-- |ihi- |)r(i]HT-> .i 
rclalilir Ic calnir (Ian-- \\ i^iu ill, d t( ml 
|ianniilii'iT'iii"iii k'> iiKAiiw (k' ri'tii'iT 
dii I ' nilal k'- dr-crti'iir^ Hain;,n-. (|ui 

i"iii \<<u\v la iMicidi' i.\-\\<.- aniur iirc- 
Icndnc 1 1 II Ml .1 ■•|iK' a lai pul If iK ^i- >i iiil 

|| Hlll- 

\l k'lir.i -I'll i;ki , 1 (■- li( (IT (.111^ (|ui 
I ml (k'-( lie k • ' ■lilla! ~( '111 nil pic -ani 
Miiilií 'k' lialt-r iiuiM dclilx lalmn i-t 
111 III dc l'elitra'. I'l ft di' la rdaidcr pai 
(|i ■ di-(n--!( III- inntik-- ( m 'le- ta 
lik'atlN i'\a^;i'iT- de I.i -itiialinii dc-- 
( 'i.mtadii!-. 

I'c-pcak it- l'aro all tlu' iiinri' In'can-^i'. 
a- ii ha-- k'aiiU'd, c iiiiiiU'-t- lia\i' lni'ii 
, Ilitiipli'd "I tÌK' iiaiiR- I li l-'iaiuT', till' \--(.'nilil\ t.aki' till' (n\ di 
\\!i;ii''n .and all tin.' i. iiniiiiiiu'- ni tlu' 
I i';i!; It nink'r it- -pi'i' |iri iti-itmn 
•and priiliiliii prd\ i-intially ,ill iii.aiiiKT 

I ■! ll( '-tilitit-, 

. / ,ii,-iiil',-r "i; ,'//,' /.(•//. And li> ri^iit : 

M. I.' \r.i;i M \^K^•, I'.y tln' -.uii'd 
i'L^liI c niirri'd li\ llii' prtitKHi- ut tili' 
t it\ dl' A\ÌL;iinii and ut' tlu' (.'umtat 
which lia\i.- MiMikc'd the inti.'r\ iiitidii 
alili jirdUTti. '11 di tin-- Imdw 

M. m; ( I.I.NMdN I TdNM-.KKK. . . . 

I . , . -nppiirt a |id-tpiiiii.'iiK'nt inr 
till' li'ii^tli df tiiiii- a-ki'd fur h\ M, 
till' Alilii- Mann : and I liiitlur a-k 
that .\l. di' I.. I rdur-Manhdiirj;, who 
kiidw- till' -tati' di llnn).;s ln'ttcr tiian 
we. -iiiii' hi inaik" tho iinirni-N tu 

\\ lull' in ill t., I- >ajiai-il\- di l'ilmii'l di 
till- Siii--dii n'i^inii'iit. will i-c indi- 
i-.iti' td II- till' iiK'.iii- th.ii -Clin td him 
iiid-t -nit.aiik' id ri't'-t:il)li-ii (pi;i-t m 
.\\i:-;iidn. and iii'in' pariuiilarK tlir 
iiu'aii- td (Iraw irnin ilu- i dinl it tho 
lii'iiih ili'-iTti'i- wild idilli dti- 111. nil 
idiTi- di till- prt'ii'iidcd p.itridtii' arnn 

II I w hull lllr\ .11 f alt.u lli'd. 

■ ! K'lir.i -I'll K'Ki I lu- hdii-dr- 
lll.i! h,l\ r di -"latrd till' I 'Ulla! Ill.lki' 
.1 prt'--iiii; ica-iiii in Ihm-, mir (klih 
t r.itidii and !i..t t" hnidir .iiid idard 
II l'\ ll-ck'-- (h-i n-^idii- 111 f\,ii^i.;i'i - 

.itrd pu'tnri'- ,,\ the -itn.'in.'ii di the 

pc.p'c di ihr s ..MÜ.il 

uiMu d Hill- Inni' .|ii( 1, .'iiipu' I (. -I'lid .in\ |. .ii-c w h.itcu'i iiild tlu- 

\\|i,\(i\ WD Tin; \¡.:v \¡ssi\, !;■»! i.¡5 

il;iii- If Ccnit:il. ^an- la (livl:ir;iti..n (lo i mutat. whImiu a dcilaratiñii ,,i 

ri'Mii!..,, .à la l-raiKc, ^crait imc \i,,la- mii.>ii u)ili I rana', wniild lie a mani 

ünM niaiiií.M,' .¡li tiTniMirc ctiaii^ir. t\>t Mclalhi^. .,|' t'^.tri-n iiTrii. .r\ . li 

>; ii('U> ii'av,.ii^ atu-iiii Wr.nt -ur ìx- u c lia\c im n-lits ever tlii> oumrv, 

IM\-. iioii. uv iiuiu,,n. y niv.iyiT uc cali ii, n >imi(I an aini\ iIrto witli- 

«1 arint-c -ansctr.'ilo, ,,|,|,ros.,fiirs. Si .mi l.i-iii- ,,|,|,rr~.Mr- li ^ i. ]y;^^^. 

iiniK a',,.ns ,!,., .In.ii-. ,1 faut le (k- ri-lii>, we inn-l declare it and art 

dater et a.^ir .-an> délai. D'ailleurs uitlmul dela\. M.uecuer the pru. i- 

les me-ures pmM., .ire- ne jKnirraient Mmial inea>ures eoiild (.nl\ have iin- 

■ ivnir ,|ue de l'iiiieste- ettet-. .\e i'<irtiinate eftVetv .M i-lii thev n,,t he- 

|"iurrait-iMi ju- cr.ure (|ue v.k tnnipes heve that your tri..,!«- had cniiie mily 

!!<■ seraient \eniies .nie jmnr en ini- t-. , .ver.iu e the \ iet..riniis partie^ : ,iiid au.N partis vietnneu.x ; et si |e it the leader ,,t these, had 

diet de ces tnmpes avait a.jnpte .les adopted any principles contr.ary t., 

pinicipes contraires a ce ¡lart!. ne this partv, tni^ht ihex iiot su-i,ect' th,i> 

ponrrail-on pas s,,upi;onner. ,|ue le the leader and the arnn had come to 

diet et rarniée seraient venues p,,ur protect uhat is called the arisficraiic 

ptoie^er ce i|n-on appelle le parti aris- panv. which is the con,|Uered party. 
tocratii|ue. (|ui est le parti vaincu. 

.le deinaiide. en con,e.|iience. (pie 1 ask, c..nse(|ueni!v, that the post- 
la l"iirnenieiit s,„t reiete et (|ne la dis- p(,nenient l-e reiected and that the di-- 
cnssinncoinniencesurle londdui.n,- cussion h.-in on the suh,ect of the 
l^'' '11- 'I^'^ret ,1,.,,, ,,^.^.,^.^. 

■^' •^'^"""•' l">nles>s,eniedu .M .M u.oi ,.,, |he u h, .le, lesino;, etis. les raisonnements ,,f ,!„. conitnittee. ihe meth..(ls ,he 

les conclusKMis du rapp(,rt portent reas,,ninK, the co.k1us,„„. „f the re- 

— nlat.veiue,,, sur des principes en- p,,r, rest cuinnia.ivelv upon principles 

tre les(|uds ,1 taut (,pter; car iK se h,„,,,,,„ „,„,,, ,„„, ,„„^, ^.,, ^. . -,,. 

'''■"■"'^^■'" '"" '■'""•'• '- '1^'"^ <lH■^ Muitualiv destr,,v one another 

l'-nicpes .„„t le droit de pr,,pne,e e, -|l,,se ,u , prmciples are the n;;lu ot 

■le souveraineté du terntoi.e (p,-,,,, at pmpertv and of s,.erel^;.,t^ m the ter- 

tnhue par transmis.,,., c, hérédité au ,,„,u „hidi is atlrihuted 1. tran-- 

'•"1 '1- I fa.K-.ns. et p,,in, au pape. uiis.„,„ .,,„! hereditv to the Kiiik .^t 

"■''"" ■•' '•' '■""■11""" ■!(■ simple en- ,1,, lMend,..uidn.,t„talltothe l',,pe 

.^■'^';"' " '"■■ !'■"">• "" '■■'It"-' e-t u|„, ,. n.ln.vd t,, ,he condition ..f a 

; l''"-''"''l'"''l'' '.."■. .U- cation-. -M. part ot thc i epor- 

"■ """""">•'"- l"~'"ri,,ue-. don, |, „ „le r„ h. s, ,„ ,,,,,,, ,,,„„.„, ',„;. 

■'""""• ^V"- •"""-'•— '-•'•'-■ -n. mords, thednersit. ,„ .lud, 

■' '"""" '■■- I""'""""-. 'Mr v, ms l,,„K „.,1, „, ,,„ „,„.„„.^ ,, .,1, j,^,, 
' S;-isi„H „f \/,,v ■ [I 4(>6 

I) IC r.Mi'ixi s 

li'iiuii'i,!./ ¡M lim, Mc--ii'iir-, (|iK- cV-~t 
,!ii-~i Mir ik's iiiiuiiimciii> 1 ist. iriijui.'- 
i|tR- Ir- iMiif^ (!f \ iciiiK', ik' IV-tcr^- 
liiiiifL; i! ilc l'ii'iiin --c Mint partam.' la 

¡ '(ill ffiiW. 

\.v -n. lud i.rincipc ;ni.\'liaire du 
icniiu- (.1 (¡c .\1. k' ra])iinitoiir c^t k' 
iliiii! i|a'a cliac|',ii' |K'i'|ik' de >c dcclaiir 
lilire, iink'pi'iidanl de la donimatinn dii 
¡iriine aiiiim-l il a <iliiä in-iinaii nin- 
iiKiit ir,i il lin ]ilaii ik- chaiii^tr la ii inne 
de -"Il u;iill\ l'I tUiHriit. ji.' lu- in'at- 
laclK' i|i.';'i l'I--. (k-ti\ di\i-iiin-, pmu'i- 
]ialr-- di'iit k- 15 a'íAk-- t.-n i|uc-liiiii 
-iiiU dr- ^ulidivi-ii m-. 

\\,illl de ]ia--i.r nliHi-, ie diiiiaink- 
a M k' rapili irti-iii : dan- ipul -\ -U'iiu- 
rai-i ■iii!i.v-\i in~ : 

trni)"!!-; l(ir du iinl I'm-et, ujcnlle- 
nicn. that it i'- uImi i m Ingiuncai ri'c- 
iHík that the i'niirt> iif \ unna, l'(.'tcr>- 
lur^ and Ücrlin <li\ itkd I '. land amunt; 

1 lif >(.'L'(ind anxiliary ])nin-ipk' ni 
ilio ciiinniittce and cit the reiinrter i^ 

llk' n^lll c\ (IX ¡H'ii|iU' ]ii is-.i.'--C-. ut dc- 

liann.i; il-cli ircc and iiidcpfink'iii ni' 
tlu' diiiiiinaii'iii 111' ihr ]iiiiuo wlinm it 
ha- iilifvcd iip tu llif liMiik'111 lliat it 

p!ra-l~ tu lll.lllLH' lllf innu ni lt> L;n\- 

> rnini.iit. I w ill mily app]\ nu m'Ü tn 
Ik'-c t w n ¡irinripal di\i-inii> ,i\ wlin-h 
\\ii- liilrcn ari'clf-. m i]ncMii:n arc -nli- 
dl \ i-ii 111-. 

Iklnrc prniLT'din^, I adv ihr rc- 

pnlUT: "11 \\h,ll --X-tlMIl dn \ nil la\'l- 

■-I 111 ' 

I lie ii.itinii i|iii -e re-.-,ii-it df 1.1 
-nii\ eraineti' de m iii lenilniri' na pa- 
lir-nin de eharte^ ei de nii iiniiivnt'- 
hi-i.iii>iHe- ; -a xnl'iiiu el -,i ii.rre. 
'. mia. 1,1 nie-nre ¡\v -e- |ii iiivnir- . eelle 
de -e- drnii- ne |ieiit (lie i|iie la ii:-- 
ti(C (I l'iiiUial de inii-. 11 nen e-t 
¡LI- de iiieine dun prime i|in eseiic 
la -nn\ci amele ; ¡1 In: i.nil nn mie 
«Iclt'îjalli '11 -pcíi.ile lin peiipie i|iii Im 
nheil. nil 1-11 ture -lUíe-MÍ reinmm 
|iar -e- -nul- et ¡lar le- .antre- -niive- 
ram-. \'nilà •.e> drnit- à une e\i-t- 
eiu'e lraiii|iiilk' Il leur enndilinn e-- 
-eiiliellt e-t ir(lre ineninnuiniealiie à 
aiunn .mire priiiK-, a .nu nue -neiete 
[iiil!ti(|lie, aillreineni (pie par le- nu ine- 
pnneipfx (|!ii le- m in-Iiinenl. 

l'.ininii-. ijniu le, pillila i-i,-- ijin 
JMUirraienl lU i(ndle le p.ipc .1 II. Ill le 
»véteme dit (iiii'ih et .irrnnii^ ans 

A natinn wlneh t.ake- haek tn ii-eli 
the -ii\ erei,í;iit\ (<í il- ten itiii\ li.i- im 
ih'ed ni (harter- ,and hi-lnrual ree- 
iii"d-; 11- will .ind il- iiuae. thn>e aie 
the mea-itre ni it- pn\\ei>: that ni its 
rischi- e.iiì iinl\ lie in-iiee .and ihe in 
I' '-t n\ ,ilL It 1- nul the -ame with 
a prince wlin cxerei-e- -n\ erei.L;nt\ ; 
lie iiin-t Iia\e either .i -jieerd delei;a- 
llnli I ' Il I P 1111 ihe |iei iple w hn nhev 
hini. nr ,1 title i>í -iieee--inii hhhj,'- 
m/ed hy hi- -nhieet- and li\ ntln-r ~n . - 
ereii;!!-. The-e are hi- ri^lil- In ;i 
i|mel hie and their i'--eniiai eiiiiditinn 
I- the\ ,ire mei iinnmnieahle In 
.in\ niher pniiee. In .nu niher pnhtu-.-il 
-niielv, ntliei\\i-e tlian nn the -ame 
|ii iiu ipli s \\ hu h enii-Iiliite llieiii 

i lu ri ini < kl li- hm II ¡III pili lì II I -N 
v\ liii wiiiild deicnd llu l 'i ipi .uii! nn| 
the -^ -lem .li the enmnnili ■■ and jet 


.\\J!,\('\ WD r!i|.; \.l-:x.\lSS¡\. 17'»1 

(Irmi-, lie l'liiiiiiiiK', aiix ilrcMi> ilu^ pfu- 

pli'- ijui i(jnii(.'in .i' ^fcoiul _\un lie 

M. le ra]iiiiirti.'nr. 

}<.• linai (lune enninif \iiu^: t'Hit 
I rnplf rasxaiülile a le diciit de -e de- 
ilarer lilüe, iiidei)elld.nii. et de eliaiii^er 
-•■II j;i'ii\eniemem avec cette .niidi- 
timi ¡iiealalile (pie la Milmité de tmi^ 
^eia liiireiiient ¡nani l'e-tee ¡lar de■^ 
tiiriiie- leL;ale- el Milelinelle-.. I'-^im e 
ia le (araeteie du \'i'ii (le^ \\i',:iiii- 
iiai- el ( iiiníadiii-. deiiiandaiit leur re 
nuil ill .1 la |- lanee : 

All lien de la \iii\ iiiaie^tiieii--e d'un 
peuple delilíérant. je ne di^lin^aie 'pie 
l'elle de> hrif^amN et de^ I" uir-eau\, 
le- ei'i- de- a->a>-sili-, le- i;éiin--einent- 
de- \iclinie-. le- plainte, de- fumiti Í-; 
vi'ila ((■ i|ne j'eiitend- depni- la jire- 
miere ep.H|ue de rui-urreetinii. 
\\aiil cette epiii|Ue. muí- a',e/ pii cmi- 
nailre la \.i|unte ;;ener;dc ; elle -'e-t 
liliiinieiit el nnanmieiiient niainte-tec. 
I.i - lialiitaiil - ir.\\!L;i¡iin ei du Cuín- 
tal -a\aii-nt alm- (|n'uii pai ti ]ini-.ant 
(11 liaiice pnilei;erait leui reuninii. 
||ile de- iiiepil)re- de H'lte .\--einMee 
la -nllu liaient : mai- alunne li. ¡ci 
année, aiu une íaetmn ne les meiia(,ait 
eiinire. il- pnUNaienl dune lilirenielii 
-^■'^l'ii'liic; ( ■(•-! dan- de lelle- 

cirutn-tanci - i|iie le- lial.itani-. ipie 1. ~ 
o.inriune- un wile unainiiieinenl le 
nniiiuelleilleiil de leni- -einieiil de 
lidilile au pape el .i mhi j^iuneiiie- 

11- ciiine tu the nielli- ni' man, iu the 
ii,L;lit.- (Il peuple- which ínrm- the -ec- 
iMid inethml 111' the ie]iiirter. 

1 will -ay then a- vmi d'l: ever\ a-- 
-emlileil peuple ha- the ri,i;hl In deciaie 
it-ell tree, mdepeiideiit. and In diaiiL^e 
it- ¡.;ii\eriimeiit, with tlii- preiii.iinarv 
(iiiiililiiiii the w ill 111' all -h.dl Ic 
lieel\ -lii'wn li\ le.L;:il and -nlemii 
Innii- I- ihi- llie li.nacter ni tue 
Mite 111 the peniile nf A\ i-imn .ii;,| ,,f 
tile I iiiiitat .i-kiiiL; iiiiinii w nil l-'iaiuf' 

In plaic n| the niaje-tic \(iice 1 1|' a 
delilieiatiilL; |iei i|ile. I ili-t iiil;ìu-1i miK' 
that n| lirii;aiiil- and luitclie,--. die 
ene- ni ,i--a--iii-. the jiiMan- ni' \ ic 
tini-, the cnmpl.imt- ni i,i¡.',iti\ e- ; 
I- what I hear trnm the lir-i ¡leiind nt' 
llic in-iiirectinii. Mel'me that pci mil. 
Villi h.i\e lieen alile tn le.irn the ¡general 
^^lii: It wa- iieely and iin.aiiinnu-lv 
hnwn I he i.i \\ iLUimi 
■ •'id the t knew then lliat a pnu- 
< 'Mil p.ii 1 \ 111 j- ranee w i lu'd pr. ¡tei I 
their iininii. til. It nieinlier- ni' tin. \.- 
-enililx were .i-lsiii'.; inr it; Imi un 
armed Inrce. nn t.u-iinii \el nieiiaied 
ihein. theieinie lhe\ iniild e\pre - 
lheni-el\e- |'reel\ ... It wa- undir 
-Itch eireiiiii-l.ince- ihe inlnhi- 
tanl-. the innimune-. \nted nnani- 
ninii-ly the renewal ni ili -ir n;iih nf 
tldelilx tn the I'npe ,niil hi, ^'n\erii- 

Je,i,-,|ue repn,|iie deeeltedelil.era- I -,,\ that the ep, .. h n i ih: - de, i-mii 

tion fst 1,1 -eiile epiiipie de la lü.erte i- the miK ,p,,eh ni h'rriv i,,r ,hf 
p..„r p.iur 1., Mlle,r\M:,' Cnmtai, m, iheCitN ni .\M;;nnn at 


Dl 'CI MI'XT^ 

ii"ii : ilaii- Cl- i(.'ni]]--la. k-- nlTu-iiT- imi- 
iiuipanx iiaunt iiuninn-^ an -ci'utiii, 
(la:i- » !■ H-in]i--lá, iniilc^ Ir- iJccs hmu- 
\ eue-, Il uur~ If- Cini i!i-laiux- en . ir. .ii- 
iiaiiu-> ta\Mn-au'iu la phi- iil.ii' cni!-- 
-•■<u lin \ii-ii <\r- ( .niüailiii- l'i di-- 
\\ i;;ii"nais : ilan~ «et v\:\i iK axau-iit 
iii,L;r ilf leur ;tiii-rri, (Ir la (■• Mvnianci' 
iiu iiif lie la'tii iiu'i.'!' a k-nr ¡irnici.': \\~ 
a ainil la riTlitiiilc (Irli c 1. atcinviit 
pr-'ium-: dan- ce icnip--!,i il- ne l'ont 
l'a- tan. et depni- ce teinp- là il- n'"iii 
pa- en nne -enle epmiiie, nn -enl m- 
-iant lie lilierie d'upininn. .' -.écnrité 
d.iii- leur- per-ciinie-, et n- leur- 
pri ipriété-. 

ihal tniie the nninici]ial ulticer- wer:' 
iH'in'naled li\ liallut. at that tune all 
;he lieu ¡ilea-, all the -nrrDnndin,^,' cir- 
c!'ai-i,iiue- l'a\i)reil ¡he frec'-t expre- 
-'"It III ihe \i.te III ihe pc'uple ut the 
t miiial and ni' \\ i-imii : in that cnii- 
ditimi ihey iiidi;eil ni tileir intere-t, 
i\i'n ni tlu' pnipiiety di" rennnncinL; 
dieir pnnce: the\ had the certaint\ ut 
hein- simn^ly pnitected; at that time 
tlie\ i\ii 111 it tin It, and -nice that time 
the\- ha\e in it liad a -m,t;le perii h!, a 
-in.^le in-tant ut lihert\ uf (ipininn. ui 
-ecnrity In!' their per-oii- and fur tlieir 

M. I\ura >nii;i;i-. l"n mm- parlant 
du prncé- \erhal iini cmi-tate le vieil 
lie- \\i,L,Miiiliai-, M l'ahhe Maiil\- au- 
rait du aiiiiiter ipie c'était le ré-iiltat 
d'une dehheratioii des ancieniu'- Ciini 
nninaiiti-- du ( 'uiiitat. i|iii, luiii d'être 
l'expre-siiui dit penjile. n'était ipie 
it'lle de< aiu ieiis l'tVieit'i- ninnicipanx 
niait: i-é- par li lliienee du pajie. I.a. 
cuninie en l'raïua , il \ a\aii nn parti 
ciiiiire le \ien du penpK : la niih!e--e 
et le cleri^e -e -uni .unie-, un en c T 
Venn HIN iii.iin- ; le jiaili pnpnlaiic a 
\aiiicn la lii^iu- de- an-iucrate- 

II n'', a pa- de ihltìciilie d'almrd -ni- 
ce Men, mi il e-i ])n .ii\ e i|ne, par le- 
lait- lii-iiirii|iie- i|ni muí- uni ('te de- 
veliippe-, le peuple a\li;niin,n- tuniiait 
in I la: -I pare de 1 hlal \ eiiai--ni 11 
<'-t d.iue (-\uletll i|n'il .-i (ii |e druil de 
dei lander -enl la lenninii ,i |,-i Ir.nice 

M. UnllKM'IKK'KK. In tellillfr „^ ,,1 

lile iiltieial repnrt pnn inj; the vote ut 
the peu¡)le nt Aviimmi. M. r.\hl)é 
Maury -huiild have added that it wa- 
the rc-iilt of a decision of the nl 1 eom- 
iiinnitie- of tile (Diiital, which, far 
ironi heiiij; tlie e\pre--ion of tile peo- 
ple, uas only that of old iniiincipal of- 
iKfr- domm.ited h> the inthieiice of 
llif l'ope There, a- m i'r.ince, there 
wa- .1 p.-iri\ ii]ipo-ed to the wi-li of 
ihe iieiijile: the iiol)iliiy and the eleri^'v 
armed them-elve-.. |he\ eaiiie to 
liliiw-; the popiil.-n party coiii|iiered 
the leaLliie of ;iri-toci .u-, 

I liere i-, m the lir-i plate, no iJiUi 
ciiltv le^'ardiiit; tili- vote when it i- 
liroM-d, \,\ ihe hi-loiic,il '■.ict- whu il 
ha\c he(-ii -houn m hi. that tile peuple 
o! \\ iL;niiM formed a -ep.nale State 
Irointlk \'ell,il--in ."'^'aic, ili-lhele- 
lole i-\ idenl ill. II !he\ li.-id the ridili tu 

■1^1^ ' liieiii-iKi-- for 11 n witii e 

.\\i<,:\(i\ wi) lili, \ i:\,\|ssi\. i;.)! 

l'a--^"!!- an Cniiitat. Xoii- a\(iii- 
ciii-i ,rc la iiiain:ii('. d ( ', .miai, ma 
j'TlIe ilHiiliti-talik'. ■>! 'Ml M'ilt i-i-niitn- 
la \arilt, ft no |iciint i)'Hir-ni\rc Ic -v ■,- 
ti'Mic 'r(.'ml.arra--.i.T 1' \s.t.,nlikc n;,- 
ti.iiialt- ji !]■ (k'> ill .Utes ,|,n' k's fan- 
"111 (kiiifni!.. M. If rappi incur mun 
a attcMi.- (|u':i iiait pnrti'ur de- (kVla- 
raiiiiH- ik- ?] fninninnauic- tin (mu- 
tat (|ui ikiuauileut furnicllcnifni leur 
ivnui'Mi a la l-Vancc. ( ^ 51 cmui- 
uiunauti-. iiiiiutnt cvidcninn'ut la lua- 
jiTUi- -ur '»3: aucun i\v Umu- nr pent 
ikiuicr (In vu 1 (If, ( Miniailius. Si 
Miti- ri-nui-siv k' (.'uniiat a\(.-c Avij^- 
imii. puu\iv-v(iu- (ic>ircr une niajunte 
pin- (Mnipleif : 

l'i 1- \ I'lMK-M \IH(iri;(;. . 
l'ui-.i|iu- if -ini- prii\ii(|ué a cuniu-fr 
ifi luiin .-piuinn. if <!itai. il'aprc-. ce 
que j'ai entendu dire -nr le- dmit- 
positif- <\r la natii m f rännil-i- et du 
pape. <|ird ne nie re-te aucun .k.iite 
i|iie II. m- ,i\..n- plii> de droit (|ue le 
p.ijK- a la -uii'.eraiiii'te .IXvii^inoii 

( . l^/^ldKillSSi-llhlllS, ) 

Il me re-te .à parler de la -ecuide 
li'H'-Ii.m le \.eu du peu|ile a\ i-iiiinai- 
et du peuple cointadm l'-i-il liuii cou 
-laie et -ulti-ainnient e\])rime- le 
"l'i \pi-imeiai a cet i inl a\ec la meine 
ir.iiu lll-e. 

l'epiii- que ji -ui- revt'uu d' \\ i-- 
iion. je n'en ai n^u ,¡\u- de- leltie- 
aii..uMiie- (|iie l'ai eu -.un .k le'iiellr, 
■l'i .'UiiU dipi'. mail. jfe, it anM|iielle- 
il II a -an- .joute pa- en pkis detiai.l 
iple de raiM.n. 

'Mai-, .juand j ela.i- a \\ i-in.n. il 
'■-t ceilain .pu le \,iii ,|,. .nifkjue- 
ci.nimiine- du ('umtat a ete I..- 

kel 11- pa- to the ( '. .nitat. We 
-I'll lia\e the m.ijnrity in the ( o., -...t. 
an imdeni.aMe m.ijiiniv. if we will 
liMeii to the truth, ami n..t f.illi.w th- 
method i.f eml>arra--iniL; the 
.\--eiiihl\ 1,\ (l,,uli|- «huh the f.ici- 
'"'lii-'- I lie .. nileman w Im made liie 
rcjiort h.i- te-iilied that he w.i- the 
Icaicr of the .leci-Mu- of lift\-..iie 
cmmmiitie- of ihe ( onit.ii uli,, for- 
mali) a-k their iini.,n with li.incc 
1 lie-e (illy-one coliiniumtie- cn ideiitK 
lonii the majority out of niiielv-tl\e; 
Hot olle of ii> can doiiiit the \oie uf 
the ])eople of the Conitat. If \ . ,u 
join the I'omtat t.. .\vi).;ii,.n. can \.iu 
w.aiii a majority more complete - 

M. OK l.\ TolK-.M Allioll«,. 

Since I im challeii.t^eil to ann.iunce 
my opmii.ii here. 1 will -a>. .ifier 
what I li.ive heard -aid concernili^' the 
po-iiive ri-ht- of the kreuch iiatH-n 
•""I "I iIh' l'ope, that I li,i\e no 
lon-er the -liKhle-t .loiilit that we ha\e 
more njjht than the Tope to the -i,v- 
ereiu'iity ..f AML;noii i . I fflaiisc. ) 

Il to -peak of the -econd 
||Ue-lioii: I- iIk- Mile of the people of 
\M;.; and oi the people ..f the 
I omi,.: fully \eritled and -ul'ticientK 
e\pir--e.l ;■ 1 will expre-- im -elf m 
tin- re-pect willi the -.line fr.inkiie-- 

Since 1 retili lied \M}.;n..i., 1 
ha\e leieived Hi. m there. .iiU ;iiion\ 
nil .11- letter- w hah 1 li.ive taken . are 
'" -'ltd t.. the Dipk.maic ( oniinitiee. 
• nid lor w III, h II, I di.iiht It h,,, h;,d tin 
III. .re rc-ji..,! thau w.i- pr..|u-r 

lau v\ hen I w.i- m \', ii;noii. n ,, , 
tail ih.ii (he M.le ..f c..niniune- 
"I Ike ( ..iiilat w 1- fi.iaed I liav.- -■...i 


l)( x/r.MI' \TS 

.] ai \ii (|iK' eux ,|ni V(.iil,UL-m la re- tli.iM- uim ui>licii iliv union -ci/t- iliu 

uin..n airaclian'iii !(.■< \\ .Ic ccnx \ i Ht, ,,f ili, ,sc u ln) did nut u i-h it, liv 

i|in iw la \(. niaient pa.-, en y en)|.]n- n-in.L,' innv and arm- : luv that |>ur- 

yant la Ii.ree et le- arnie-: cii .-'c-t ]u,.c they made ii-e >>i the desericr- 

-ervi pniir eel.i de- de-erteiir- de- re.t:- I'rdin tile re^nnent- nf Siii--nn- and u{ 

imeni- de S..i--(ina;- el de i|iiel.|iie- -i mie draine in- di" rentlnéwe. Siiell 

<Ira,i;..n- de IVntlnevre. DeieK-nf- \.,ie- are eeriainly neither tree nor 

Ira-e- lie -Milt eerlaineinent ni lihre- valid. 

"' ^''1'<I''~- 1 dn net kii.iw uhether. -iiiee iiiv 

Je ne -,ii- -i, deimi- m. in de]jari, on de¡i,irtiire. the\ lia\e n^ed iiiuie le.^'al 

a |"i- de- \m;c- pin- lettale-. nie.iii-. 

1) apre- lel.i, ee i|iie je ernn-;ii- (|n'i! ( "cn-iderin,- tin-, w li;it I -h.onld 

y aurait a laire. ce -erait il'ahord d'\- tliiiik .nii^iit to he done, would he lii-t 

envou-v de- tionpe> -urti-ante- pour to -nid there -iilVieieiit troop- to w 

relaMir l'ordre el en-iiile de mettre le e-tahli-li order and then lo put the 

peuple a iiuine de p..i!\oir niaiiiie-ter peo[)le n'^.nn m the way oí niamfe-t- 

~"" '""■ '|i"-!'l'i'il -"11. il'tine laicoii in- tiieir wi-h, wliate\er ii nii-lit he, 

phi- hhre ei pin- le-ale .pie la pre- in a manner more free and more le,i;al 

miele loi,, i M i,i ii,iir,:s. ) tliaii tile lir-1 lime. t M iiniiins. ^ 

•^' '"■ ' i m;mo\t-To\n-|.i;ki . .M. nr. Ii.i;k'.\io.m-T(i.v.\! i;ui:. To 

I'oiir prendre eiHin une re-olution de- lake lliiallv ;t delinitc re-ohitioii upon 

tini'ue -ur la prop, .-iti, „, ,Ie reunir à the prop.i-itinii to unite Avi-noii ;mil 

la l-ranee \\iL;n..n el le ( \e- ihe ("..intat \eiiai in wilh hraiue, it 

"■""'"■ ■' ~""" '1^' -<' re.luire à _' i- en..u-h to reduce it t.. two point-, 

la Iian.e a l-eile un dioit p..-i!ii lia. I'lauee a p.,-itne n^ht .,\er 

-iir \\i.mion el le ( oiiitai \enai-iii:- \^v^w>n au.l the Cantal \eiiai-in:-' 

\''."""" '■' ''■ < "■iitat \-enai-sin 1 la- e .\vi,mio„ ,„ j tlu' ( '. .mtat \e- 

oni-il- hhiaiueni et I. irmellenieiit emi- nai,-in fivelv and lormallv ea-i their 

!«■ .le -.■ reunir a I,i hraiue^ ^ ntv t-, mute ihem-elve- with hvanee^ 

Je ne m a].pe-,m!ir,ii pa- -ur la pre 1 >h,dl n..! .luell itp,,ii ihe llr-i ,,f 

"nere de . e>^ J .|ue-li..n-' ' . . ,\u'.v ■ u .. ,|Ue-ti..ii-.' 

• • ■ J>' rappelle le pi iiieipe dn par- . . . | iveall ilie prmeiple .,| the 

l'"H'iit .le l'r..',eii,e; le \,„ei: s\n,s parliauieiil of lV..Neiue; it i- tin-: 

rr.iH.iu.- ,lrs iiroits ,!u y„i ,/,■ / ,,,;, ¡I /,/„,„, ;,,,.';,.//,,■ lo tlir ri./lns ,./ ihr 

r.nnu-. , ,,;;,/;,,■ clan' u<, ¡^,rsn-,pí,l<¡c.< Kin./ a,ui ,./ Ihr Cvow,,. as brin., ,:n- 

rt iu.'l,rn,ihlrs. > I pf^!„i,Jis.-rnirnls „ /■',■,.. n>/,7'/,- „;,,/ uu,Hr>u,hIr. ..//•- 

,' """■ '"'"^' ■ '^•'"^'■'•'11 Í 111. ^..ll.llIy ..r t¡„ h,,l >!,„„. ,„- |-,.n„-, to 

till' iirni..ii 

A\ I',X( )X Wh -|)i|-, \|-:\AISSI\. 17"! 


(jauJic. \ . . . Mai.', .Mcs>icurs, si, au 
inilicn (k-N principes i)nliti(nies que 
vmis ])n)t\.->>L'/, il ütait eiuDrc peniiis 
<l'iiu<'i|iter celui dont je [larlc, vous 
auric/ l'ail la plu^ illusoire des décla- 
ration- ipiand \dlis \ous êtes interdit 
les coiKpictes: une rentrée de domaine 
n'e-t ])as une con'|Ucte. et tonte a.liéna- 
tioii de iji'inaine étant iniprcscriptiMc, 
vous auriez ¡lossihilué touiours «.'ii 
'\(\i\ de \(ptre déclaration, niais ti.r: 
au dela de \ os froir "Tes actuelles, de 
re\endii|uer sncces-ivcment les do- 
maines ■ 'li ont inciPiitesiaMeineiit ap- 
partenu ,. l liarlcuia^uic, et le tout sans 
antre intenti.. n lUie relie iiiilii(née par 
M. le ra])porieur, de consulter ]iour 
1 epoi|nr .¡es reprise-, le plus ..ii m.iuis 
d.e t. ree, .les pm—ances (|ui en se- 
raient en possession. ( )n sent l'ali 
surdité de l.i c .nsé.iuence ; cepen.lani 
j'ai raisonné juste; c'était donc d.ius 
le principe ipie se tnuuait l'absurdité. 
< est ce principe (|ui peut seul ser\ir 
d'a|)|iui aux droits plus cpréi|ui\d.|ues 
i|tie nous p .urrions prétendre sur 
\\i.i; 11 faut donc renoncer à ce 
droit, il f,int reii. nicer a ces ar^uities 
ilipLniiatiipies, il laut renoncer à i 
reunion d'.Xvi.i^non, si le du p. i- 
p!e lien lilirement. liien clairement ex- 
prime, ne iious donne ])as un meilleur 
droit. .M le rap|iorteur nmis a suc- 
cinclement rendu crim|ite du \.eu des 
c nimuiics conitadiiis; il nous a dit (pie 
sur '1,^ cotnmunes, n.,ns ;ivi.ins le \.eu 
de reunion <li' .^1 ; l,i majorité est de 
'. ce est mot à ntol celm 
.|ii'ont présenle .MM, 'TismiI cl l'allm. 
de|iutes d'Avignon. ( e sont les hase- 

lliiiiM' .■H tlu- l.cft.) . . . l,ut, ^a'iitle- 
nieii. It" nolwithst.inilm.; the ¡lolitical 
Ijrincip'es thaï y. m pr. iless, il were stili 
peinmie.l to iiuoke the one oí which 
I a:ii -pcikiii!,'. \.iu \\..uld lia\e made 
the ¡11. .si illusory oí ileclarali.iiis when 
_vou torlia.le yourseKes coii.piest: re- 
entry ini, i a domain is not coii.|uest. 
and all .ilienation oí heim^ im- 
prescriiitihle, you would have had the 
p. .ssiliiliiy always on tliis side oí v.iur 
ileclaration, and f,ir . .n the other si<le 
ot your utual irontiers, oí claiminj^' 
successiv fl\' the doiiiiins that mcoii 
tcsiahly lie;..n-ed to (, li.u lemafíiie. .au.l 
all this with. ml .my ..iher intenti. .ii 
than that indicated liv ilie };entleniaii 
who made the report, oí considering.'. 
at the time oí i.-ikin- them \nu\<. the 
^^reater .ir less ton. oí the powers 
that iiiiLiht lie in p.issf.-j.ui. \<>n see 
the alisurdit\- oí the c inclusion: nev- 
ertheless. 1 have reasoned correctlv . 
it was iheietore in the [iriiu-iple that 
the al.sur.iity f.mii.i. It i, this 
principle alone can ser\e as a 
sUp]iort lo the 111. ire than e.pii vocal 
ri,!,;hts we (nuM .assunie concern- 
iiifi .\\i;,iion, Iherei.irc we mii-t re- 
nounce this rii^'lil, we inus< ren.iunce 
these diplom.atic ipiiMilcs, we imist re- 
nounce the uiiKiii oí \\¡<;iiiin. li the 
voie Ol the iie.ipie (pute íreeh, .mite 
clearly expressi-d. does not <.^'ive Us a 
lielter ri,i;ht. i he reiiorlei has j^'ueii 
Usa succinct acc.iunt oí the vote oí the 
comimiiies ,ii ilu' ( onitat: he has told 
"s that ..ut ..Í lìinct'. ¡"ive communes. the v..le..t union oí tiítv .me; 
the m.ijontv is sc\en. and this result 


Di ifr.MI'XTS 

• le ce f.-ikul i|iic jc me >uis lìcrnii.-, i> wor.l i.,r u.)nl that wliicli was 

d'exaiiiuKr, t-t it.' vai^ v(ju-. x Jiinictirc |iic~cnic(l liv AIM. Ti-M.t ami l'allni, 

im.'.- n-.-ultat-. ilc])iities ni Avi^Miuii. ThchO are the 

!ia>es di' the (.alculatiuii that I lia\e 
allow eil iii\.-eli' m examine, ami 1 am 
lanini; li) siihmit td \i)ii m\ results. 

.\\am d'entrer dan> les détaiK. ¡e Heinre enterm- nild detail-, I will 

me linrne ,i definir ee i|ne j'appelle un eonline m\-eli' tn delinmi; wiiat 1 e.dl 

\eri!;iMe \ieii. (e V(en dnit avnir a trne xdte. Thi- V(Jte -iiuiild have 

trni- : 11 d'iit être lilne; three eh ir.-u!eristic> : it nui-t he 

il lidi t être ila i renient eimnce: il dui t free: it mn-t he clearh" -taled ; il mu^t 

être le,!,'.alement e,inM;ite. (/e- troi- he le.uallv \erilied, The-e three pro- 

elan-e- -nni rij,'(iureiisement néee'^- xi-^sare ^trictlv neee>-arv. A \(ite 

"■•i"«-'^- l^ " \'en He m lihre e>t nul; not tree i> void; a \ote e.\])re->ed in 

un \au l'om^u en terme- ;i:ii]ii};n- e>t amhi^aiou- terms is inadmis-ihle ; a 

m.adim-Mlile; un Men non con-i;ite \ ole noi verilìed i-; not a vote. To 

l:'e-t ]i.i- un \(eu. ("e-l à eelle triple ihis iriple pnroi' 1 am j;oin^' to Mihmit 

épreuve .|ue je \;n> -ouniettre ce (|u'on what is eidled the \ole of ihe majorité 

aiijielle le \(en de Li majorité des com- of the communes of the L'onitat \'e- 

mune- du ( 'oinlal \'enii--iii. n.aisMii. 

je commencerai |i:ir le- tioi- com- 1 sh.all he.umi with the three com- 
mune- doni le \ou m, I paru eire le ninne- who-e \oie appeared tome the 
nioin- at!, ii|U. lille.' least (|ue-tion:il.le ■ 

j'ai p;ircomn. .\le--ieitr-, toute- le- I ii;i\e looked o\ er. }.,'entlenicn. .all 

liii-ce- (jui poHv.iient vons ecl.airer -iir ,lie p:iper- which could enlii^hten \ ou 

le \ou de- Commune- du t omt;u \'e- concernm.i; the \ote of ihe communes 

n;n--m; imi- m'ont p;tiu en ;i\oir of the (, ointat \enai--in ; three -eeni 

imi- un i|ue je ne veu\ pa- coiite-ler. lo nie to h;ive i^iven one that I do not 

want |o coiite-t. 

r n en .lit évidemment emi- aucun. Se\en ha\e e\identlv .i;iven none 


.^.-^ r,r .III lourni de- ohjeclion- (|ui riiir!\ -fn e h;ive furm-hed nlijtc- 

nie par;ii--ent ;itl,ii|Uer forlement l,i lion- wliuli -eem Io me to ;m;ick 

le,L;,iIite de leur \.cu -lioii-l^ ,1,^. \^■.^■.^\^x\ of iheir \ote. 

ill eilet, le- ciiMcIert- de hi ter- In fiel the cli;ir;u teri-lu - of terror 

rem- ne pein eiH pa- -e méconnaître, c;mii..t he im-t;ilsei). It w ;- ilu Idili 

< 'e-l le 1" i.uiMer .pie ( av/iillon e-t of i;\ w hen ( a\ ailloii w .i- dev .i-- 

de\.i-te pn le- .\\ Ìl;i1' mai- ; c'e-t du t:ited li\ the peuple ..l \\ij.;non. n 

in ;iii ,iii, ce-t le- Jd iour- -m- u.i- fiMin the lOili to ih, .^(i|h. ih.u i-, 

' 'liu .liMilol cv.iinti.-ili.Mi nf th, v.,u-, ,,| ilu Mi.lnulii,il roiiiniinii-, i- i.initu,! 

A\Jti.\( >.\ AXi) IUI-: \ KXAISSIX. 

2( I.Ì 

vants (jue le~ 35 dcliljciatioiis >oni 
prises; I'lk's .soiu tOinlccs Mir la iicct-s- 
sitc. k- salin (lu i)fU[)le. et rein]iiie do 
(.•iicoiistances. On y ilK-tíue I'aliaii- 
<lon (111 papi-, ft cet aliaiulmi iiiême 
n e-^t pas exact, l.e ¡jape a. par une 
lettre du 6 ,K-t..lire 17''(), réclamé les 
l>'in- iilìiccN et la ]ir(itecli(iii de la 
J-'vaiice ]HUir retaMir la \rdì\ et l'ordre 
daîi> ce niallieureiix jiays. |e >ai^ 
iin'une deiiiamle de secour- n'e-t pa> 
un >eccnir> et'iectii"; mais ¡»eut-étie e>t- ti 
il pernii- de ilire ici (|il'iin (¡rince 
tailile. (ini met ses >uict- sdii- la jiro- 
tectidii du mi de- IVaiK^ais, peut 
croire ne les avoir pa- aliandoniié>. 

in tile tueiiiy (la\- f(jIlou mo, il,;n j],^. 
tiiirty-li\e deci-ion- weie taken; t!:e\ 
are iia-ed on nece— ity, the welfare •>!' 
the people, and the force of circiim- 
st.mces. I he .iljandoiiment ni the 
l'ope is alleged therein and c\eii tlii- 
ali;iiidonment i- ikjI exact. The !'■ 'pc 
h\ a letter of ( ¡ctolier 6, 17''(i. c.illcd 
lor tile s.;o(j(l ol'iice- .and the i)n.te(lion 
of I'rance t.. ree-t;ilili-ii peace and or- 
der in that unha]i|)y couniry. I know 
that a re(|ue-t for help i- not an etïcc- 
tive succor; hut perh.ii)s u i- periiii- 
-ihle Io .-ay here th;it a feelile ¡tniice 
wlio ])iit- hi> -uhjects under the pro- 
tection of the Kin;; ,,f the l-"reiich. 
ma_\- helieve that lie ha- not ahaiidoiied 

11 >■ a loin, .\le--ienrs, th\ ré-ultat 
de levameli (|ue je vous ai -ouiiii- a 
celui (jue von- ¡¡ré-entait M. le rap- 
porteur. 11 \(ius annoin;ait .51 com- 
munes a\am formé un V(eu formel 
de réunion; et. en compulsant le- 
pieces, je n'en trou\e (|ue 44 dont i! 
existe des délibération- i|Uelcon(|uev 
Sur ce nomine, j'en retranche 7 par 
des ntisons (|u'il e-t impo-sihlc d'at- 
ta(|uer; el sur le- 37 re-tantes, il n'ui 
e-~l (|ue 3 (|ui pré-entent rap|)arence 
d un consentement, le- .autre- -ont 
vicie- de Ionie jiart ; aucune n'e-l en 
même temps lilire, |io-iti\e et con- 
statée. Ici le noinhre des \oiant- e-t 
iirni-, la c'e-i un -im|,!e -an- 
toiiiie Ki^ale; dan- (|uel(|ne- pie(e-, ce 
som de- rature- coupahles (|ui ;d- 
léreiit leur se:.-; -ouveiil, ce -ont de 
simple- co|)ies en\(i\t'e- par le^ .\\il;- 
nonai- (im di>ent avoir le- minute-. 
circon-t;mce (pii le- l'iinuk' ionie-; cal- 

iere IS .-1 


■ -tance. 

Jen t le- 

inen, hetueeii the re-ult of the ex.ami- 
nation I h:n e -iihmitttd lo von and 
that presented to you li\ the penile- 
man who m.ade the report, lie ;in- 
iiounced lo \ ou tift\-one com- 
mune- had linde ;i formal \(.ie of 
union; .and, h\ forcin;,' the record-. I 
lor.nd only forty-four of iliem m 
which ,m\ deci-ion- \\hate\er exi-t. 
' 'ui Ol thi- 1 lake -even f.jr 
re;i-oii- which il i- iin])o->ilile lo at- 
t.i(k ; .and out of the lli;rty--eveii le- 
I'lainiii-i, dure .are lint three of iheni 
which pie-eni the ;iiipe;ii:ince of .an 
.iC(|uu'-cuice, ihe other- are enlirelv 
Mîi.aled ; not one i- .at the -.mie tune 
tree. |io-iti\e ,nid verilied. llcie ihe 
nimiher of \(,ter- i- (dnitted. there it 
I- --imply ;i certilic.iie w iihout 
torni, ill -olile paper- ihere ,-ire ciil 
palile er:i-;ires llial .iln r their -eii-e ; 
ollen tlle\ ;ire -imple Copie- -enl Ir 



tiiu' ]iièc(-' i|ui ]\\-\ liuiriiic ct cn- 
tificc <|Uc par la ¡lartic advuiM.' nc ir.t 
jamais line piiku ]itnl)anti', . . . 

Jc lonclu^- a ci- (UK- la rcimmn iK- 
suit ¡las dccii-ti'i.' ; mai-, tiapjic '. mnif 
tolls Ic- mcnilircs dc ii'ttc AsNombk'x', 
ck's ilangtTs affreux aiiM|tn.'l- smit ox- 
pMSc- les citnyc'is (le eette contrée si 
heureuse il y a deux ans, je désire que 
\(iii- \ [>iiriiez la paix; je soutiens i|ue 
vou- le pouvez dans tous les ssstènies 
et dan- toutes les hypothèses. 

l\n droit jiositif, vous êtes requis 
I)ar le prime, sa réquisition est du 
moi- d'ocioliie dernier; en droit na- 
turel, voir- l'êtes i)ar le- malheureux 
Conitadins, dont tous les prétendus 
\ini\ lie réunion -<• réduisent à ce 
seul eri ; Siiiri'<::-iìt'iis. car on iioiis 
oloYiic. Je crois ([Ue les Avitjnonais 
eux-mêmes nous -auront i,'ré de leur 
tpars^ner des crimes; je ne croirai pas 
(|ii'ils prétendent vous ré-ister, quoi- 
(lu'un honor;ilile memliie nous ait an- 
noncé dans la séance d'avant-hier et 
leur rési-tance future, et même la dés- 
()hei--;mcc îles departements qu'il croit 
attache- a leur c;iu-e. 

the pi .pie of .\\ii;iion who -,iy 'luit 
tlii\ h;i\c the mimile-, a fa i that an- 
il. ils llieni ..¡I; for a paper uhi h i- 
luini-hed :iiui certiîied onl\ iiy tlu ad- 
\erse par'_\ ne\er was a pi 'i:itor>';. . . . 

1 Concini le that the union shoiilu not 
he decreed; hut hein^^ struck, like all 
the memher- of thi^ A--enil)ly, liy the 
fri^t;litful dan,i;ers to which ar.- ex- 
¡losed the citizens of this country so 
liapii\ two years aj^o, I want yon to 
intioduce pe.iee thei. : 1 mail ' in iliat 
ymi can do u on ,ill ^rounil iid on 
all hy[)otiie-e-. 

r.v |)o-iti\e ri^ht, you ;ire called 
upon li\ the |)rince h;- lequi-ition is 
of the month of ( ¡ciolier last ; hv nat- 
ural rii;ht, _\ou are .also called U])oii h\' 
the unha])py people of the Comtat, all 
ol whilst, pretended \'otes of union re- 
duce them-elve- to the sole cry ; .S'lC.' 
;/.<■ fur :,■, arc Ih'iiuj s!au(/litcrcil. 1 
l>elie\e the people of .\\ii;;iioii 
themsehes will thank yi m to spare 
them crimes; 1 will not believe that 
they ma\ tr\ to resi-t \ou. although 
,111 hoiiorahie nieinher .uiiiouiiced to li- 
ât the session of day before ye-terday, 
both their future rcsi-tance and even 
the disobedience of the departments 
that he think- attached to their cause. 

le crois que les commissaires ([u'il 
'mu einoyer dan- le l'oiiilat et à .\\ i.i;- 
,ion doivent être iirovisoirement re- 
vêtu de ,t,Maiids iioiivoirs, il faut que 
les forces soient a-sez coii-idei .ibles 
p-our (|ue l'impossibilité de l;i re-ist- 
ance r:uiKne siirement le calme; il 

1 think that the commissioners 
whom it is iiece-sary to send into the 
t'omtat and to \\ ii^non must be provi- 
sionally clothed with i^reat powers, it 
i- neces-ary ih;it tiie forces be rather 
larice so that the impossibilitv of re- 
si-taiice max smeK brinij' ,ibout ti. in- 

fant que toutes les .autorité- usurpa- quillity; it is necessjiry that all the 

A\1(,.\M\ AXI) llil-: \ KXA1S>1\. \7<)\ 


tru-es ,l„para,.>n,l , levant l.~ ,-,„„-,,,»;; a.nhnr,,,.. ,1„ ,„M 

nn^^a.rc. que w,n. nixmx-/: ,i lant U^inn- ilw o .nuni.^i, „u-r. u!„,„, v,.„ 

'im-. a¡.iv> ce. iMvlniinianv,. le v, ru .hall ~ei„l: ii ,. „ca-^.arv that after 

'In peuple pui.-e être em,, avec tra.i- the.e pfeliinuKine., the 'vnte ,.i the 

Mi'-ll.te. et c est alur. ,|Ue v^.u. jugerez peuple he ea-t ,u trauquUht v, a,„i the,, 

;,';■' """ I'*'"' ''^■^^""- 1"""- vous v,,„w, I! iu.I^e whether li„. vnte „,av 

1 nlMc't ,1 une ,le],he,-at,.,u. |,,„„„^. „,^, ,„,„^.^., ,, • ^^,^_^ ,,^.,^,^^,^..-_ 


M. DC Ciiati:i.i;t.' . . , l'aval- 
pe,i-e el je ¡leiise etic >,e i|ue '.a iiatidii 
;■ le ch'I J, t et même le (leMijr iremp!n\er 
tu, 'S les iiioyeri'^ qui sunt en sa ¡iiiis- 
sance pour mettre un ternie aux liur- 
reiirs qui dé-ulent depuis trop lunt;- 
tenips un petit Etat environné de 
toutes parts de départements fianc^ais : 
comme tout individu a le droit et 
même le devoir d'user de toutes ses 
facultés pour éteindre le feu qui etn- 
hraserait la maison qui touche à la 
>ieinie. . . . 

(juant au v^eu du peuj)le a\isiHo- 
iiais, je ne l'ai jamais rc.<;ai(ié ni 
cumule a- 'V grénéraleniein ni smtont 
comme a ez librement prononcé, et 
il m'a paru que cette vérité vous avait 
éle i' montrée dans tous -< - détails 
liier , -qu'à Vi-\ idence. 

< Hie votre humanité donc. .|ue votre 
intérêt même n-tahlisse proiiiptement 
l'ordre et le calme dan- le ( omtai ; 
éteif,rnez-y les llaniheai'x de la dis- 
corde; (|u'il n'y ait i)his dans ce mal 
Iieureux pays ni cruautés, ni victime-; 
||ue les iieuples du Cointat et d'Avig- 
non se rasseni))Ient ensuite hlirenient. 
pai-ihlement. ié,<;alemcnt -uns votre 
piuiecf 1 tnielaire et vous ohtiendre/ 
ertainniient par la reconnaissance ce 
' Sfisiun of M.u .V 

■^1- l'I' ' 'llAïKl.lj. ... I liad 
iliuii-ht and I -till think that the na- 
tion ha- the ri<,dit and even the diitv 
>'i ii-in«; all the mean- n, it- puwer tu 
¡MU an end to the horidr- which ha\e 
-o luiij; de-olated a little State sur- 
ruuiiiled o,i all -ide- hy l-'rench de- 
I>artmeiit.-; as every individual has the 
rivht and even the duty of ,ising all 
h- powers to put out the lire that 
v.oiild con-ume the hou-e toucliinf,^ hi- 
own. . . . 

-\s to the vote of the people of 
Avignon. I never regarded it as cast 
generally enough, or even frcelv 
enough, and it seemed to me that thi- 
fact had heen deniun-trated to you 
ye-terday in all its details, even to the 
e\ ideiice. 

Therefore let your hmiianitv, let 
your intere-t, e\e>:, ree-tahli-h 
prumptly order and calm in the (.oiii- 
tat; put otu the torches of discor.l 
there; let there he no longer crueltv 
nur victims in unha;|iv cuunlr\ ; 
let the i)eoples of the C'omtat and of 
-\vÍL;nun then cume tugether freeh, 
; .cealily. legally under yuur liiteiaiA 
protectiun and y^ni will certainlv uh- 
lai'! through gratitude what it wuuld 

2Ü() l)( )Cl'.Mi:XTS 

iju'il -vrait indi.uiR- ik' vmi- de ■Icvuiv la' unuorihy nl ymi tu i 'W (.■ tu t\',ir (ir 

.1 la (.raiiiti.- on a l'aliU- du la i)ni^>an':i.'. tu tlu- alitile ni puuLT. 

M. l'i ìimx m; \ ii.i.i;m:i vt:. . . ■ M. l'í.iitix i>i; \'ii. M:\i.rvi-:. . . . 

le di-, Mi-^ifiii --. i|tic K'> d(.-lilK-ratinii~ 1 >a\, L;(.'iitk-nicii, that the i Ice i. -.i un s 

(|ui 'lilt eie in\'"H\ce-- ^niit eelk'^ q;" that lia\c' hi'cn iiivukcd are tho^f that 

IR' |ieii\eiit ])a> eire adni¡>e^. t't i|nc (.•(■< eaii iidt he admitted, and that tlie dcci- 

(lel)lieiatiiiti-- di mi \'itre eniiiite \(iil> ^¡miiv i,\ wjiielí yoiir caiiniittee has 

a parle, ren íei'ineiit un \ien lihre. tin tuld muí. cuiiipri^e ,'i liee \i>te, a vul- 

'..eii \"'nm,iire. nil \ieii |ian'aiteiiient nntar_\- v^ie, a vnte ])r(i|ierly ex- 

e\[)rinie. et i'e-|)ere \iius le déiiiuntrer ])re>>ed. and I linpe tu prn\e it tei ynii. 

I h'irrs // ilinit,-. i i I .iin,i¡ií,-r (>n liir l\i¡/lit. i 

le di- i|n'il li'v a |ia-- nne eninnunie 1 s;iy that there i.^ nut ;i edinnnnie in 

d.iii- k' ('(iniiat (|ni ne (k'-ire la ré- the (' inuat ihat dne> tint de-ire iniinii 

nni'Mi a\ee la l-'rance ; il n'e-t pas nne with I'ranee ; there i> m it a e mminne, 

eiiinninne, Me^-ienrs. (¡ui n'ait arhore i;entlenien, that ha- imt -et np the 

les arme- de la l'r.iiue. (jnelle e-t la ;nins of i'ranee. \\ hat i- the dil'tì- 

diltieiilte i|ni -nrvient anji'nid'hni e;i- enlty aii-iiij; tcnlax' hetween the peu|)le 

ti'e le- ( iiitadin- et le- AviLjnnnais - dì th.e t'unitat rnid tlm-e di' .\\i;;n(in? 

('rd\e/-\nii- ¡ine ee suit putir Li ré- Du muí think it is dii acemint nt the 

nnii'ii ;'i la I'ranee' Xnii ; le- trunhle- iininn with l-"r;uieer Xn; the truuhles 

viennent |)ri!iei]iak'meiit d'nne ialmisie e"me ehieile Irnin a jealuu-) hetween 

entri' .\\ii;iiiin et ('arpentra-, -n-eiîée A\ iii^iinii and I'arpentr.a-, created hy le- ennemis du bien piililic préei-é- the cneinie- (if the pnlilie tiood |)re- 

ineiii p"ur empêcher la reunidii. 

.■isely in nrder tu prevent the iinimi. 

1 .' \--emliiee déciète ipi'il ne -era The .\--emlily decree- that nu mure 

]ilii- eiiteiidn pcr-uiiiie.- i . I Pl^laitilis- -¡weaker- -h.ill lie heard. i .1 f^f^liin.H' 

Si'incnts iliiiis h'S tnl'niirs. I /')/ //),■ iiiillrrirs- Ì 

l.i; Pkisiih \i. .\n nuin de l'.\- Tin; i 'i;i:-iiii;n r. In the n.aine ni 

semhlée ie declare aux trilmne- el an\ the As-eniliK i annuunce tu the trih- 

;,;;ikTie- ipie jc ferai surtir le cute qui unes and the i^alleries lh;it 1 will have 

le ]i!emur duimeia le muindie >ii;ne I'iccted ilic -ide lir-t j^i\es the 

d'ap)ilanili--einent. -lightest si^n uf ai)])laii-e. 

11 va ctre ]irucédé à r,ip]iel numinal. The rull call will he ]irucceded with. 

\'u;ci le de r,i|ipel numinal llii- is the result i>\ ihe mil call ml 

1 T!'r ■lilvitr. fre'i'KT.llv inici r^ipU'l \'y 'li-T'lcr. iHT'ipiu! \h- yvuvaW'Ií y .'• tho tr---:>M!, 
tin- U'lclitu; i'\piMifiit- oí ilic t'l" oMrciM- \icw- liiiiii; tir \lilii'' M.iiity .iinl l'."ic!if 'hi 

.M;iv 4 the 'Kl'.iti' w.i- ri'-iinu'l uiili tln' -aiiie Irmi 

-iSi-si'in '.Í M.i\ 4. 




\\Ii.\"<i\ WD lili-: \ [-.XAisSIX. 17'M 


ir Iç prcniuT ariidc du ¡nuict .k- do- ilic llrM arl.c'c ,>i tlic .Iran dcacc n, 

tiic Lniiiniitti'c (.11 riiu^u ,,i Avì,l;iimii 

iTct du C(imitc pijfiaut réuuiim d'.\\i 

non t-i du (onitat Ne 

I.c ii(iiiil)rc des V(Jtant> a etc de STO. 

M(> i>iu \()it- l'Ili. 

4X7 Din \(itc unii. 

(>/ n 1 111 |)a> ddiinc de xanx. 

Imi|ueiK-e, ^A-^eIHi)lée iia- 

■uais-in a la aiid ilie Inniiai \ eiiai .>in with 

I he nuiiilier \(iting -„as 870; 
.^16 Voted yes. 
4S7 \oled Ile. 
('/ yi\ e m i vi ite. 

C on-ei|Ueiitlv tlie Xational .\>^eiii- 
tioiiale a rejeté le ].reiiiier article du l,Iv lia. rejeete,] tin (ir>t article oi the 
^''"""'^■■' committee. 

I'raff Ihrirrfor tiu-r>urn of .\ri,inon ¡>rop,:.u;' hy Men.;, I„ the Tinnì AV- 

t»i't of the Coiiiniittec.'i on .hiijnon. May J4, i7'ii - 

Al. i.K Mi;xur. n,/^A,i,-,.-,„-. . . . j^, ^ „,. ^|,,^,„.^ ,, ,^^^^^_,^. ^ 

ne parlerai pas du premier v,eu ioriiie sh;,ll „m .peak m' ,he llr-t ui.h of ,he 

par les Avi.^monais, dans le mo,< de .\m,„o,i peuple, „, hme, 17'»(.. Miice it 

.'•ni. l.'»(t. pu,.s,|uon in-ohiecte qu'il >. ol,,ected thaï ,t ua> uttered in the 

■nt emi, au nnheu du tumulte, ,lu de- mnNt of ,„;nu.t. of .h.onler and of 
sordre et du ma»acre de ¡ilusieurs 

the ina^side of several citizen-. 

Je pa-se au.\ action- sul)>éi|uent- 
ou- reiilVriiient k Men le lìlu- -,, 

la-s to -ulKei|Ueiit acts. All con- 
tain the nio-t -oleiiin. n.o-t free and 

l^-nnel, le phis hhre, le plu- de -e ,i,.,st lej;al wi>h to he united to hVanc 
reunir a l.i h ranee. 

I. e iiieniier e-t un -ernient prete -ur 

' -M. PÍ-TloN ,.K ViMiM., VK. speakiiiR in tlic .'^c-.i..,, „f M-.v 4 .a„l • Tl.r, 

.■iM^ v.>tor,I;.y ,livided the \.^,„My. Son,,- ,li,l ,„„ „,.|, f,„ „„j,,„. ,„,,,,, „.- 

•:;""■ "',";;' "' '"■ ■■""■ """'^■'' '""'■" ^" ^ "— ■ 'i-'-^> •— . -^ •'- f-. 

le tir-t i, an oath of aüe.^iance to 

y 4. xai.l ■• Tlir,.. ,,;,!„- 
r iini..i! : ciilu-r. wislicil ûir 

X"i>L. i.r tl ,it ili,> «, ri- t,,r tlu^ 

m.^'atuo, rs|ir.~-nl l!n-ni-rl.. rs j„ il„ .•l,..,r,-,t ,1.1. 1 

ii'"-t i-rciivf ntaniu"- in tlii. tnliii-c, 

M-'. Iia.l -aM- Tlu- v..,,. ,,," ,i,e ,,,,,,,,,, ,„■ \,,^„,,„ .„„, ,,,- ,|,^, ,. 
TO l's a " ' ' ■ 

îi;-at (!m('v i-Mt ^r 

to .'S a V,,,.. ,M,ress..,l i„ , ,„.,„„,, .„ffi,.;,,,,,,. f,^.,, ^„„| „,|„,„,,., , ,/„ .,„„,^, ,, 

-1,1 .I.arK ,!,at. „ ,l„. .,„e .,,„„.,, f,,,,. .,„„,,, , „,^^^ , ,,,.,^ , > ^ 

TMll,, . ..r lrn„, „,,,„.,„„. „,, :,„„.,, ,h,.> -..,,„1,1 ,)„-,n.>!u.- a^k i.,r „ " 

■Au h. !-,ir¡__ Kl .;, 

ni'-. Mil, _'6, |i, M>Z. 



1)1 H i'Mi:.\i > 

I, t líulu' lin 1 )"ii liar toiiU-- K'- L;arik- 
iiali"ii:ik'- 'r.\\ !.i^ii"li. ft iK' -"11 U-iri- 
t,,irc. a la ( '. .n-inutn m iiam^awr. à la 
ii;.H..n. a la 1^: et au ro; : il c-t «.•n ii;il'.' 
il;i 1 I- iuilK-i. jiiiir iW la iiiK ration 
miHialr ik- riiiipna' irani^ai-, ii 
in; ]i!au- t-n ]iri'-tiiia' «k' iilu-ie-nr- ik-- 
lai luiiifiit- ik -ank'- nilioiiak'- «k-- 
Nilk-- i"rani;ai-i.-- \oi-nu-- d' \\ ii^iioti. 
! A- ikMiMcilU' i-I ntif k-lliT fcrilc pai- 
la 'iiiiiiiiipaliti- (!'.\\ i;^iii'ii a 1' \--fin- iiatiniiak-, au iH'in 'k'- halntaiit- 
■ k- ii'.ti' \ ilk'. li"ur ck-inaitiliT la re- 
PuiMii. I''.lk' l'^t (lu l,ì , lililí 17"(). 

Il- iiMi-k-mc (.'-t un iimucau ^ei- 
incin (le- uank'^ nati' mak'- avi,i;nii- 
iiai^cs. . . . 

ì.v i|uatrifnu' c-t raillii-mii au ^cr- 
iiuiit iinki-ilcnt ilnnik' jiar lo- hahi 
i.ini-. .k- Miiruri'-liiiiui; ik'pcniiaiU 
.1' \ML;niin. k-ìì ilalc dii ') -«.'ptcnibrc. 

I.i.' riii'iUK-nu' c-t un niu li.riiu- pai' 
li.- '' ~iH'tiiin> IMI ili'-triclN niiupii-ant 
]'a--rMilik'-i' miurak- 'le-- nlnvrn-- a< - 
til'- li' \v i;.;!!!'!! ]i(iui" -(.' la'Uiur a la 
1 lan^i, Ol -iiu-iir]!' liar an ikjiaru- 
Ull 111 ik- r.inii lu'--iln-klli iiu-, en ilitf 
,!:i '1 ..ctuliic ir'»<V 

1 r -■i\K'nu- i-I un \ii 11 fl iinn- jiav 
Ir- " ili-lrul- iiu -iTiinii- iiiinpii-ant 
!'a--rinlik\' i;cinTak' ik--~ (.ilnVfii- ac- 
Iii- il' \\ i^iii '11. pulir >(' rcuun a la 
l'f.mic, ti tiuiii ik- irlU' ik-lilmatiiiu 
a Imi- k-- ik paitiniiiil- iln iuxaninc, 
«■n líale lin Jii 111 tiilirc 17'"' a i i,-t ai U- 
»■-t iiinitc iwH' liitri' il'iiiMii .1 1 \--(.in 
lilti' natiiMiakv 

I X M'iilli'UK- i-l nn \ 1 M I' a nu |iar 
li-s l'itdNCil-« ai 111 - li' \\ ii;ii"n. pmu -i- 
ri'tiiiir à la I raiu < 11 a rU- Ir lu-ini- 

llu' li\iu-h niu-tuutii.ii. natmn. law 
ami Kili^. taken mi tin- Umile ilii I )mi 
li\ all tile N'aii'iiv ' (nianl- ni Am- 
li, .11. alili Ili il ■] nv\ ; u i- ni the 

1 1,1 te ni juls k, : ly ni the' .general 

leiieralinii ni t. ikIi 1 .inpire. It 

w.a- laken ni llu p .'-eiu-e ni -e\eral 
ikiaelinient- <>\ the ( ¡uanl- 
i.i the Ireneli tnwn-. iiei_L;lil>iM s i.l 
,\\!L;nnn. I he -ecnuil i- a k-lier 
wiUleii li\ the .\lnniei|ia!ii\ '>i -\M.t;- 
nmi tn ihe Xatmnal \--euihly in the 
II, uni' ni the iiih.aliiiant> <>{ tnwn. 
In a-k inr iininii. It i- ilateil Au-n-i. 
l.i. ir'Mt, 

1 he tliiiil i> a now oath ni the .\'a- 
timial < inani- ni Avignon. . . . 

Tile inurth i- the aillic-inii tn the 
pieeeiliiiL; natii .L;i\eii hy the inhahit- 
ant- "i .Mnnere-iiiiurL;. a ik'pii;<kiK'\ 
I. i .\\i-Miin. ilaU'il Septeuiher *>. 

The liilh i- .1 ui-h inrnied hy the 
nine -eetimi- nr ih-tnet- cniíipn-iiiii 
the ;.;eiieral a--einlil\ oi .ieli\e eiti- 
/ell- i>i \vi;4nnn to he •.iinteil to 
I'r.aiiie. aiiii to iiui irpi irate theiii-el\ e- 
111 tile 1 )i'p iitnieiit ni the 1 '.m!ehe--iln- 
Uhmie. il.itei! < ».Inker d. 1 7"! I 

The -i\tli 1- a wi-li invineil li\ the 
nine ili-tiui- nr -eilinu- cnnipo-iii!; 
the generili a--enihlv n\\e eili/en- 
oi \\li;llnll In lie ninle'l In liailie. 
• nul the (li-palih nl ihi- ilihker.alinii 
tn .ill the ilepaitineni- ni ihe kiii^;- 
ilmii. ilaleil < litnkd- Jh. 17'M1. i,, lin- 
ai t I- inineil .1 k'tlei ni lie-pan h In ihe 
.\'. Itimi. il \-.enilil\. 

'Ihe -evc'itli I- a wi-li imnieil h\ 
ihe a> live i iii/eii- i i \\ uiimi Io ìie 
ninlei! lo h'r.iiuc II v\;t- H ,in-niitleil 

\\iii.\'i»\ \.\i) lili-: \ i:.\.\issi\. iT'M 


a r.\--('inlilcc natie male, jiar .MM. k- I" tlii.' .XaliMiiai \-,rmM\ liv tlic ^-^r.i)- 

(-■iimiii>~airc^ du roi, i'n\ciy<.> d.iiis Ic iiii-^ii >ikt> irf ihc Kini;. -(.•iit iiiii. tin.- 

ilfi)arli-i!icnt dii <i,ar(l; a let .icti,: c-t I >i-parliin-iu (jI (lanl: I^' llu- .icl i- 

¡•iiiitt.' uiir K llic cU'> i'miitiii>--,iirt-^ (|ui innicd a Ictur ni ilu- ii iiiiiiii-,i, iiii'i-, 

ii'ii-tatc K' Mill ill'- \\ ij.;iiMnai> : (■(.■t w h' > ci ■iilinii ilk- w i-li ( li ilii ¡ifi iplc i 'Í 

acte e-t (!i! 1.- v.VAr-. 17"1. \v:u;nM¡i; ¡Ir.s .un i- dated .Mareli 1.^. 


I.e liiiitie.ue e-l line lettre de^ elee- The eii^iilli i- ,i lettei ><\ the eleetnrs 

ti TT- de r.-i-^eiiiMee eleftiiV.ali- de \':m- .it the I'deet. m;i1 .\-.-.eiiilil\ oí \'.i¡i- 

elii-e. -eaiite ,1 \m,l;i1( ■ii, a lA^-eüiMee clit>e. Mttiit;.; at .Xvi^ii'.n. tu the .\',i- 

i!:iliciii;ile. ])uiir deiii.nidev l,i leiniiuil. ti"ii.a! ,\--eiiilil\ . tu ;i-k Imi- iiiiinii. 

ell date du IS luar- 17'M : eetle lettre d.ited \l,ire!i IN. 17'M ; tili- letU'r i^ 

e-t revêtue de- -i.i;iiatlli e- de tini-- le- im ni-lud with the -ii;ii.ituie- '<\ ,iil 

('■liHieiir-, the eleetni-. 

I.e iieiuieiiie e-! une leltr<' <le l:i The niiitli i^ a letter ni' ila- .Muniei- 

nniinciiiali'é d' \\i,;;ii..ii à 1' \--einliK-e pality of .\\i,t,Mi<Ml tu t'ie X.itn mal \- 

iialinii.ile et -ti- aii imui du |ieu|ile -eiiililv. wntleii m t',- ti. une ni ilu- 

a\Ì.un"Uai-. it d.itee illl Id 17'M . pe i]ilr i>\ \\il:i|(iu ,iiid d.Uv-d the lu 

elle detliaiide la reiiim 'Il )iar le- muti Í- di' M.n. 17'M; it a-k- the uiiinii l'^r 

le- |ilti- -i--ant-. et a eie lue Iner ui.i- the iiiu-t |ire--i!iL; re.i-<iu-. .md it w.i- 

tin .1 rA--eutIilie u.iticiii.ile ; eli'' e-t \e-terd;i\ in.inniiv' tu the .\.i- 

;ic euinpaL'iiee <1 une lettre .ni ]ire-i uMn;d \--einlil\ : it i- .ìeeMiupaiiied hv 

dent de r \--einlHee uatiiin.ile. en date ,i letter U> the l're-ulent ut tlie \a- 

d'i 17 mai, \--emlil\ . .lati .1 M,i\ 17. 

le Jieli-e. Me--ieui-. ulte le- dilì'e I tlnnk. mntleinen. ih, il llie diiìer 

rem- ;iile- d. ni je uen- de nmu- ren- enl .lel- di whieh 1 lia\e pi-t l;^ '-n 

<lre iduipie. \du- pai.iiirdut -ulii-.uil- \du an aecdiini will .appi'ar n. \ uu 

pdiu edu-I.iU'r. di- 1,1 inaiiieri' l.i plu- -lUtieieilt tu pid.c. m llu nid-i e\ idi nt 

evidente, le ven hliie, -dleniiel et m;uilier. the l'ree. -dlemn ,llld idini.ii 

li'niielde- \\ luiiidiiai-, ()Mne]idnn.i v\i-h "i ih,, p,dp|,- ni \\i^ndn, .NT 

p.e- allej^ner pie ee miu ait eie eim- .ut uiu' , ,ni .illei^e ili. il ihi- \> i-lt h.i- \h-(\ì 

tnilien de- tiduMe-; ( ,ir l'ai elilieie- e\pre--ed m lite niiij-t ni ih-Iurh- 

ment ee.irle t..n^ le- .lete- cpu '-ni lU ,m. <■- : \nr | li;i\,, i-ntirelv -et ,i-i.|e 

lien d;in- le inci- de inni, ipnn.pu- .di llie a. I- wliieli !d,.k,, ,,i tl.c 

pln-iein - deutle eu\ -dieill revilu- iiidinli df lune, .illk.i >iiL;h -e\erai 

ile- tdime- li- pili- .lUllieiilKpte- il le- .itildiiM iluin ni.u li.i\e lieeit eldthed ni 

plu- le>;;ile- I du- le- l nnihle- el.itenl llie iiid-i ..iilhetilie .iiid le;;:i! ì'drni- 

ee--e- .1 \\ii;ndn .i li lin de 11 I -. \!1 ilii' ili-tin li.uiee- iiM-e(l .it 

et U' it'ai t'.iil meiitidii de- aele- .;t'.i \ v l.i;ii. pii ,il lite end d j liti- nidiuli. .iii,I 

eduiineneei di. II nnllel. ep.ii|ue ,i I h.i\e meiilidned dii¡\ ijic -ui^ r.iui- 

la-pulle dii ,1'. .ut ,idini- u 1 .1 1.1 i;i,iiide iiiiiuitii; l'ifini the nih ..i |iil\, ilie 



1)1 )C TM I- XTS 

(■«.■iKr;itiiiii une dqnitation des ■,';ir(K'> t-pnch at wliicli íi (lfiiutati(,ii oí Xa^ 
iiat H mall's avij;iMiiaisi-> : je dnis u'n- tiuiial ( ¡nanU cil .\\ignon were ad- 
■-erver an— i ,|i!e la ¡xiijulaiinn d' Avij,'- united here to the i^reat tederatioii : I 
iioii, n'étant i|iie le _'4,0IK) ame-, ne imi-t al-.i oliser\e that the liopiilatioii 
donne (|u'en\Mon 4 a 5.«HXl i-itoyeiis of Avijinon. heilig' only _'4.()00 >oiiK. 
aeri-. i. e \on de- \\ i.;;iionai> e'.l K'^*'^ '"''> ^»''oiit lour to ii\e thoti- 
eiieore eoii-tate ¡lar ime iiitiiiité d'aetes -and aeti\e eiti/en-- 'I'he \\i>li of the 
(|Ui von- oni été eii\o_\é-, des departe- ¡¡eople of Avignon i- further ])ro\ed 
ment- et di-triet- \(ji-m-: < franile, \'a- 1>> an infinity of act- which have lieen 
lence, Ai\. Xion-, ( hateau-ienanl, sent to yoit from the neis^hliorinj^de- 
Xmie-. Mar-eille, Arle-, (ourthe-on. partment- and di-tnets: Orange, \ a- 
Tara-coii, etc., etc.. n'otil ce-sé lence, .\i\, Xion-, ( h.iteau-ren.ard, 
d'écrire a r.\--eml.lee nationale jMinr Xime-, .\lar-eille-, .\rles. t "ourthe-oii, 
renga.L;er a | •■ononcer -iir l.i petition T.ara-coii, etc., etc., have not "-i^ed 
de~ .\\i^'nonai-, et I'axertir dii dan^u-r to write to the Xational .\--ei ;My to 
<|ii'il \ .aurait à leieter leur vo-u. urt;c it to pronounce upon ;he peiuioii 

of tile people of .\\|i^non, and to ap- 
pri-e it of the dansier tliere would he 
ill reiectiii;^ their w i-h. 

I'.ai en coi'-é'i|'ience. riionneiir de 1 ha\e con-ei|ueiitl\ the Iunior ol 

\oii- piopo-er le projet de décret --ui- propo-in^^ to ymi the tollo\Miij; draft 

v.iiit, an nom de> comité- diploma- decree, m the :!ariie ot tlu' Piploniatic 

tii|ne, lie • oii-titntion et d'.Xvif^noii: < 'ommiitei'. and the Committee- on 

tile » oii-tiiution .and on .Nvi^íiion: 

" l,'.\--emMee nationale, ,iprè- "The Xaiion.d \--eml)l\, '..ixm.v; 

ruoir entendu le rijiport de --e- vditiité- ' i ard the report ol n- ('oinmittee on 

de < 'oii-tuiitioii, diploin,itiiine el i lie i oii-;iuition. n- I )iploinatic ( oiii- 

d' \vi^noii. relali\ement ,ui\ droit- de miitee, and it- ' ommittee on \\i},'" 

la l'r.mce -ur l'ÎMat d'.\w;,;iion et -on non rtt;;ndinj; tlie iai,dit- of l'rance 

territoire. ai.,-i iin'au \ieii lilirc. ai'al merlile State "f ."w i.t;non and it- ter- 

et -oleiinel des .\\ ii;iioii,i!- |iour -e ritor\ . ,i- well a- the Iree, le;.;al .in«! 

léniiii .'i ri'.mpire francai-, décrète; solemn wi-h of the jieople of .\vi^'noii 

Io It umied to ihe I oiuh l'.mpire. 

" 1". ( tu'elle ,idinel el lucorp. .re le- ' 1. Ili,it n didimi- , ml me irpoi;i!e- 

.\\iL;ilonai- d.m- la ii,ilioii frain;.ii-e. tlie peo]i!e ol \\i;.;iion in the i-'reiuh 

dont ils feront de-ormai- p.irtie m nation. <■' which it -h.dl hcncelorlh 

tej;raiile, l'-ur .iccorilant toii> le- droll- form ,in iirci^ |i,irl. granimi; to 

et ,i\ , Intasie- de sa Constitution ihrm ,ill the rn^ht- and uh antaj^es il 

ll> Coll-llIUtloll , 

A\I(i\<).\ .\XI) THI-: \KX.\IS^I\. 1791 



" _'". (jne Ic Idi sera jiric ile ilunncr " -. lliai the King lif reiiucsicd to 
au iiiini^tn.' des altaircs étrangères. gi\e li> llie Minister •)t l-oreigii Al- 
lons les ordres nécessaires pour nego- lan^ al! the orders neee>-iary to négo- 
cier. a\ec le pape, le> indemnités (|ui tiate with the l'ope \\liate\er iiulenini- 
poiinaient lui être due> ; tie> may he due him; 

".v. Le ¡di sera égalenient prie " .i l'he Kmg >iia!! al-o he re- 

d ordiiiiiier aux citoyen.-- dltdil 1-tat nue-^led to order the citi/eii^ ni the 

et tcrriti lire d'Avignon, de ce>>er tollt >aìd .^tate .nul territory ot Avignon, 

acte d'hostilité contre les hahilants du lo cea^e iroiu ali act-, oi" ho>tuit\- 

l'omtat \ eiiai>>in, a\ec !es(niels la in- against the inhahitani^ of the >. oiiital 

lioii írain;ai-e \eii! vivre en hoiiue in- \ eii.iis^iii. with whom the l'reiuh na- 

telliuence:' . . ." I i.'U ile>ire- u ■ li>. e m amit\ . . . ." 

l'arct' ('] tiic Xitliiimil .¡ssi-iiih!\ l'rmidiiKj llhil M i-iliaturs sluiil lu- sciit to 

.Irn/iioiL Mux 2?. 17'M - 




I. \s-emlilee nationale de rete ijue llie X'îioual \>>euihl> ilecrec> 

le pre--idi-ir. >e retirera <levers le tlial the l're--ident sh.ill re]>.iir hefoie 

roi |M.ur le i)rier: the Kmg to rciiuc-t Inni. 

1", i)'en\'i\i'i de- médiateur- i|Ui 1 I 1 1 -end mediator> who ^hall ui- 

inle!|iM-eul le- Im.ii- nl'lice- de I.i te: ]io>e the good (pt'tice-> ot iT.iluelie- 

l-"raiice entre le-- \\ ignon.ii-- et ie> tweeii thi ¡people o! A\ii;noii ;'nii 

< omtiuHiis et fa^^ellt tous lem - el'fort-- iho-f ot the tomtat and ^h.ill e\en 

po-u le- .imeiier à la cessation de ton. e .il! tluii etfori- to in<hue ihem to --t'.p 

liostilite, C'imiiie un provisoire néct-s- lio-tiluie- .i- a prov isioii nece--arv Ix.- 

-aire .ivaiit de preiulre aucun parti ime lakiiij; any Inrtliei deu-iou re- 

uheiieur relativemein ,iux droit-- de gardin^ the rights ot P'rance ov ei tlie 

1,1 Iraïue >iir ce- l'av-- country 

_'" 1 ' i lujilover le- tories ijiii sou! _' IO emplov all lile torces in their 

en -on pouvoir, pour empêcher i|Uf power to prevent the troo])s making 

les troupes (pii -e I 'iit l.i guerre d.iiis war in tlie ( ouitat \ eii.n-sin liiiii 

!e ( ( \ eiiaissiu. ne l.isseiii ,iu- am irruption into irelich terntorv . 
cune irruption -ur le leiritiMo- de 
I'rance . 

.V' De M ilamer ¡«ms Ks l'raiiijais .^ To recali ali the l"'renelniieii who 

c|iii ont pris ii.irti d.ins l'une oti l'autre li.ive taken a pait m eillier the one or 

1 I 111- lir-t t«" .irtiilts won- ■...•ii! mm m |i.iîatilv ,iiiil l•■^t Iiv .VU v.ilr» ai;,iiii-t .174 .Irili. 
tari.. !»t sfrie», vol. if>, p ,W¿. 

- !.. h t-.vl l-l ^.-ri,-- v.,1 •(, ¡, V,\ 



ík's lieux arniL'i'-. et de iaire à cet ci- the other ni tlie twn armie'^, au'i \n 

tet une ¡irnclaiiiatiiiii i|tii ll\e un délai make a ileelaralidii to thi> etïeet which 

et a—uie une arun-iie | vk | aux uiili- ^hall tlx a terni ami a>-urc an aiii- 

taire- iraïKai- i|ni reiitiei > 'Ht iLiii- le ne-i\ tnilie ¡'rench ^nlilier^ w ho ■~hall 

l'elai |ire-crii, et i|ui declare ile^ei leur- leturii w uhm the iierind |ire^crilied. 

a l'etraiiiiei' ihux i|ni ne reiiireraieiit and winch -hall declare a- ile>erters 

¡la-; tu a InreÌL;il i'-'wer thn-e \\,¡u du iint 

le! uni : 

4" Me faire imui-iuie cl ¡luinr 4. I" ]iur-iR and ]iuin-li as ;i re- 

c-.iiiiiue eiiihauchenr tuut h'iuiiiie i|r,i cruUuiL; nliieer ,iil\ nian w hu ili 

íerait en I ranee de- ree rue-, -un pour 1 ranee recruii- inr either the une 

un |.ain. -oit ]iour l'antre. p.irty or the oilui. 

rrrHiuiihirirs i<¡ ¡\\tc,- uiiil <>] i\iiuiluitiiiii . lijrccd on l'iid Si(i::rd hy the i K'pii- 
tics ('/ ///.■ IJ,iliiiiil . Issriiii'l ^- II/ tlir M unuipalilu-s '/ .liiijiwn and of 
Co,r¡^cnti\is. and oj llu' .iniix ,'j ¡ ¡iitJiisr. nillcd the .¡iiiix oj .! rii/iioii, in 
llir /V,'.v<'i/cr i<f till- Midintimj Ctninnissioncrs of l-riin<c, ¡K'fiitcd hy ¡iic 
Kini/. Jiinr 14. IT^l ' 

( eiourd'hii!. 14 uiiu 17'M. MM. 1 M-da\ . iuiie 1 t. 17'il. die deinities 

!e- de]inte- ile ra--eml)lee électorale of the Ideeti .\>-eliilil\ of the Mu 

de- numiciiialile- d'A\ i^iiou el de I ar- nicijialitie- of .\\i<j^iioii and of C ar- 

]ieiitra- I't de r.irniee de \'auchi-e. jientr.!- ,iii<l ■ ■! du' .\rmy of \'aucln-e 

llalli reuní- en im-eibe de MM. le- ll.l\ m;; met m the [ire-euce of the .Me 

niedialeur- de la Ir, ilice, -ont c.iii- i|i;itor- of 1 ranee, have aj^reed on ihe 

\enn- de ce iiin -lut et en ont ¡)ri.>; iollowmi4. .itid ha\e ni.iile a 

1 cil^'aj^einent formel pour ce (lui con- eni;,iL;einelit with ihe Mediator- ol 

eeiue leur ( ouimett.'iiit- re-|iecii >"-. i-ii- i'rance ,i- to that which concern- their 

ver- .M.M, le- niedi.aH'tu- di' la l'r.ance: le-pectne con-titueiit-. 

\iM 1' ni.h|ue depili, ition -'en .\i;iiim: 1. h'ai h deputation un- 

a:\fH: à >li-pendre de- a |iie-ent l'Hi'e- de: take- to -u-peiid ali ho-ti^:ties troni 

lìo-tilité-i. a licencier tonte- le- tr,, upe- thi- time oli, to di-lian<l ni! torcc'< 

;iiinée- pour l.i iMiiire. .i nl.ililu et armed for ]iur[)o-es oi P e-tah- 

prole¡;er la liherte ei l;i -urei''- de- li-ii .and to pioiect the libeitv .iiid tin- 

cunpaiine- et i.i lécojie l'e- lUia-MJii-;. -afcly of the countryside and the 

;.;.itluTÌnL.' of the harv f-ts. 

Akt. J. II e-l «oiuemi ellln '■ - \^ i J h i ;ii.;leed lulweeii the 

tlcii-\ j)aniev coiiiractrmles i\w ra>- contr.Mtm:; ji.iriie- th.ii die I ledo!, d 
'.-Iti'i fjfi. 1st series, vol .'", p. 708. 

.wiiixox AXD im: \ kxaissix. it'M 


^i'üilléc (.■k'ctoi-ale so reunirá dans un 
Iicu ijiii nc .-.(lit -(.ujii^dunc iraucnnc 
influence do parti, Ic plus propre à la 
Iiiiené de^ ^iittra,i;es. et mu .-era eliui-i 
]iai MM, les nie'diateurs. 

Aki. .V i 'nur hater le sticeè- de- 
luientii'U- liieni'.'ii-aïue- de l'A-^eii!^ 
lilee ualiMuale de l'raiiee, le- de|)ulé- 
de ra.--enil)lée éleetnrale arrêtent 
'inelle ne -'(recupera (pie de- ohiet- 
relatils à la médiatinn pendant toute 
-a durée. 

\\<T. 4. 11 a eie arrete ])ar totUe- 
le- partie- (pie. ]H'ndaiil t'uii le temi)- 
'pie 1 a--etiililee électorale -dccupera 
(le la deci-Kiu de l'elat p')liti<pie du 
pa\-, tous le- crp-, adiuini-trati ! - 
-erdiit circ(in>cril- dan- le- droits (pii 
-ont de leur e-sence et (¡u'ii- ne -'attri- 
InuTout aucun de ceii\ (pii ;ip]iartien- 
neiii au.\ corps atlniini-trati l- (le la na- 

,\i';r. 5. l'((ur a--iirer l'exeiniioii 
(le- pre-eiit- préliminaires, (iour ren- 
dre ,1 ceux (|ui auraient pu elle m 
liniide- ]iar !.(. force, leur lilierié en- 
tière et ali-ohu. eiitin pour prévenir 
le de-ordre de ceux (pu, a|ire- le li 
cencieinent (le- année-, iioiii raient -e 
répandre dan> les cani])aj,Mie- et y 
exercer des vexation-. M.\l le- de 
piité- de l'as-einlilée élector.ile, de- 
nilinici])alilé- <\' \vii;n(Mi et de l arpen- 
tra- et de l'année de X'.uielusc dc- 
iiiandent unatnineinent a MM. le- 
niediati ir- de la I-iance : 

1" 1 )(■ -e poilei pour u.iv.iiii- en- 
ver- et cimtre chacun de- contrai 
tant-, coiiime .aii-si contre toute a--ii- 

Asscmlil) -hall meet m a place winch 
-hall Hol he -u-pected oi an\ p.iitv 
iniluence, and -hall le the one nio-t 
compatitile with a free vote, and 
which -hall he chosen hy the medi- 

Ai;l. .Ì. In order to ha-teii llie 
-ucees- Ol the iieneliceilt iiiteiltioii- ol 
the Xatioiial .\--emhly of 1- ranee, tli? 
deputie- of the j^lectoral .\--emMy 
decree dial ihe \--eiill)ly -hall oicupv 
ii-i'li ihroiiL;lioiit it- duration -olelv 
with -uiiiect- relative to tl'.i- niedia- 


.\i-: 1 . 4. It ha- heen re-olved In- 
all p.'rlie- durinj; tile whole lime 
thai the h'.lecloval A--emMy -hall oc 
cupy it-eli with the deci>ion oí the 
liolitical -tate >f llie couiurv, all the 
adtnmi-tr.itue ho.he.- -hall he linnie(l 
to the' riL;lit- wliuh are of tlleir e-- 
-eiue aiKl that they -hall ,i--iiiiie none 
o! iho-e which ])eiiain to the admiii- 
i-tiati\ e hl ¡(K . if ihe nation 

Aki. .-. In order to a--iire the ex- 
ecution of till pi'e-ent I'reliminai ie-. 
to re-tore to tlio-e who ina\ iia'. e 
hei II ,iitimi(laic(| li\ folic, their eni':e 
an(l alisoiute lihertv, and. tinallv. to 
]iii'\ent di-onlers l)v tlio-i- who, alter 
the di-handint; of the armies. inii;ht 
-¡iread thcm.^cKe- lliio-.i^diout the 
eoiintiyside and there iroiihle. 
the deputie- of tlie Klectorat .\s>ein- 
lil\, of the Municipalities of .\\if;non 
an<l of (ariientras. and of the .Army 
■ I \ .inclu-e niLTiiinionslv reipie-t llie 
Mediator- of I raiicc: 

I 'I'll liold thcnisclv . iiar- 

atitor- tow.iTil- ;nid a)iain-i e.ich of 
the eontractini» jKirtie-, a- also agaitist 

Dde TMi-.xrs 

riaiimi et •ittnmpcinfiit-. faits daii- ail associatiniis and niobs organized in 
Ic^ deux l''.tats pour ^'i)iipii^i--r à I'livdrf the two States to oppose pulilic order 

public et a ! exeeir on des enp;a,L:e- 
iiieiit^ ci-dessiiN mentionné^; 

_'" I )e ¡ilaeer. dan- les _' \il!a;4es 
d' Xvii^iion et de ( 'arpentras et dans 
tout autre lieu oii liomn serait, de-- 
troupes tran(,-aiscs pour |)ré\enir tou-, 
les tn;ui\ 'prévus dans le ])résent ar- 
tiele. liien entendu (|ue les armées ne 
seront licenciées (|u'a])rès ipie l'on aura 
jiris lesdites sûretés poiu- retaMir l'or- 

Aur. (>. Il a été contenu, entre 
toiues les ¡iarties, (|ue les ])réseiits pré- 
liminaires seraient envoyés à toutes 
les communes de l'iMat d' \\i;,'non '.'t 
< ointat \enais,in. à l'etïet ¡lar elles 

and the execution of tlie enj^agcments 
alxive mentioned. 

2. To ]iiace I'"rench troo])s in the 
t\^ o cities of .\\ i^mon and Carjientras, 
and in all odier places where there 
!na\ he need, in order to pre\ent the 
ills antici])ated in the i)rcsent article, 
it lieinii understood that the armies 
shall not he dishanded imtil alter the 
aioresaid measures to restore order 
shall ha\e heeii taken. 

.\h\. (), It has been aj,'-reed be- 
tween all the iiarties th;it the |)resent 
I'relinunaries shall be sent to all the 
commîmes of the States of .Vvijjnon 
an<l of the C'omtat X'enaissin, in order 

d'en\i)\er chacune nu depute nuim de that each shall send a deput\ ])rovided 
pouvons suffisants jìour contracter et with snt'ticient jxiwer to contract and 

subscrdie to the pre-ent en,:j;a^ement 

Airr. 7. It has been ai^ieed, lasth . 
that all the prisoners taken b\ each 
parte respectively, shall be set free 
without ransoni and at the lime of the 
(lisbaniiiniL; i>f the arnues 

I he present i'reliniinaries lia\ e been 
ai;reed on and sii.;ned, to he exe- 
cuted immedialel\ on their ratification 
by the constituents of eadi of the <lcp- 
utatious. in presence of the Medi- 
ators of IVance, deputed bv the Kinij;, 
\\ ho ha\e sij^rned with the contracting 
parties, as witnesses and ¡'guarantors 
' if these presents. 

1 ¡one al < 'r.itif^e . m the da}', month, 
and year as .above. 

(The sif^natiires follow.) 

souscriri cc present en,i.;;iL;enient. 

\ui. 7. II a été arrêté entin (pie 
tous les jirisi.iuiiers resi)ecti vement 
faUs seront rendus s.aiis rani;ou et ;i 
rnist.anl du licenciement des .armées. 

I es ]iusent~ |irélinunaires ont été 
arrêtés et sij^nes, pour cire exécutés 
aiissiiéit .après l.i ratilicatiou respec- 
tive des conuuell.anis de cli.icune des 
depnt. liions, en ])résence de MM les 
meili.ileurs de brance. députes |)ar le 
roi. lesi(uels ont s|oné a . ec les lon- 
Iract.'inls. comme teniouis et },'arants 
des présenles 

l-".iit à < >r;ini;e, les jour, uu'is et .an 
(|1U' dessus 

( .Suivent le- sil u.iture- i ' 

' I lir^. Ptriiiim: it H s were pri rlitrrl t.. tlif A^stiiiiiK ^'ti fiil\ 4 .\ (ft'iTce vva^ ;it 'UKr 
;iilo)i|cil approving l!ir loiiihut i.f ilu- ("niiimissioiiers sent as pai'it'uators lu .Avimioii ami 
aiitliiiri/inK tlirm to taki' .iny m< asures tlicy niiglit tluiik prnprr to assure tfie execution of 
ll:r l'reliminat f l'raïc -.(rr'i. pari. vol. 27. Kt -mes. p /II") 

AVKLVOX WD THF. \F.\' VISSI \. 17^1 


Letter cf the Mediators to the rresi,leiit of the Xatioiial Asseinblx dt 

Bédíirides ' 

I. a |iai\. arrctt'o «latís le- ])ri'-- 
liininairt-s dc paix. Mdiisicur, a cti 
sdii fffct. L'armée (!<■ \'aiiclii>o a etc 
lit'enc'ée, et déjà Avi^nnn et ])ltisieur- 
.L,n-andes cnnumiiies du (otiitat se >nnt 
empressées d'émettre un \<v\\ sur leur 
sort ]i()liti(nte. Ine paix duralile ne 
peia s'italilir. la nrusperité |in!)li(|ue 
ne peut renaître (me par la i-éuni<in des 
(ipiniiMis et des \(eux sur cet nhjet 
imiKirtant. Veuille/ ddiic, Monsieur, 
adresser à tniit-js les Cdmnnuies la let- 
tre fi- jointe: leur annoncer ipie, c^n- 
iormément aux préhminaires de paix, 
l'Assfiiihlée électorale va se réunir a 
l'.edarides. lieu ipie nou> avons in- 
di<|ue, et i|n'il e^t instant (|u'elles s'em- 
]Me-->en! d'y envoyer leurs dé]>utés, 
afin de dé])oudler les proiès-\erl)aiix 
dinii>si(,ii de's \,(eiix et de constater 
la niaiorité. 

The peace a^'recd nimn in the I'rc- 
liminarics ot I'eace, Su', lia^ had re- 
sult-. The .\rni\- of V'auduse lias 
leen dishanded, and alreadv .Xvi^'non 
and >e\eral of the lai",t,'e commîmes of 
the Comtat have made liaste to exjiress 
a wish as to their ¡lolitical future. A 
<hirahle i)eace can not ! i- otahlished, 
pulilic pros])eruy can not he restoreil, 
save l)v unanimity of opinion and de- 
sire as to tiiis important -uliject. lie 
so ^niod then. Sir. as to send the en- 
closed letter to all the communes, to 
aniioimce to them that, in conformity 
with the Preliminaries of I'eace. the 
i'lectoral .Xssemhly will shortly meet 
at iiédarides. the jilace indicated hy 
us. and that it is of immediate im|ior- 
tance that they should make haste to 
send their deputies there, in order to 
ahstract from the minutes the state- 
ments of the wishes expressed and to 
ascertain the tnajoril\. 

/ elter to the C(^nmiiiiie.<. Sent by the Presiiieitt of the .Isseiiii'lv ot tlie Request 

of the Mediators ' 

le vous eir.oic, ^!ess¡enrs. ime [ am sending; -.on. Sir, a certified 

copie certitiée de la lettre (pii m'a été lopy of tlie letter wliiih lias heen sent 

adressée par MM. les Médiateurs de to me hy the ^[edia•ors of France, 

la F'rance, I.'.Vssemhlée électorale. The Flectoral Assemhlv. which i« 

'iui \,i se réunir à Rédarides. verra alnint to meet at Bédaridcs. will look- 

a\ec sati- tion tout cc (|ue \ os con- with approval on all that \our fellow 

' Ciiarpciiiic /.Cf Grands i-fisoHci ft,- la K,--:\>tuU. 'ii ,l,iii< .i-.uin.m ,-t /,- i' \.l 1. 
p r,?'', \,, fl.Ttc nr sienatnre \^ Riven 

-' riiarpoiiiif, ¡.es (immls i'.fisndi-s dc la RZ-eoíuli-ni. vol. 1, p. 240 N'u .late Í5 í;i\rn. 


n( ìcr.Mi'XTS 

tit^ycii- KTMiit ]»iur niiniiiuir au >iic- 
ic- lie li-iii> \iic> liii.-nfai>;mte>. Jc 
\iT,- -alile iMnlialcinciìl." 1 )i I'KAi. 
[i\'.\ii¡ru! : \.\iiix. .•ii\i\'tiiii\' : l\i- 
I III \ , >-i'i r(-/i,';;-,'. 

.\(iu> v()ii> pré\ciinn-. Mt'>-iciir-. 
i|ik-. riiiiíiiniiúiiK'lit aii\ |ireliiiiiiiairi,-- 
i\v ](ai\ ralifu'- i)ar la niainiiir (k'> 
i-iiiiiimiiif- I't parami- ]iar la l-"rain.x'. 
til \cTtu ihi (IciTcl cU' rA<--cnilik'-c na- 
tii ■iialo (In 4 jiiilk'l. i)r(.'-cin iimis, il 
f-î iii-taiU i|nL- \ciii'' tn\ii_vicz des 
deinite- à r.\-~-enilike elefturale <iui 
s'a--eiiililera jeiuli _'l juillet, ])i"e>ent 
iiiiih., au lien de l'>rdaricle> que il(iu> 
a\ '11- <te-it,nie. Idle -era le p. liiit cen- 
tral (ill le ])r(K'e<- verbal iréiiii--i()ii de- 
\'iii\ -ur I'etat p'llitiiine du ]ia\ - >era 
(hx>-é. a l'ellet de eioi-tater mius lio- 
lenx la iiiaji'rite de^ -ii!frai;e>. 

eitizeiis may (Id to promete the ,-ue- 
ees- (It their l)eiie\i)leiU inteiuioii-. 1 
j^ieet Mill eiirdially, — l)rfHAr. /'/•,'\i 
tlt'iil : Nauin, .S,\;-,-/i/ry,- Ri i iiiiv, 

Wehereliy inforni \()U. Sir. that in 
I olili iriiiity with the Preliminaries ot' 
I'eaee, ratilied li\ a majurit} of the 
I'omnuiiie- anil i,'uaranteed hv l-'ranee. 
liy \ irtiie of the decree of the Xational 
.\--emlil\- of July 4 of the iiresent 
month, it i- of immediate importance }ou -end deputies to the Idec- 
toral .\--einlily, which will ;i>-emlile 
on riuir-(la\-. Inly _'l of the present 
month, at the place of Hedarides. des- 
iiiiiated liy u-. 'I hi- will he the ceii |)oiiit where the ollicial statement 
ot tile wi-hes e\pre>-e(l a- to the po- 
liticrd -tate of the country -hall he 
drawn up. for the ])iirpo-e of ascer- 
taining,' in our pre-ence, the inajoritN 
of the vote-. 

l','iin,i! Miniitr xf tlic iniiniiKiitil .Issciiibly ci S,-(/iii\-l. .lii;/iisi 11, 17''1 ' 

L,i miiiii.ipalitc ;i\.iiit convoijue 'I he Mniiici|i,ilit\ h.avini; the da\ 

1,1 \eille ]iAV cii- piililu- toll- le- cito- hefove, li\ ]iu1jIìc crier, coiuoked the 

\eti- ai iif-, il- -'a--eml lièrent au nom- .active citizen-, they assemliled to tlu' 

Ire de cent tr ■(-, ie 11 amit 17''!. iiunilier of three hundred, oil .\iiv;ii-i 

\p;e- i|;ic k I 'riHiireiir de la coin- 11. IJ'U. .\ftertlie Procurer of the 

mime leur eut lau ¡lart du di-cour- (. ommiine reported to them liie 

a lui tenn p. ir l'uii des Medi.iteiirs, di-coursc made to him hv one of the 

relatuemeii! a !'eiiii--ioii ik' liiir mcu. .Meiiiator-, rc^.inlin;.; the emi--.'iii of 

toll- Ie- .i--emlilé- prirent à ruiiani- their \ote, all tlio-e a.-semhled unaiii- 

niiti- la deliliér.atiMii -uiv.inte 1" dc mon-l\ adopted the followinn dclih 

voter di'- ri'tiiercieiiient- a 1 I i;(.'iiéreu--e ev.iiioii-: 1. to vote ilieir thank- to 

liatioii de- 11, lineai-, ipii. iii-trnite et the cenerini- l-'rench n.ition, w huh, m- 

' Cl;.Triiii;iic. /.. ( (,iijiii/,ç ¡ /-i.^.d.s ./,• In A'.'r .i/ii/ii ». vi'l. .5. p. 22A. 

A\I(¡,\()\- ANI) Till-; \ l-.XAISSIX, 1791 


tn¡iclu-f cíe raiiarcliic et ¡a-: lidireiir^ 
i|ii¡ (ie--(ileiu notre province, a dai^ni', 
lian- l'ininiensité de ses tnuaiix, >'oc- 
niiier de nous. coni[);'itir à nos mal- 
heur; et nous envo\er de- Médiateiii-s. 
i|iii lidèle- à la mission la ¡îIus ;iu,L;iHte, 
ont lin- en tisaj^e tou< les mo\en> ])our 
ramener iKirmi non- la ¡laix et la 
-iireii-: _'" de renouveler le serment de 
fidélité au Saint-Sié.<;e. dan- la i)er- 
-oime de rie \'l. soiuerain l'oniiie. 
i|ui. nous rappelant par la sai^es-e de 
-"11 .t^ouvcrnemeiit et la tendresse de 
-on eienr paternel tou- les hienfait- 
dont se-. ])rc'déeesseurs ont toujours 
eoinhlé eette pr()\ince, nou> a ton- 
jotn- traités en enfant- eliéri^ ¡ilntôi 
<|u'en sujets; 3" de ré\c)(|uer et re- 
garder eomnie de nullité toutes les 
<léiiliérations que la crainte et la ter- 
reur ont pu leur arracher jii-(|u'á ce 
jour et pourraient leur commander à 
l'avenir, i)rotestant vouloir vivre et 
mourir sujets de X.-S. Père le l'ape, 
et di-ciples de la relit;ion catlioli(|ue 
a])o-toli(|ue et romaine, dont il e-t ie 
chef comme vicaire de Jé>u--(hn-l et 
succe-seur de Saint-l'ierre. 

Ain-i iiro])o-é, conclu et déliliéié. — 
li.vlioif ¡Ili rri/istii- (Ir la cuniiiunc tic 
<•(' licii <!i- Si'<iiir,-t. tire mot ii mot. 

Davi 11, iiiuirc : 

i'.iS( A K K Ar. srcrt-tiiirr-i/rrtiirr. 

l'ormed of and toUvhed \'\ the an:ii\hv 
and tile horror> which are de-olalmi^ 
our ])ro\ ilice, ha- deii^uied in the im- 
meii-ity of it- l.ihor-, to occupv it-elf 
with us, to ])it\ I'ur mi-fortune^ auii 
to -end to u- ihc Mediator-, who, 
faithful to their uio-t au^u-t mi--ioii, 
h;i\c made u-e o|' e\ er\ mean- to re- 
-tore peace and safety amonj; u- ; _'. 
to renew the oath of lidelity to the 
] loh See in the pei-on of I'iu- \ I, 
.So\ei'eii,'n I'oniilt. who, recallinji to 
u- li\ the wi,-dom of iiis j;overnnient 
and the tenderne-s of hi- paternal 
heart, all the lienetit> with which hi- 
])redece>sors have alwavs over- 
whelmed tin's province, and have al- 
ways treated us as heloved children 
rather than as -uhjeets: 3. to revoke 
and to re^'ard as null all deliheratioiis 
which fear and terror have been ahle 
to wrest from them up to this time 
and mifjlit he ;dile to dictate to them 
in the »'nture, ¡irototinj,' that they 
vvi-li to live and to die subject- of 
our Holy ]-'ather the Pojie, and di — 
ciples of the catholic apostolic ami 
Roman reli.nion, of which he i> the 
head as \'icar of Jesu- (,'hri-t :uid suc- 
ee-sor of Saint 1 'eter. 

i'lopo-ed. concluded and ilelibei- 
ated as above, ¡■..vlt'ih I trotii tlir roll- 
ister of the ioiiniiiiiit- of tltis Toien of 
.\'éi/iirrt. copictì mbutiin. 
Dwii), .\iiiyor: 
I'lseAKUA r, h',\ ('r:iiiiii-Si\ rrtdrw 


i)( )cu.\ii-:.\Ts 

R^f-"!' i>l /.< .S' i-nc lies Müismis ,)it liis Mission as Mcdiiitor. .Scptrinb^T 

10, 1791 ' 

Mi:— ii.cR?, (íknti.f.mkx, 

I )i.'liiiie^ |i,i|- Ic r'i¡. \t-r> lc> jiciiii'i- .\> (lejiiuies froiii the Kini;" to the 

il'AMundii v[ (In ( Oniiat. cii cnixu- pccplc hI' .\vij;ii()ii ami the C'dintat, in 

timi (io \ii^ Idi^ do J4 mai et 4 juillet excnilidii nf xoiir laws of May 24 and 

dernier, n^ ''.n allon^ mettre ^on- \ o~ !nl_v4 1a>t, we are j^oiiig to sulimit to 

\en\ ee (|Ui ^eul e^t di.i^ne de von--: \ ou what alone is worthy ot _\ou' the 

la \erite attestée ]iar le devoir et ¡tar truth attested by duty and hy honor. 
1 honneur. 

l,;i ré'.olution rqiérée dans A\ÌL;non The revolution carried on in A\ i^- 

et ilau> le (. ouiiat \'enais>in tut une non and the (/onitat \'eiiais>in was the 

suite uaiurelle. iné\ itahle, de celle ar- n.iiural and ine\ital)le result of thai 

ri\ee en Traiii'e: o pluti'it elle fut la wluch took jilacc in l'raiice: or rather 

meu'.e. |)ui-i|i;e. di' lout temps, la n,a- it was the same, silice, in every a,L;e. 

ture, le^^on^ d;; ^;m^'. les h.ahitude^ nature, ties of Mood, hahits, and poli- 

et la poli;;(j',;c, (|ui nV^l constamment tics, which are continuou>ly guided h> 

dirigée i|Ue ])ar l;i loi impérieuse ties the impeiious law of need-, 

l'e>oms mutuel-, avaient fait de ce- h;ive made the-e tin_\ i^noii])- luit parts 

Av\\\ petite- |ieu¡)lade> des portion- de of llie j;reat human familv in the 

l;i i^raiule famille dan- le >ein de la mid-t of vv liich they were placed, 
iiuelle elle- étaient enclavées. - 

Tel était le -on de- l'.tat- d".\v ii^non Sncli was the condition of the 

et i\\\ t oiiuai. ior-!|ue r.\--enili!ée n;i- !>tate> of .\\ÍL,Mion and of the C Hm- 
tion.ale -'en occup.i ;iu mois de mai, when the X.ational .\ssemlily t;ave 
l'r-i|Ue -I'U humanité autant i|ue .-.a it- ;ittc-ntion to them in the month ol 
ju-tice décrétèrent d'y étahlir la p,u\ Mav. and hum.inity as much as jus- de ])rendre un parti ultérieur au tice decreed peace should he e-tah 
siiiet de -e> droit- -iir ce li.'iv - ; telle li-lied there liefore any additional 
ét.iit (.ntin I;i I.iche .a reni|)lir par le- -lep- were taken ill re.i;;ird to its rii;ht- 
niediatetir-, et envoyé- le roi ]iour over the country: such wa- in -hori 
remplir ci'- vue-. tlu' ta-k ;o he fullided hy the .NK'di- 

atois sent hv the Kinii ti c;irry out 

these view>. 

^.i'ili. /".;>'., !-♦ MTÍI-. M.l. MK p. -l.iS I',' .((i/. Till Kipnrt of Wriiinac Saiiit-Maiir i- in t 
tri\ii. ill rr .'I- It relate- I'lilx t'l event- .liter tlie \ nfo wa- taken. See tielow p. .'^7 

- Tlie "iiiitteM para^rapli recalls the events in .\vi'^ni>ii ami tlie Coiiilat before tile arrival 
"i ti:e ' 'eilL'itiTs. 

A\ I(;\( ).\ AXi) llli; \KX.\ISSI\. !7')1 


].c> nicili.itc-ur- s';iricteri.-in ;i 
< )i:iii<^c : ils cruri-iit (m'il était sa^c 
d'éviter une mnucllc rivalité entre 
.\\iiîiii)ii et CariK'iitras, ])iiis(|iril e-tai; 
impcissilile (le ■•e rendre ilan> k-^ di ;\ 
\illes en même tem|i>. IK crurent 
(¡n'il im|)iirtait de citiinaitre le. (li>- 
liiisitiiin> et ie-> prétentii ¡n^ de tcius. 
avant de >'ex])<)ser dans un ])a\s oil 
rien alors n'était respecte: il- crurent 
(in'i! importait d'amortir ce ])reimi'r 
choc des ])assions o])posees, et de ré- 
unir des hommes ennemis pour dis- 
cuter eu leur pré.-ence. et atteindre en- 
suite le Init de leur mission. L'ex- 
périence ciiuiirma la iustesse de leurs 
\ues. ils olitinrent bien |)lu> de sacri- 
fices (|u'ils n'en auraient oliiciiu au- 
trement: chacun désirait la paix, et 
elle n'était offerte <|u'aux ])rétentions 
raisonnaliles et au silence îles lias- 

(ependant, d'un côtt . le territoire 
de [•'ranee \enait d'etre viole à (ii,L;on- 
d:is par des ¡issassinat- commis par des 
Keiis (le l'année du 1 laut-C'omtat : de 
l'autre, les rassamblcments se conti- 
nuaient, et il était à craindre (pi'en li- 
cenciant l'armée a\ i<i;nonaise, celle (|in 
se tonnait et ipii paraissait considé- 
rable, (|ui semblait avoir (k>. liaisons 
tres-éteiidues, ne causât de plus isrands 
desordres encore: déjà les chefs exi- 
,i;eaiem. ,i l'uistar de ceux d'Axi^mon, 
des Contributions forcées, et il- trou- 
\-,tU'ni bon pour eux ce cpTils condani- 
n.iient eu aiUrui. 

11 lallut retar' r k licenciement de 
1 arnue d'.\\it;niin iusipi'a ci (|u'il l'ul (|iie les n. -emblements sc 

I he Mediator- si,ip|n-,] ;it ( Ir.ini^e: 
tliey believed that it was wise to a\oiil 
any adilitioiial rivalry between A\i^- 
iioii and l'ar])eiitra- since n \\;is mi- 
possible to be 111 both toun- ,-|i the 
same time. They believed that it bc- 
hoo\ed them to know the design- and 
claims ot all, before a]i|n':irm,i4 in a 
country where nothing' was then re- 
spected : they believed that it behooved 
them to .,ofien the tlrst -hock '.f op- 
¡losin^ liassi.ius, and to brin«.; IkìshIc 
tactions toLjether in their presence for 
the puriiose of discussion, and thus to 
attain the object of their mi--ioii. 
b.xperieuce proved the justice of ileir 
theories: they olitained m.inv niüre 
sacrifices than they would have oli- 
tained otherwise: each desired i)caie, 
but this was lendered pos-ihle (■ulv liv 
calmness and reason.ible claims 

111 the meantime, on one siile, the 
territory of l-"r;mce was violated at 
( ¡i.i;<indas by murders committed bv 
men of the army of the IIaut-( 'oiutat : 
on the other, crowds cotitimied to cou- 
Sre.yatc, and it was to be fe.ired 
in disbaudint; the arm\- of .\ v ¡;^ii. iii, 
the one which v. as in tr.aimu.y ,ind 
which seemed consider. ible and with 
extensive connections. iiii.i;ht cau-e 
still greater disordc'-: alreadv the 
leaders were deui;mdiii^ forced ci'Utri 
butious, ;>fter the fashion 'if tbo-e of 
.\vij,Moii, .-md thev thoiiLilu tlniLjs 
rit^dit for them vvliich thev condemned 
in aiii ither. 

It was necess:ir\ to delav the ili-- 
bandim; of the arme of Avìliuoii un- 
til it w;i- cert.iin that the crowd- li:id 

ANSI ond ISO Itbl CnARI No 2 



l!8 2B 12.5 




.25 li 1.4 ¡lill 1.6 


rx '(TMI-.X!- 

(li"il);i--(.-iil. rt line 'Ir^ prt-liinmairr- 
lU- |i;iix, ^i.uiK'-^ i\v \":a\v- Ic- |iari;c-, 
a—nra-'i'iit la ii'ani|uill-;c iuilili'|Uf 

\;i iiiiiiiln\- ilo^ emit' mt- rlaicii' 
Ir- (K-|iini'~ lit' ii'llc :i---i-1Ii1i1lc iAv<- 

t.'Vak' la'C'inmr ]iar Ic- iiii~, r(.'|iiiiis-iT 
]ia;- If- antrr-. d a--f.' ^viuTalciiRiit 
lia'r. ])U;-'i'iU- l'anni !■ ilait à >i'> nr- 
(Irc- (.■' iin'clii' ¡i'Tlait r"(l;fU\ ik' 
ti.iilr- !(-■- \i'\aIiMii-, l.'ailtinttii' imu- 
partit in iinn('i]n', ]iiti-i|ii I'llc innw 
jii'i -ctilail < iS jinHi-- -\i-: lian\ ^ur S4. 
I'll MTtn il'.--'|iU'K ilk' I \i-taii ; ]ini-<|iu' 
a¡i|ii'k'i- inu- nmui'lk' (k'']mlalinii, iin 
iii'iiM'an vi'Vp^ ik'lil riant. o\lait I'p- 
|i. p~rr jiiii^-aiiri' a |)iii-^aiii.X'. «k mliliT 
\v- r'liliariM- t'l cricf un nmixi'] nli- 
--tark' à tiMtif mi~--inn Mai- il tallan 
i-n nu'iiu' triiip- traiii|nilli--cr lo- intii- 
iiuinr- 'Uli la ri"aii,'iiau'nt, i|iii lU' V' ni 
laii'iii ]ii'int iln ii'ii; la rcri 'iiiiailri' ; 
i! iallait vaiiit'iu'r i i'lk~ i|Ui a\aii.'iit 
lappi'k' k'lir- I'k-' li'ur-. n'ik'- qui ik' 
\Mnlaii.'nt pa- en ciiti'ii'lrt' piniiniiii'i 
Ic 11. .111. 11 tallan (iilin nliicinr la \'< 
liillti' ft la pafi.k' ik' li.nli'- If- r..!ii- 
iiuiiii'- ik' iiii'ttic li.i- k'- ariiu'-. 

\. .IK'- IT p. lint innininii 
ik' la ix'Uiiii.ii ik'- priiKipi'- a\i'i- ton- 
Ic- iiiti-ri'l-. «Ian- k' tr. .i^ii'iiu' aftidc 
(It- prtlitnitiaiii'-. I .' A-^cmlik't' t'k'f- 
tiHalf ik'\ait I'tif rit'iiiiiim' par tnu<. 
mais :i Tittft il'i'trc -ciiIimiiimiI k- ii.iiiil 
coiiiiiiuii (K's iiiti-rri«. ill' tnii- rmi! 
OUT tmiff t-raiiitc <k' >t"- tiitropri-i-^ tui 
til- -I's (ipi'vatiiin- |i<ililit|ito>'. I'llf i"i»n- 
Mriitait fllf-tiu nu' a t-iri- paralysée pmir 
tiiiit autre i>liji't, ci à n'avuir tranirf 
ftiiutiMii <|iie tic ri'ievi'ir, nrm-illir it 
constater le- vieux ile-. tMintiniiie- sur 

'l;-pfi'-r.l. ;ni.l lln' riTluiliiiarii-s 
wf Tri. i'. -ii;in.''l li\ ali p.iriir-, w . .'jM 
:.--nrc pili lie ! i"a!ii|niilil\ . 

Villi. n^- tlu' l'niitractiiii; p.irtir- weri' 
tilt' ik'pntii'- Ili ilia! l-^k'itnral .\--i.'in- 
liK wliuli \\a- rt.'i'iL;in/t.'(l ky -nine, re- 
itrteil li\ iiiIkt-. alili ratÌH'r i^ciRTally 
li.iti'il. ima' tlìc army \\a- nmk'r it- 
iirikr- anil il Ihii'i' tlir lilaine nf ali it- 
nn-iki'il-. In rfi'iiuiii/c il appeaveil 
In n- iK'if--,ar\ . -imi' it ]irt'-entt'il lo 
11- -i\t\-ru;lii l' iniiinti.'- mit ni 
t'iijhtv -t'iiiir. in \iitiu' ni wliali i" c\- 
;-ti'il. -iiua- In -iiniiiimi tU'w ik'pnt'i,'-, a 
llrw ik'llln'ratlVt' ImiK , wmikl hv lui! Il) 
npp..-i' ])n\\i"- In pi.wer, tu ilmililt' the 
eiiiliarras-iiu'iu aiiil l.i creatt.' a new 
nli.larle In nii--inn. l'.iil it \\a- 
ia'ie--ary at the -aiiie t une to (|uiet the 
emninnne- wliiih feared it, \\hieli 
-trnn,L:ly nppn-eil reci)i,Mii/in^' it; it 
\\a- iie(t'--ar\ tn liriii^' armiiul thn-e 
whuh hail rei alled their eleelnr-. 
whieh iniikl III. t tu hear it- name 
meiilii .nei! Mni-f, i\ er. it wa- iiei'e-- 
-ar\ tn ni. lain Imtli the ile-ire ami the 
]i'-min-e ni ali the emnnnities tn lay 
ili.w 11 tlieir anii- 

\\ f i'i.nnil till- i. '1111111.11 i>i.nii ..i 
Hill .11 ni' priiu'i|)le- and iiitere-t-. in 
thr iliMil artille "^ the rreliniin.irir- 
I he l-leetnral \--einMv -hmiM he 
reent;lli/ed In ali. l'Ut nlil\ a- .a 
rmiininii link m thi- mleie-I- ni .al! 
in nTiler In ri'inn\e ali fear nf il- ae- 
tmn- ,iiid ¡II. liticai nneralmns. it enti 
HMltei! "i 11- iiwn free will tn lie m- 
aetixe in e\t'r\ nther re-peet. and tn 
lia\e un nther fnnetimi nf 
reeeiviii^. enlleetinu ami npuriiiin 
the \i>\v< (if the imnnnilie- nii then 

A\ii.\<>\' WD 'iiii-; \ i-:xAis-;ix. i7'ii 



¡cur <i lit ]ii il)tii|uc : car us [ii'U]ilc- ^i-n- 
tiii'iit iiirt liicn i|iif poMT les ariiR'^ 
ii'rtait pa^ il, ¡unir I'atiarihic d'ini pa\- 
nil iliai|iK- ciiiiimuiu' ii'rniait iiiu' t"~- 
]>vcv (Ic ¡ictiti' ré¡)ultlii|Ui', níi il irf\i>- 
tait aamiii i;nnvcitu'nK'iit. a'.icuii •■■r- 
'liT iiiiluiai'r; il- >(_-iiiaaiit inrt Imcii 
iiu'il I'tait itiipi irtant pmir cii\ ck- 
pri,'~-(.r li.' nil iünMit do (K'-tcnniiu-v li'iir 
-■"It piililii|iic, vt <|in.' li'U~ ic> niii\fîi~ 
Miii ]Min\aR-iit \" CMiR-.iiinr ik'vaicnl 
ftrf ^asi> par eux avec a\i(lit<.'. Si 
i'A^^iMiiliki- natidiiak' --'(.tait rmitciitti- 
(k' iiiri-: ntililiv la paix avant ik- ^ta- 
tiHT --iir -i-~ ilrciit^: ¡iniir ^iis i|iii 
ira]nTi'f\ aK'iiI lie Imnlu'iir (Hii' iLin- 
la riali^alii '11 do ci-> dinit^. (pii dci.i 
avaient provento '>N dolilicratic 'U-- >iir 
S4. qui dt'iiiandaionl la roiiiUdii, ipii 
a\.iniit \ii I o \'i-u aiiiUiiK-, it a i(ui 
I'll a\ait ropriiolu- i|u'iN no lavaioiii 
pa- I'inw lilircnu'iit ; pmir oiix. di- io, 
la olinso la ¡ilu~ métanlo, la plu-' ini 
p"i tanto olait d'oinplnyor lo^ proniioi- 
nii'iiioniN l'uno paix j^araiitio par la 
iraiK'o, pi'ur óniotlro ilo mnui'aii, oi 
à i .diri do tulli loprmllo. un \ioii du 
ipiol lU t'ai^aioiu dopondio lour Imii- 

1 olio tul 'a inalu-io ot l'nliiot di ^ 
artillo^ .^ ot \ do- proliniinauf- do 

( o- picliniinairo-. do paix turoiit 
addplo-. |iar 1' X-'-oiiililoo natiuiialo. 
viiii^ ou lito-.. Mon-.iouis, la lui du t 
iinllol, 0. \nii-. dai^naio- ni appimi 
\ ant lo- Ilio Mil o- Ol 1.1 1 1 iiidaito dis nu ■ 
di.iloius. di Minor ,i leur- ti av aux l,i 
plu- t1attoii-o loi iiiiipi-n-i-, ,'t ioni /o!o 
lo plu- pni--anl ai;;iiill' ai 

Xiiîii- pioinioro ontioo d.uis k- p,i\ - 

li"lii;i-.i! lutino: l'ur tho (louplo -aw 
clo.irly la\iny dnwn ,anii- \\,i> 
mit li.ani-liitiL; .inaroliv in.n; a 
oniiiitr\ w lloro o;.oli oiniiniuno 
îiirniod a kind ni iniv ropuMio, 
w lloro oxi-tod iii'itlior ;^i i\ ornniont 
imr oi.iirt-: tlio\ kiuw uoll that it 
\\a> l'nr thoui in lia-tou 
tlio timo ni doii-ii'ii in roLard lu tiioir 
pnlitio.d tiiluro, .nul a.ll iiioaii- 

W Inoli Onllld Oi'lltrillllt! tu l! -llnlll'l 

lio -oi/o'l with ;i\idit\. Ji tlio X.i- 
tmiial \--oiulily U-ou oniitint lu 
-.i> : roo-t.ilir.-h po.ii o hoinro l'niii 
lUi,' In a iloOl-K'li ni lo^'.iid tu llioir 
pnlilioal llalli-; tur thn-o wlm -,u\ 
li.apiniio-- l'Ili)- III tlio roali/.itii'ii "Í 
lli<'-o n,L;lit-, who ,ilroad\ pn- 
-oiilod -ixl\ oii^lit dolilior.ili' 111- nnt ni 
oiL;lit\ -Il iiir. doui.indiiij^r umnn, w lii i -0011 tin- wi-h |inl a-ido. .vlm liiirno iho rojirnacli il had 
i.nt lioiii I rooK ox|iro--od . l'ir thoni. 
1 -a\, ilio iii"-I uri;oiil. .lud iinpi' 
tliuii; vv.a- !ii oniplny tho m -t niniiii ni- 
ni a jioaoo ^'u..r;iiitood Ir, Ir.iuco. ;n 
"idor In oxpio-s aj;.iiii. tritai dod finiii 

.dl li'ptn.u'h, lilO Wl-ll llp'.ll will, h do- 

pi'iidoi! ilioir li;i]ipiiio-- 

Snoli w,is tho niallor and tho "hioct 
ni Arlh k- ■> ,ind 1 nt ih.o l'ioliiiiin 
at io- ni l 'o.lro 

I ho-o l 'loliminano- ni" l'o.uc \\oro 
.■'dn|ilod II', tlir Xatimial \--omlil\-. 
\nn ni.ido ni ihom. ( lonilomoii. ilio 
l.i'\ ni jnh 4. and \.iii doirnod. m 
apprn\iiii; ill,- nu'a>itros .and iho oi.n- 

dml nt iho Modialnfs, tn ;;i\L- tllC 

nin-i tlattonn;; rrw.ird tn thoir wnrK. 
tho nin-t pnwori'nl -pur tn ilioir / 
Ilio tlr-i oiitrs in ttio ontititr\ wa-i 

Ih h rMl'.NTS 

:a.cnau.,n !-- U.. ■!. .uUu uur: a.a„ol .he an,,. „, ,h. ,an„cr^ 

,,. ,,. Min,,- M„i k'- a-a,ii tlic baii.U ul,i>l, ha.l c„r,.-l,o! 
reni iiparailiL- U'^ ,iiai,,- m'" "- i^ ,, , ■ i 

a.aic,n!.rnl,-.....U- ..-.■.•„...„„„- ^'--^ ' -' V^^ , :h H ^ 
rea,c,ll,n„M>-vn u- U- aou,.„- .1. ,„r ,,.„ ,1,. ,!,a„k^ a„,l .ho KUp,, 

,,,,„,,„-,n,...lKvlH,n,.l,.",-. -„.-ol l,a,,i,nK-. 

' ,,,,,,„1,,,, 1.. !a--M„„,n,I- .Ir l„ll>« »>ca„.,n,e. .hr ;.^•ul,c,■,„- m 

,;,,,:.,■,,„ ,.,1.,.,,, .. .1. l.a.,w- nra„.c- ,.■ .he MI-,-. •„ _ a„.l - 

..naK.,„>„v.h~.,.M--...^--.. la,,,.- ha.l he-,, a,-,.,--.., , ,,,, 

„„„•e ÚVU.-W. ra,-,„.. ,rAv,..,..„ - a,v a„.l ..,„■ „run,.-. ,h. a„„> ... 

,. , „.,..., um .ir l,rr- \v,uli..„ ha.l her,, .li-l.a„.l.J.l ; a„.t il, 

\fnaii «1 e. re lucilie, it ali,, .a l'ri ■^ - ,, i i i ,, 

v.„„ ,..„ „-..„l.U-, e, M„- la .lenia„.le ..,-.Kt ... ,.,-eve„. ali a,„l u,i..„ 

,,,, „u,u,n,al„e. o „,„ ,n„e„,e,„ a .he ,e.|„e-t ,.i ,he M n,„e,,,ali,s ,„ 

,, ,.,ra„„e ,le la !.. 'In 4 „.,11.-.. nnn^ o,„i..,-„,ny ui.h ,he „ ,.| ,l,e 

;r.H UU ,iia,el,e,-a \^ „„. .n i 1- lau , ,í ink 4, u e , ,nlere,l „ , \m,„. .„ 

ia.Il,.,,- .In e,-.lesa„, ,e,„„en, .le la ,u.. Lavali,.,,- ... «he -..nne,- ve.,- 

,,,,, „„ ,1. s„n,„e„,!.e,-., e, J c.a „,e„, ..Í la iVre, ..„e ... >. .„„einhe,-,. 

,,„,„; ,le l,„--a,-.N; .,..!,- av...„. in, an.l ,u.. ..|„a.ln„,- n, l,a//ar- uè 

,„,,,,,,,, ;, , anK-n..-a- ,„i ha.aill..,, ,ln .., ie-a-.l ... . 'ai-lH-n., a> a ha.lannn ... 

,,-,l,v;u,. ,eu,i„u„ .le S..,--..„a,-, „n .he L .n„e,- reL:,„u„. .., s,.i>-...ia,-, a 

,,,.,,,..„.le.l,-a^..n-e.„„ee..n,pam„r ^.|„a.ln,„ „i .h'a::....,,^ a.i.l a o.n,- 

,l-„,iU,no;, ...„> - M-',! -"- !-'- uf a,■„lle,•^ : ,h,. ua^ al , hai 

,,,,. e.e , iMe .r..l.te„„-, .p-. -in^- " -^- l"-''''^" " "^ "^ '" "'"'""^ 

i„,-„„„„„ ;,„.,le-M.n. .le ee ,,ui e.a„ lh..„.l, .„!ln„.K l,el..u uha, ua^ re.)- 

,„,,,.,„e , iiKun,e,nr la ¡.„s .lan- n,M,o i„ ..,ale,- ... „K,„na,„ peace m 

„„,,av<.telia,ne.-, ,inc,e,-ee-.-,in„l- a .., -neh „niner,.,,- a„.l „,- 

. ,.,' \ Cerate hal,"eil-. 

' |-__^.,^.,,^„_ ,..,,,„,.,, ,.,„,,, ,lan- \eve,-lhele-s. ihe aian- enter,. 1 

\v,Kn..n: aiaiue a la,nelle le- \^,,.,..n: -In- atany „. uhieh the 

.-ibn.i..- ia-"t-0.n- „u-MtaMe- .,„'ell.' ealanma-, ,.erha,i- „usnaMe. ulne!, 

av.-ut ,.,„e--. le- hame- .le la mn „ ha,l ,u-ea-„.„e,l, the a,ua..-n,-,„ .-, 

„idmlité et le- eal..„Hne- .|,„ oi .he M nn-e.,,ali. v an,l the eahmnues 

aviiJnt VU- la suite, avaie,,. aMaelw la .In.-h ha.l ,her,■l.^ ,-e-„l.e.l. ha,l at- 

.lósi«na.u.n -»lieuse .le hn^an.K taehe.lth h.,n- n nnc ... ■' 

V.\k était cinposée .k la n'''-" -'''''^•- =>'"i~ " '' ^^^'^ '-nM....e.l ... Hie va,a 

aviunniiai-e. .l'uu f..rt ,letael,en,e„t de ir„ani nf Av.^rnon. ot a <ir..n^ -leiaeh- 

i-, Ìar.le nationale, e. .le ISl, .le-er- ,„.„. ..,■ the \,.-...,al ..nar,l. an.l nt 

te-ar'i fran^'ais. à peu jnè* : elle inniiiaií 

alluni i.i,e h:i,,.lve.l an.l eiuhl.^ I re,,' 

.\\it,\(i\ Axi) 1111, \ i:.\Ai.vs:\, ir<»i 


à pIiK rk- .-ij il >U liMiiinn.'-, \;iri'- axnii- 
i^'iiii-. k'lirs ciiKrii-. la plii|iau ik'- di'- 
taihiiiunts .1,^. n.'tn\r(.'iri ti".ii!i|uilk- 
iiitiit (l.Lii- lrU'-~ ci.niiiiuin -, \i Ul- 
li;- rlaiiiann'- I'amiii-iii'. (.1 III".;- link- 
part!!' lr~ (¡r^crifiir-. Xmix n'a\i'iii~ 
al'ifs i|u'a iii'iK liUKT tk-~ liu/f- i|r 
laniirc (.1 .U- ¡'a--ciiiMir c-k'i,'t( iralc : 
ik ^i (.•niU' 'nil iiciil -trictciiicnl a la 
I'll. LÌ. ]\.] '\rc legnali liaiN A\ i^iieii. 

Ma;^ Ir^ liaMii'- iiauiit iiunrc trip 
Ir.'U'lu'-. Iv- ri'^^fiitimviit- iii ip ail! i- 
]M.ur nhtciiir iiiii' tian(]UiIliio al'-iliu- 
( ai'iii avait clt- mir ilr- \illc- niak 
licniTii-fs (|ii;. ilottaiit (Ian- ^i-- niiir- 
i"ii-. avait iMiirtii iic> dt-tacliiMiu iit- 
aii\ (k'ii\ aniuk-s fiiiu'iiii-. Xnii^ 
a\ il Ills prcMi cet iniMiui'iiii'ii!, it ]Mr,ir 
i'\ iter I'l'tti't ik' ft's liaiiiL-s, iii iii-. a\ ii iii- 
t'lrit ,".11 i\v Sia^s, .nai- iK 
jiriitf^iT -a uninr par iin dciarlic 
iiR'iit (k'> irmipt'-. lie liL;m-. j'ai ar- 
rivant a ( arpi'iitia-, c<ii\ dc (anni 
liiri'iit attai|in> pai \v pniplc. ¡in iTriix 
Ini nia— acre ni.du'rc Ic^ crimt- dc IH'- 
tri.npcs: .M, Deepen mi -aiua Ic ic-tc. 

II Ifs tit ciMidmrc a ( ar.iii p.ii till 
li'iiiitiic- dc lü'iic 1 t remettre - i.i 

]ir' itectii m iriiiic (unipaunie d'aitil- 

IlTHV ! .!• pi'llple. CM lit- 1111 
IKiinnie (linienl. cMriiiiMiid.nit de 
i'railto. el ancien déserteur I'laiK'ai-. 
'lit-"n. tilt bientôt en, 
' In .irr.-uiic 11 de cin inallKMiri'UN dii 
chateau uii on It-«* avait (icpcisé>, et 
.Mills Ics yeux du déiachenieni tran 
«.•ai.s; le* olVicicr« iniinicipanx -e 

cailletll (lit ne p.:ir.'li<»C!!t {.»a-. Sen' 

deserters: it cnipriM.,! ni,, re tinti 
•■'■""" iiì'-'ii .\lie- haviii- -Udì '.ip 
llieir -nils, the orcater pan ut the de- 
I.icliniciits retiriMl traii'iiiilk i,, thcir 
C'iiiiiiiniiev We pr'.claiiiic'i an 
.iniii-tice, :iiid uè "riK r. ,1 "i;' tlu- ,K- 
seriers. W r hail al • .i tiiiie ii.'ili- 
h'.l; l.iit praise i'(,r ili< :.,i.lers ,,{ the 
'•iriiiy ;iiid "1 the>l, 'r;il \ssc„il,K ; 
ilice ciiinriiic'l siMcth t" the . 
.nul nrder rt'i-iieij in \\ i-iii,ii, 

lUit hatred \\;is t,„, ir^..], ami 
rcscntiiieni t,,,, .active t', '.hl.iiii ah-"- 
Inle tr.ani|iiilhl\, (.armi heeii 
•""■' "I die niihap|)v l.'Wiis uliicli, 
vv.iveiiii- in ils ,, pilli', Ils, t'iir- 
lii^lied det.acl-.iiieiits i,, iln- j^^,, h,,,t!lc 
.iriuies. \\ ,. r. , leseen this ,litti- 
'■nltv. ,111,1 in ,,i-,h.r t,. iireviiit ili,- ,t 
li'c' "I illese ant.i-,,iiisnis, v,,,. j,,,,] 
A ruten l'I the c"nim:nii|iii',,r ,,rt!, ,.i . ,t' 

tlle :-Miss,,ii,-i,, (,, ],r,,t,.,-t his reluril 
li.v a <let,aclinieiil ,,i" !rM"()s ,,i the 
line ( In .arrivili- ,ii (, the 
s'ildiers ,,f ( an.ti were .attacked liv 
''"■ peuple: l'Ile .,| them 
ii'iinlered nutu iliist.anilin- tiie el 
IiiHs ,,|- ,l,e ¡r.ii'ps; M lles,,e,,,„ 
-aved the resi 

I !'■ them i ,,nd". led t., ( ,ti..;i 
l'\ -IMV men ni llie Ime aii'l pl.ce'l 
' 1"!'' the |ir.'terti.,ii ,,i ;, cnip.nn 
'" ■iiDllcrv I Ile pciple. .ir-nscd hy 
l'Ile II. mied I li'iiieiit, ( ■' of 
l'r.aiiles. and s.n,] i,, |,e -i i',,niier 
1 rem il deserter, were s>„iii \u iii- 
siirreetinii Thev dra-r-cl ekven ,,{ 
tliose iini'nrinn.ale . ir"iii l'ie .iiiein 
vvllere thev !,.■. ii l.Ml;L;ed. .ind 
under the evcs ,.|' the lielich .Irtaeh- 
'■■''"' : '::e :i:;:!:;e;îia! ailth. .ril ie> 


in )( TMl-XTS 

l,lai,ks aux ciniülaU-, '^n k- trame tilhcr hui thcmH'lves ,,r .lui lu t ap 
l„,r. .K- mur-, -n knir .IniMic un om- I.ikc caiinil.aK. ihey .Ira-L^cM 
i\-riir. u la ■ hi k- a>.a>Miu- tmis i ihfiii thi- ualU, ^avc tbciii a 
,,,„,,, ,'k. fu-il. cnli-c CHX était un cmíe-nr. aiul there they shot theiu. 
^■.|^,^.^,,,,. Aniiin;; ihein \\a> an eleetnr. 

I )„ ,hi, el Mil aura peine a le cn.ire. Ihev ^ay. aii.l one uill have ditli- 

mai^. a l.i lumie .le niuniaiiite, le tait ."ullv in l.elievin- it, Imt t.. the .hanie 
est eerlain, le lai venlie; eel ainue ..f humanity, it i- a !aet, I have ven- 
( lenient ¿..r^-ail le> l)eie. et meres de lie.l it. thi^ atr.Hi.m^ ( lenienl f..ree.l 
..- nialheuren-e> \ utime> a aller a>- the father- an.l nu'ther- ..Í ihe-e nn- 
,iMer a eet attreuN a»a»inal. liappv vutini- m witne-- their 
( .1/ .;/:■,);/,■)//.) murder. i .l/,.:v))/,-<i/. ) 

De- .|ue la n.m\clle turn- jiarvint. A- -..m .i- the new> reache.l us. 

11, ai- e.mnmie- en arrêter le- -nue-; we ha4eneil l.> prexeiit the e.m-e- 
Miais, a rin-tant. il ialini -e multipher; .|uence-; hut at that moment it wa- 
le ..imiil^t ii.irai-ait l..rme .I'a-a-- nece-ary t.. multili!)-í; the 
-inert. m- le- .letaehenu'iit- .le l'armée .arpeare. 1 t.. he í.irnie.l t.i 
avipi.mai-e a leur rentree pai-ihle niunler ail the ilet.iehment ni the 
dan- leur- I,.\er-: eela arrivait .lan- .ariiiv ..l .\vi<j;n..n .m their peacealik' 
le- e.ininuine- .m il y avait eu 1" phi- return t.. their tire-i.le-: tin- wa- m 
de 1. 'humanité II. m- d.'iiiKi î' e e..ninuine- in whieh dis-en-ums 
de- aile-; lum- n.m- tr.nnanie- à l'i.i- ha.l heeu i:re;ite-t. ilumanitv L;a\e 
lene. ;i l.i-le et .laii- .l'autre- e..m- u- winy;-; we arrive.l at l'iiilene, at 
ninne- a l'in-laiit ..n le- -;ieriliee- hn l.i-le aiul at 'ilier .■iinimniu's at lite 
main- alhiient e. .mmetuer ; el a i..r.c \erv m. .ment that tlie linniim s.aeri- 
de -..111. .le ¡iriere-, de rai-,m- et .le lice- were t.. lie-in ; aii.l hv imr care, 
nunaee-, n.m- |iarviiiiiie- a relahlii nur ¡iraver-, re..-.>r.niií. an.l nieii- 
],. i-.iliiic. ;uu-.,-. we -necee. le. 1 in ree-tahli-hím; 

l.'rxpeneii.e pr.iiua hielt ali.r- eniii- l''\|ieneiue )iri.veil elearh at that 

l.H'ii re.l.uii.uu.n- étaient )n-te-. lime that .mr elaims were iu-t ;inil 
et e.iuihien ii.- t'..ree- elaieiit m-uiti- mir I'l.ree- insnt'tu-ient. hr.-ni the 
-ante-. 1 )'aiu-e- riinp.i--ihihté .!'a\ imi» .s-ihihtv "' ^'»'t'in.:-' tr....]!- >>\ the 
de- Miitiiie- .le lÌL;ile, et le- rein- .|Ue line, ami tlie reiu-al whieh we re- 
ti, .u- epi . .in p •n-, niiu- emme- .levi.ii eei\eil, we hehe\e.l we slii.iiM 
emiil.iyer 1.- ni.neii- .|ne n.iu- tnur- in.ake ii-e ..t the mean- whieh ihe law 
iii>sait la l.'i .hi 4 juillet, et ileiiiaii.ler. ut Jnlv 4 fiirni-he.l ti-, an.l denrm.l, 
eli eoiisei|iieiue. .le- :4ar.les n:iti..iiale- m r..u-ei|ueiui\ the X;iiiiin:d (,u.ii.l. 
.\..u- eruine- .|u'il -er;iit pin- .it-.' We helie\e.| it w..|llii he e;i-\ ti) <.h- 
,r..lilenii- 1.^ ..u l.SOd ^ai.k'- nati.-n- l.iin l.^"*» "r 1S(K1 Xati.ìiial Citiards 

• I II 1 . . i'i! .1 --,* * t 

»IU\ »[Ul IIUll^ |M' M 

t 11. l Iti A I II 

A\l(,Nii.\ ,\X|) •1111.; \ l-.X AlsSlX, 17'»1 



(.'cttf ]),ii\ '|uc la I'li ii"it-~ cliarLicaii 
(l'ctai)lir, ii .|uo (I'ailkMir-, !.5iKI 
leardo iiatiniiaiix, ])ri> ilaii^ li'~ ,i ck-- 
palt^•IlR•^t^ ein iriiiiuani-. iic p^i,,- 
raieiii |ia^ Ic-- atiaiMir, 

XiJiiN c'li I iliiuii'.ic-, iidii -an- lK,'aM- 
cmu|i <ri'iiiliaira- i,'! dv !ii iinlireiix rc- 

\\\~. l)è- i|lH' 111)11- |I11I1H-- L'll |il U'lM" 

(laii- (li\cr- [mint- iln ( njiitat, ili- 
ni.iiinTC à pi\\ cnir k- a---a--nial -, 
Unii- I riiiiiu- c|u'!l itaii iniji( d'ln- 
-liin-r la fi .ntî.nui- a tnu- It.-- parii-, 
(k' iiinmir a inn- Ic- ciiiii^^rant- k'- 
ni"\rn- dc rfiitri.T dan- k'lir- i'umt-, 
.\"H- ailri---anK'-. a cft (.'ttct, an\ 
cnininanilant- dixcr-, nni' in-trnctmn, 
ilan- Iai|Ui'lli- imn- tiTi iininandi( in- la 
|)ln- ^naiidc inipai tialiii'. inctiTiinn it 
-nrcir pcinr tnu-. Xml- inne- nn 
dt'i- la lilicrtc a (k'- pri-nniiiti- i.1ut- 
a ton- k's parli-. I'l iiiitainnu'iil à 
,M.M. ik' Saiiitr I'ri'ix. iinplii|iu- daii- 
l'allaii-c du inallKaireuN La \ i]a--r, 
mane de \ ai-wii. La roiiliaii.c et 
1 i>r<lre -e relalilireiu en eltet : lui- le- 
emi^^'iant- tentierent Mit iiniriit ni!- 
trer dan- le ( ''.nilat. 

l e nu a|)ie- ee'- ine-iire- i|ne l'a-- 
-einlilee l'ieeli prale ei1^a,L,'ea le- emn- 
niniie- à -'a--enilikT. et a etnellie, <(iii- 
Inrnieiik lit au\ jireiinnnaire- de ]>:r\. 
I'll Men -nr leiir -"n pMlii|,|;u-. 'in; 
pu; etn- ])re-ente ]iar elle a 1' \--eiii- 
Mie nationale l« ir-'inelle ]iielld!a!t lin 
li.iiti nlteiieiir -r.r -e- ilmn- -m le- 
ileiiN |--tal- d'\\ii;iiMn et dn ri.inial 

V eette epiiiini>. ]r-. inenil re- ile la 

nu I !iiTÎ. .11 »m-.. Il» 'i 1,'.. «...^ 1 .V 

-'ilidate tili- peace whieh the law 
charged u- lu e-t;ilili-li, and that 
ni.iren\er. L-dii Natie mal duard-, 
taken in tlu' iiei^lila.r.nL; depavtiiient-, 
cciiild not we.aken tliein. 

W e oj, tallied tlieiii. n^ ■! w itlioni a 
"""d deal of enilia!T.i--nient and 
iiMiiieron- \- -o, m a- we 
»vere allie to piare tllein al dilïere'U 
point- 111 the I oiiitat, ni or.ler to pre- 
\eiit the a--a--iiiation-. ue heliesed 
It wa- iinpoitant to iii-pire eonlMknee 
:i; all parile-, and to t"unii-li to the 
enii-i.ant- the mean- to retnm to ;lK-ir 
li"me-, \\f forwarded, to the vari- 
mi- eoinmandin.i; oHieer-. in-trnetii ul- 
to tin- etteet. ree. .¡nniendin;; tlu' 
L;reate-t iiniiariialit\ . ]ir. iteetion and 
-eeiinlN for .ill. We ordered the 
lilieration of pri-oiur- dear n. all 
p.iriie-. and e-peeiallv MM, de 
.•^ainte-t VoiN, iiii]ilieated m the at- 
I'l'i "I the nnfortiinate L.a \ ila--e. ..f \ai-on, ( onhdeiiee aiitj 
order were m f.iei ree-l.iMi-hed : .all 
the eiint;r,itil- returned, or were alile 
I' I return to the ( onitat. 

It \\a- after lli,-e nie.i-iire- that 
the I, lector. d \--einIi|\ in\iieil the 
conitinine- to ,i--einlile, .and |.i de 
ilare, ill eontorniitv to ihc jH^aee 
pr< hmiii.ane-. their v\i-he- m rei.;aril 
to pohiicil fnliire. m order that 

tlle\ im;;li| pre-elll tiifill to iji,. Vj^. 

iiotial \--emM\ when ac- 
''"'1 would 111' I. lien m re^^.ard to it- 
n-hi- m the two .-^tate- of Aviçilii» 
ami the ( untai, 

\t tins time the Medi i' \\i.¡-e 

called In- ciretiiivsiancc- .vni 


1)( )(,TMi:\ TS 

(•(iii-trmcfN, à ne- inTiiiiati' m- lüllcr- 
(.■iili.^. \\il;i1'i:i ilail 'li\"riiii li- l'i'ii- 
irt- ile- alfairc-, it l'uii ile ii"1n dm \ 
ri'^lt-r; il l'alia:! iju'inraiilrf Mir\cillat 
k-- 'i]i!'raIÌMiH ile l'a-^eiiililrc rlvrturak' 
|iiitii- la (1 iiitfiiir ilaiiN K- In 'ine- i|in 
Ini vla'alit |irc--ii!li-- pai' le traile, e! 
<|u il ~e iHit .1 SiirL;:;e--, ¡ire^ il A'iI.l;- 
11' >li. |iiilir Cet iilijet. la- inaimieii ile 
la ])ai\ ilan^ le t'niiitat. la ileiiiaiiile 
et le- ~iillieitaiiiiii> ile- ei niiinune-. i|ni 
-e iilai.unaieìit ile la preleieine ac- 
ei.nlee a \\iL;r."ti. tireiit jii.mT i|ii'il 
était iiii)ii>rtanl niie l'ini ile iinii- -e 
felli lu a lem- ile-ir-, et ili--i]ial le- 
ealiilliliie- iHle le- l'illieini- ihl l)iell pil- 
lila- et ir- éenvam- ipii letir -niil '. eii- 
iln- ne ee--aiem ile repamlre. je in- 
eliarL;e ile eetli ini--iiiii. et ¡e .leelaie 
a r.inL;n-Ie \--eniliU''e ipii m'eiiteiiil. 
(|ile -i li Ulte- le- eninntmie- iln ('unita' 
n'uiit pa- ali If- ¡nui ile li pai\ la plii- 
parl'aile, le- iinlividn- ile la -ureté la 
pili- eiiliere, le- entniiuilie- ile la lili- 
ale ile -nt'l'ra^e- la pin- ali-nhie, la 
]i!ii- nidepenii mie. nini -enl j'en -ni- 
et m'en leiul- re-pi in-al ile. l'eia 
i;rar 1 iinniliie a\aienl eim- leur \ieii 
Inr-ijiie ie me -ni- ]ire-eiile eluv elle-: 
7 l'i m emi- en ma pie-enee. .\ \ ai- 
rea-, par exemple, eliei-lien iln ]iiiti 
i|ni lient an p.ape. la--emlilee -e-! 
lentie en pu -enee ile 1.^1' LialiK'- lia- 
liulian\. ilemiiiile- pai ime partie ile 
la mumeipalile. -un- me- \eu\ et een\ 
ile- lin--.iril- i|ni m'aeeniniia^naieiit. 
j'.ii l'ininii une i^arik' pmir la pnliee 
et la siircté ik- l'a-^-cniMee. ^nr la ile 
inaiulo l'aite \<:\v la nmnieip.ilile, et 
ra--eiiilik''e a m 'le ¡vm l,i emir ile 
!>'.it!!c. .\ l'ii'k'no. à Sériun.u!, -à Vi! 

l 'eeiipalii Ili-. ,\\ÌL;niin liail lieeuinc 
llie eeiiter ni' all'air-, and niie ni' u- 
nm-t -ta\" there: it \\:i- iieee--ar\ ti ir 
.aiintlier tu wa.teli the Cniunicl ni the 
lleetnral .\--einlil\ in nrder tn ki-ep 
n williin the limit- pre-erihed hy ilie' 
treat), .and In e-tahli-li him-ell' al 
Snr^ne-, near .\\ÌL;nnn, inr tin- pur- 
pn-e. i he mainteiianee ni ]ie tee m 
the t 'nintai airi the pr,a\er- and 
■niieit.atinn- ni the eninmime-, which 
cnnipl.uned ni' the prelereiice ac- 
cnrded In ,\\i^!i,,n, k'd ti- tu lichene il \\a- imimnant mr une ni n- 
tn \ ield In their de-ire-, and ili--ipaie 
lile -l;mi!er- which the eilemie- ni 
pnMic -eenritv and the writer- hired 
li\ them did iinl ee,a-e In -pread. I 
wa- ch,arL;ed with thi- mi--inii, and 
I declare In the aiiL;ii-l .\--emlil\' 
winch iinw me. that if all ll.'' 
cninmnne- tt\ the t nuilat did lint .at time eniny the iiin-l perfect 
peace, .and inili\ the mn-t ncr- 
I'ect -ecnril}, and cnnimiim- the 
iiin-t ah-nhite, free and iiiile]ieiidenl 
hliert'. i>i -nl'fr;i^e, 1 alniie .am rc-p in 
-ihle. Manx- ,alre;iil\ had declared 
iheir \ i-he- when I went .ain.'iiL;- 
them: -e\en did -n in ni\ pre-ence. 

\t \ .ilrea-, fnr in-i.ance, the -trniiu- 
linld nf the p.artv >i\ the 1 '■ pe, the 
,i--cmljlv wa- held in the pre-i'ii e i\i 
I lie liiindred and lifts n:itinnal ',,'n,tri!-, 
.i-ked fnr li\ ;i ]i,art "\ the Miinicip:ik 
it\. linder my eye-, and tlm-e nf ihe 
!,n---ai-. whii accniiii)anied me. I fnr- 
m-!icil a L;nard fnr the pnlice and the 

icnni\ nf die a--(Mnl)ly, hv rei|ne-t 
finin the Miimcipalil\', and the a--eni- 

!.lv \. Iril fnr the ( 'niirr ¡\\ k'nille \i 

A\ii,.\M.\" AND uh; \ i-:.\ \issix, i;91 227 

IcilitMi, ct^"., li t'~t arri\L' la nir:iK- rhi ivi-, ì'i.iRik', at Sv.''n'L;:¡aii. ai \'ilk'i!jcii. cU'., 

1-1 !(-■- \'l;i\ 1111; (.■ti- |i(iur la ^-.nir ■!<_• tiu; -aim- ihm- Ì!a|i]nncil an-! the \"lc 

i"^' ''I"-'- wa- i'.r liir I ..iiri <>\ Kiüiic. 

Il i-t iImih- ini|i.i-Mlil(.' ill' rcv(ii|iRT It !~. then. imp. .^^iLlc t.. call iii 

CI) (Inule la lilifrtr (|m a pri-nlé a'i\ (|in>tii>n the treeiji^m aiiiiil ',\liich the 

Vieux emi^; partnut j'ai ]. reelle Tu- \.,te- were ea-t ; .-.erNwhere 1 

iiK.ii. la ¡.aix, la eniicnnle et la liherte preached uiiii.n. jieace. Oiiici.rd ami 

(le- upmicii-; partniit ie le- ai etahlie-, IÌUtIv ni c .¡jiuii m ; evervwhere 1 

et ]\'i\ appelle -ur la vérité de ce- e-tal)!i-hed them, and a- to the truth 

lait-, iKin pa- aux (id Cdiiiniuiie-- (|iii ni llie-e iait- 1 appeal, ilol\- t.. 

veillent (.tre tr,iii(;ai-e>, niai- aux chet\ the -ixt\ cininuiie- which wi-h tu 

de celle- lini ( ,m voté en >eiis cmi l.e l'rench, luit tn the head- .if tlm-e 

traire, (pie ma cnnduite a t'nrcé- à which have xnted tu the cuiitrarv, 

1 e-time et ipii m'en mu dnimé de- l' wlmm nu cnnduct li.i- called 

jìreuve- imii e(|iiiv(M|iie-. el i|Ue je pri i- imth c-teem ni which 1 ha^e received 

• luirai a 1 .\--eiiiljlée -i elle l'nrdiiiine t'ar iVniii ilmihtinl pruni, which 1 will 

prniluce it the A--enil)!\ nrdcr- it. 

/■c'ltrfh Report of the Cuniminccs on Az'iynon and tlir Cointat I 'nurissin. 

Seflnnlh-r 12, Ì7')l ' 


.M. m-. MK.xor, rapportcuy. Vnh- .M. i,k Mi:.\(i!-, rrp.'rtrr I imtifv 

>ei\e a IW-seml.lée i|Ue j'ai là le- the A-emMx that I have hei'e the cmi- 

I)iece> prnlianles de tnii- le- t'.iit- ipie \ iiicitu: prnnf- ( il .ail the fact- whudi I 

je vai> annoncer. .-im ;iliiii!t tn -tate, 

.Me-sieurs. le- cniiiité- que. jmur la < ¡eiitlemen. the cnmmitiee- whidi. 

4" ini-, vnti- avez charge- de vnii- fur the fmirth tiiiu' ymi li;i\e 

rendre cmiiple de''',iire de- l'iat- i liar-ed tu render an accunt tn vmi 

renili- d' \\ i'.,n,,,„ ^., ,¡„ c, „„at \'e- ,,,■ ,in. ajf;,jr c. „icernint,'- the united 

n;ii--in, vont avnir riiniineur de \nu- -t.tte- nf Vvi-nmi and the Cnniiat 

rendre compte .avec exactitude et im- \etiai--m. will ha\e the hnii-.r nf re 

li.ariialité. de la -itiLitimi a. tuelle de pnrtint; to xml with ex.actne-- and 

■e- deux malheureux pa\-. (|ui place- impariialiix the actii.d cmidiiinn nf 

ire-ipie .-ni centre lie I'l^nipiire fr:u 

-e two litiinrtiin.iii- c.iimtrie-. 

:ai- et -oils le ( le jilu- heureux. which, -ituated tiearh- in the centre 
lint depili- lnn.;temp- livré, a ton- nf the I'rench dnmininn-. and lile--e(I 

. hi a. fU' i., Ni "id IV • 

\tM ,>i), |i :>/y. 


Dl icr.\ii-:.\'i S 

],.- .k-Mnlif- .k' la lia-tuv l-\ <k- l'an- uuli ihr Kol -Í climate-, have i.>r 
,j,.^.l,,^^. a h'ìvj; liiiH' lii'cii -ivfii lAcr tw all 

ihc i1:~ih.Kt- ni licc'ii-c ami anarthy. 

\-,,. oaim.- n'niit lia- cru .Icvoir \'W o .iiiiimtcc- «lui n^i átx.u it 

, ruter .k- iioiucai-, la M'^-ti-ii <k- mre-ary i,> .leal a.i^atn uilh ihe 
.In.ii- .le la hfaiux -nr k'- làat- .|ne-n. .n . -t the n-ht- . .1 k ranee . .ver 
,r\Mun.>ii et .hl t .inita: senai-m; the State- ..i' Axv^u^u aii.l the 
elle a^'te .lekattue et .li-eutee. a .1.1- (-nitat \enai-in ; it ha- keen .le- 
„.reiite- ei»H|ne-, .lan- _'-' -ean.e- .le kate.l aii.l ,li-en-e.l at .litlereiUHnie- 
^riie \--enik;ee; le i".ui- et le entre .Inrin.iLr tuenty-tw.. -ittin,ir< ..1 this 
,,,n- -un'.-aniir.ent e., nini-; et A-^ ; y..u are -m'tieienly ía- 
,haeiin peni -'eive nnine nne Mpini..ii miliar uith the /-n-v an.l cns. aiul 
ui-te et -ame .le il- .In'it- -m' o^'- - ^■■"'1' ""^' "■' > "^' ^'^^ ''^'^'^ =^'''^' '" ''"■'" 
k.iat-: ,!r.'il.< '\\\\ "in eie i. .rmellement a jn-ì an.l -ane .ii) .'Í .'iir rÌL;ht- 
,V..crve- k \-eml.lee nati. -naie. ..ver ihe-e tu., -tate-: rÌL;ht- uhieh 
,!aii- kartule premier .le -..1. 'leeret -In «ere i.-rmallv re-erve.l ky the \a- 
_'.- mai, «ini ..nk.nne renv..i .le- cm- ti. .nal A-enikly m the lir-l article 

.il" it- ilecree ..f Ma\ -?. which .lirect- 
the -emkm; «.t a e. .niim--i. .n i>i 

mi--aire- iiieilialenr-. 

i;\-eniklee nati..n;ile, ,aprè- mie The- \ati..nal ,\-emkly. after a 

,l,.cn-i-n .|m .Inra ,.lii-ieur- .¡.air-, .l.-cii-i..n la-tin- -everal .kav-, n.H 

i.e ir.,\am i.a- .|iie le v.en ile reunk.ii, cn-i. lenii- that the v..te ..f uni..n 

pre-ente le- Avi^n. .nai- et le- pre-elile^l ky the citi/eii- . .1 \\ i.L,mnn 

(Milita. lin-, ¡ut a--e/ -. .leimellemeiit, an.l the Cmilat ha.l keen ca-t in u 

a-e/ kkrenieiH f a--e/ le,i;aleineni manner -tilìiciently t..riiial, free ..r 

,1111-, p.iiiretre .icciite par elle, -e .le- lei^al !■. ke accepte.l kv it, ileci.k'.l, 

termina par un .leeret .lu J,^ mai à th^.n-h a .lecree ..f May 2'^. t.. -eii.l 

eiiMixer .le- c..mmi--aire- me.lialeiir-. .i ciinnii 

filili ..f me. ¡iati. 111. wh.'-e 

,ixec in] .le retaklir kcr.lre et la ini-i..n \\..iil.l kr t,, ree-takk-h .»i.ler 

■,;,in,HiilliIe panni ce- _' peuple-, et il'y an.l .|niet aiiK.ilj; llie-e l\\>> pcple-, 

lau-e ce-ei l.'ilte h.i-tiiite, emme im an.l t.. -n.p ali li..-tilitie-, a- a lu-ce-- 

lireal.akle iiece--;¡ir. a\ant .le ])ren -ar\' prelimin.arv t.. ;in\ lunher :ic- 

. Ire anelili ¡.arti ultérieur relaiiv.'nient li.-i. relative t.. the n^lit- .'f kranc 

,.:\ i!i. .¡t- .k- la k ranee -ur ce pa\-. .ver ilie CMuntrw 

Dan- le- 4 artuk- .le ce .leeret, i! In the f. .nr .article- >'i thi- <le.ree, 

iie-t nulle ¡.art nu;i:i..ii >lu pape, m ilu re i- n. > iiienti..n . .f the I'. .pe . ir ..f 

,le Li c.i'ir .le R.Miie. tk.e (■.•uri ni U..nie, 

I, .\--eiiilike natiiiliaie, en y le-ei- i ile ."\an..n.ii ,\--eiiiMÌv, ^^ni¡c re- 

WIwA-. i\ AM) Till-: \ I-:X.\ISS1\, 17'M 


vaut k-^ limits lie la 1-iaiicc, rci'minail xTviiii; in \h\^ iK'i rcc tin.' rÌL;lil- ni 

ci,|ie'ii(lant iin|iliriti-iiKiil l'iiiili-iicnil- Irainx-. rci"(iL;iii''t's inipliciilv . hnw- 

aiu'i.' (k's .\vij,Miiinai~ et ik's (nimadiii-, <.-\(.r. tlic unk-iiendciici- ni \\Ìl;ì1(iii 

|)iii>(|u'(.lk' I'lUdic (le-. iiiedKitciir- iiDUr ami the (diiUat, l.x ^einliiiL; nudi- 

intLT|»iser knir^ Ikhi^ dltice-. entre 2 atur^ to (itYer their ^erviee^ tn two 

|ieii|ile- (|ni ~i- lent la querré. warrinL,"- ]iei']jle^. 

l.e> iiieiliateiir> |)aiteiit et arri\ent The Meihat^r^ haviii;^ arrixed m 

daiis les ]ia\s hellii^éraiits ; leur pre- the helli>;ereiit emniirie^; their I'lr-i 

iiiier sum e-t de I'nncilier le-- -' pea- care was tu edueiliate the iwn 

pies: le l'I inni de^ députes de tmues ] ■'s. ( )n lune 1'' deputies t'rnui 

k's parties inteiessi'c-s se rassfuililelit d! the interested parties assimliled 

a ( )rau,t,a\ ei sio,n.,n^ ^■^^ présenee de- ;.t ( )ran.L;e. and, m the ]iresenee "i 

médiateurs de la l-'ranee et sdus leur the hreinii Mediali a-s and under their 

.garantie prii\is, ,ire. des préliminaires pruvisinnal !,'nar;mtee. sf^rnod the 

de paix enntenant 7 articles ; daiis au- l 'rehminaries it l'eace ciiniainni;^ 

Clin de ce- articles, il n'est i|uestiiin (In sfvon articles. In tu. ne i»t" these 

pape m de la cnnr de Rmne. Les artades is there i|nestinn ut the I'npe 

( ouitadms ct k's Avii^-ni .nais stipu- or ni the t'unrt nf Kmiie. I he 

lent cnmmc jieuples indépendants et Cmntat and Avi^mnii made their 

si.n\erains: l'article 4 est siirtniu re- -tipulatinns as independent and 

i'.ian|ualile; il cnnsacre le iirinciiie i|ue s,,\crei,i;n ])eiiiiles. Article 4 is c-pe- 

la siiuveiaineté sera exercée exclusive- eiail\- n. .tew nrthy : it -alien, m- the 

meni par le corps rei'iesentati i' de la principle that s, ,verei,L;m\ will he 

nation, et ce corps reiiresentatit' est exercised exclusively 1,\ the repre 

l'assenihlee électorale i|ui doit être sentati\ e hod\ of the nation, and tin- 

com])osée lies de]iulés des comnnmes. reiiresentatix e l>od\ is the I' 

Assemlily, which must he comp. .-ed 
ot the deputies from the c..mmuiies, 

(e- préliminaires de |iaix sont en- These Preliminaries of 1 'cace were 

voyés par les médiateurs a l'Assemhlée sent In the Mediati .rs to the .\at;..n,al 

nation,ile I't ;tn roi, et le 4 juillet l'As- AsscmKK ;ind to the Kim;, and on 

semhlée nalion.ale rend nn décret s..- \u]\ 4 the Xatioual \s,enililv i-sned 

lennel par lei|nel: 1" elle approine la :< s,,leinn decree, which first appr..\ed 

condtiile des coniuiiss.uies médiateurs the conduct of the coiniuissi, ,n ..f nie 

eiixeis les différents p.artis hellij^é- diatioii t. .wards the \ari..iis hellÌL;er- 

lanis ; ellt |>;irtiis : 

_'" 1 ':ir lei|uel elle c..nririnc la Ljaran- J (. onilinied the .i;uar.iiitee i;i\fn 

tic <1. iiiiKe p,ir k's .1 commiss.dres me- l.\ the three commissi, iner- foi die 

diateiirs pour l'exéciition des .articles execution of the article- an.l I'rrlim- 

et prehmiiiaiies de ]iaix ariete- et in.aries drawn up and sii^rned at 

„lililí'^ -I ( Ir'i tl r 


1)1 •( r.Mi;\ is 

Í ),'in- n- iK ivt't, niilK- iiii'iith 'ii du 
].a]n--. 111 elf 1,1 c'l'ur 'k' kniik-. I,' \-- 
^i-inliltx- natii iiiali' n-TMiinaa clairt- 
iin-iit l'iiiiK'']n-n'la!irc ft la ^'iiuf- 
raiiK-tc (IfN Avii'iiciiiai^ ft ilf> ruiiita- 
(liii~. |)iti-i|u'f llf garantit iiii traiif 

]ia~-f fllllf ilfUX |lfll])If> l|\li nlll 

■^ll]mlf fii Ifiir pripif fl prue innii. 
ft fl! \frtu (le Ifnr iii'lfjif üdaiicf ft 
(If IfUf ^(iiufraiiifif. Si I'A^^fnilik'f 
nal i- -naif n'fiit pa^ rfioiiini t-fttf in- 
(Ifjifiidaiicf , fut-fllf. sans liiitfrvfii- 
ticii (In pape, sans sim a,í;fénient, sans 
i|n'ii flit a]ipfli.- cdiiinif ¡lartie in!f- 
rf--ff, juaranii If traitf jM^^f finre k- 
I'iinttailins el le^ .\vit;n(>nai- r II e-^t 
(Iiinc fvidfin, ft c'f-t nn jMunt fon- 
\fnn. ft ([n'idi ne ¡lent foiitester, si dii 
f~t (If iK.nne l((i. (|nf Cfs dfiix peuples 
^(iiit ifCdiinns lilires et indépendants 
])ar la I'rance, et (in'ils unt pn et du 
fiiifttrf k'lir \(fu siir I'i'tat pii!itii|ne 
de leur pa\ -. 

(V ;.ni >i-l-il i'tr ¡ii<)\\ ,i-l-il ite sn- 

|)'apr(^'s le^ ]ir(.'-Iiniinaire-. de paix 
arrdf^ à < >i"ani;f ft i;aratiti> ]iar l'As- 
seniiik'e natidiiale. k-. mediatfiirs 
é<-ri\fni au prij^idfiil (le ra~-enilik'e 
élffldiak-, (pli. fdiiidrnifiiifiit à l'ar- 
tielf J du traitf de ¡laix, tfiiait sf~ 
-eatiff^ à l'.f(l,ini('.f ~, lifii (|ui n'était 
-' I inné d'aïuniie inlluencf de |)arti. 
lui fi-ri\fiit, di--if. piiui- le i-rifr df 
faii'f ]ia---fi" a loutf^ lf> fotnunine- 
df- (lfu\ l'.îaN iiiif Ifitif i)ar la'pielle 
fllf- flaifui imitée-- à -e lauiiir ])fur 
éuifiiri' Ifur \iieu -ur l'état politiipie 
du pa\ -. 

In till- (¡ffiff. nu inentidii df the 
l 'i ipf 111' • '! thf i • luv; lit K'diiif. Tlif 
Xaii^'iiai \--finl)l\ tifaiiy rfCd.^iii/f d 
¡Ile inilf|ifndfiiff and the -dvereÌL;:nty 
di' \fi,L;ndn .-tiid the t "nintat. hy ;;uar- 
anlffiiiL; a Iia-aly hftWfen t\Mi jifnple- 
ï'.liii Iliade thfir slipulatinii- m llieir 
■ 'W 11 naine an 1 hy \inue ( >1 the i'' iiide- 
]if!!!l(,!!ff ani' df thfir -d\ f re:'.;nl\'. 
If thf Xatidiial X^-fUihlv liad not 
rfCdt,uii/f(l tili- indfpendfnee , wduld 
it lia\f Ljuarantffd thf trfaty hfiween 
the (dintai and Avii^nidii withdut the 
inter\entidn df the I'upe, withnut liis 
ai;rfi'nifnt and wilhdiit his havinti 
liffu named as an interested party ? 
It i- therefdre e\ ident. and it is an. 
aL,'reed and incdHtest.alile faet to those 
(f j^ddd faith, these two peoples 
are recd^niized I)\- l-"rance to be free 
•and independent. aiKl that thev could 
and -hduld express their vote on the 
political -tatus (if their coimtry. 

lilts tliis fi'tr free. :ens it soicititi. 
u-iis it lenti.' 

.XccordinL,"" to the Preliminaries of 
Peace drawn up at ( iran.çe and 
ruaranteed liy the Xational As- 
senihly, the ^ícl!iators wrote to the 
Iire-ident of the l-'leclorrd As-emhly. 
which cdufdrniaMy to Article 1 df 
the trcMty df peace, held its meftins- 
at Iléd.arridfs, a place which was 
tlidUi,dit Id lie free frolli all p.irtv in- 
lluence; wrute td him, I >a\-, to ask 
him td lr;insnht ;i letter to .all tlif 
Cdiniminf- d» ¡lie two -tales, invitiiiii 
iluiii to as-eml)le .and to cast a vote 
(il the political condiiion df the 

<-. >niitrv 

\\l',\<'\ \.\"l) Tiir \ 1:XA1SS1\, 17"! 

1 )i' ''N u iiiiiiiiuiai.., ^ui fill ir,L-iu 
li-> ik'iix |-'.t;il- rcuiii-, 71 >i.- ^i iiii la--- 
•ifiiiMcc^ oi mit Onii^ leur mhju 5_' 
'iiil ilriiianiló leur réniiii'U à la P'raiKo. 
1'' I'll! \ uti' ]iiiur lo pa¡ji-. (k'- _'7 an- 
tre-, 1/ i|iii a iietU \nìv pulir l:i 
Iraiu-f il.iii-. le- lU'ii- ilV.xril et ile 
mai. et (|ui Milli tdrniee- par le- lia- 
liilap.I- le- pili- lalicrieux qui >e trmi- 
\aieiit ilaii- l'e nii'ineut nCLUpe- au\ 
reeulie- et travaux de la rampai;iie. 17. 
■ il- ie. n'diu jii'iiU éiui- de nuu\eau 
\ieii; mai- il e-t à reiuarijuer (|u'elles 
a\;iiiiit pieeédemmeilt, et à plu-ieurs 
repn-e-. delibere leur reuuidU à la 
l-r.'ince. \in-i n'ayant ¡)as lurmé de 
\ieu iniitr.ure, dan- un ninnient mi il 
était e>>entiel puur elle- de le niaiii- 
ie.-ier, -i elles axaient ehaiii^é d'npi- 
luiiu. leur -ileiice <liiit être eun-idéré 
eiimiiK- \ine ennfinnation de leur précé- 
dente délilieratiun. 

lu n'ont puMit émi- de \<eu ni pnur 
la l'rauee, ni ]inur le ¡lape. et -emhlent 
attendre le dénuuemeiit de l'aftaire. 
.Mai<. (piatili même mi n'admettrait 
p:i- cette npiuinn et ipinii -'en tien- 
drait a ne cim-iilérer i|Ue les 52 cmn- 
nninantés ipii (nit Mité pour la !•' ranee, 
elle- l'iirnieut la mainrité en nnmiire de 
C'inimnne- et en ])i 'piilatinn. lui uom- 
lire de CDiiimuue- ; car de ''N nte< 5J. 
re-teiit 4(i; ce ipii dunne 'i cnmniune- 
de plu- ])nur la l'rance. I".t j'ai l'imn- 
iieiir de v(iu> l'aire remarijuer. Me— 
sieur-, ipie ce calcul est le plu- ia\iir- 
aMe pnur la cmir de Rome. ( ar. 
dan- celte hyputhè-e. je -uppu-e que 
le- 4C> commune- ont \i)té pour le 
pa|ie, l'".i cependant, i! est certain que 
l'I seulement ont délihéré ¡v.^nr con- 

1 M" llie uiilel\-el!;ht coiiuinuies, 
which l'orili ill!' two united -;ate-, 
-e\enty-one ;i--etniileil and soted. 
I'll'ty-two a-ked t^ l^e nni'ii! to 
r'rance. nineteen . 

< )i the 1\\ ent\ --> en ■ illu r-, -i. . . ,, 
teen who had \o!(d ior I'raiice diir- 
in;;- the month- of Anni ;md Ma\. 
and who coinpri-ed the luo-t hard 
Working; of the inhahilant- er,L,',iL;cil 
at tili- time m h;ir\e-tin;;- .lUil farm 
work, -eveiltecn. 1 >ay. did not ca-t 
a new cote: hut it wa- to he remarked 
that the\ had iireviou-l\ re]ieatedl> 
decided lor union wi'h Iraiice. 
Therefore, not Ii.avini; ca-t a con- 
trary \ote at a time when it was e-- 
.-eiitial for them lo mention it. if they 
had chaiijicd their opinion, their 
silence mu-t he con-ukred a- .; coii- 
lirmation of their ])revioiis deci-ion. 

leu did not \ote either for I rauce 
■ T flirtile l'o]ie, and -eeni to he aw.iit- 
inin' the outcome of tlie affair. riUt, 
e\en -hould mie not admit this 
opinion and -hould one coii-ider onl\ 
the hfly-lwii conimnnities who voted 
for I'rance. lhe\- -lill f > irm tlie 
majority in numher of comniune- 
.•ind in population; for. -uhiract l"ift\-- 
two troni ninely-eiyht and fortv -i\ 
reinaiu-, which l^ÌM'- -i'-; more com- 
mune- to I'"rance. And I h.a\e the 
honor, ireiitlemen. of calhuLr \our .it- 
tention to the fact that tlii- calcukition 
i- nio-i fa\oi:ilile to ihe ('oiirt of 
Kotiie. lor. in tlii- hv¡)o¡lu'-i-, 1 in- 
ter fiiri\'--i\ coiiiniune- \oted 
for the Pope .and yet it is certain that 
....n- .,;,,... i....:,i...i ... , , .i... 

1" n. i'Ml'.X I S 

-(.■r\ir l'ani ¡ni rci^inu'; (]u<.' 17 i|Ui nKl nrdir ni ;^i,\ (.iniiK-iu ; thaï -cvfii- 

avaiiiit pic. (.•ili-iiiiiKiil \mIc |iiii:r la !i'i.n wlin liai] prcN nui^lv vcitcd tnr 

1 raiii f. n'iiiii ]ii>iiu Ulli- (lu n"M\t.-aii I vanee ilul nm ca-t a ne\\ \i)tc and 

\'iii, ti (¡ne 1(1 n'en üii ¡amai- eini-; iliai un did nut \c.te at all. Tliere- 

diiiu d n'\ a \ éritalilenieiit (¡ne le l'ite llieii' i- tealK iitilv the \nte ni' 

\ir'i ik' 1'' (•' i;iininnes ipn |iui~~e ha- ilie nnietren enninuine^ tu eniinler- 

lani (i' lehn de^ ?J i|ni mil Mite |i"in' halanee that ut the jiit\ twn whn 

la I ranee, ee i|ni elaMit en Ia\ eiu" de vnted inr Iranee, whiih e-talili^he^ 

la riiiinnn une ddiiiaiiee ile .ì.ì a dilieiiiua' ni' tiiirtv-three ei ini- 

ninne-, niniir^ in ia\iir ni the nnimi. 

'..'nan! .i la |i. iimliln m, ia Intalile \- In the |ii i]iulatiun : the 

'ir ei-lle de-- den\ l-tat- renin- e-t de nuinher l'nr ihe eninliiiied staler i^- 

15-'. 'M'' ali, e- el ielle de-, .^i eum 1,^_'."1" M.nK, and l'nr the tìlt\ Iw n 

innnante- imi nil! \nir|iniirla JM.nii'e eninninnitie- v.lm \nicd l'nr Iranee 

de 1(11. (»in Min.- le ealenl le pin- l'd.iMd. hi ihe eaienlatmn nm-i 

l.iM iiaMe an pape, e'e-t-à di! e. en -tip- l.i\ nr.iMe n. the rn]ie. that i> tn -a\ . i|ne 111 eninniniie- niit \nteeii -iippn^n^; that the l'nrt\--i\ enin- 

-.1 iiMiir d ;■ nait pniir Ini .^l.S7.^ iiiune- \n!ed in hi- i'a\nr. he wmild 

halillant-. 1.1 I taiiei' (Il .1 eli I'd.- ila\e nii In- -ide .^ 1 ..S7,^ inhaliilan!- 

(•4i); dilhrdue en la.enr de l.i I ranee had l'il.ddti. ,i dit'tereiiee n| 

I r.nue. J4..^,Xi.; ,.ii l,i inainrilc d.m- JJ..^Nii m runr n|' liaiiee; ini the 

l.-J.'M'» (-1 ' -mee par 7(i.4i'll; et iii;n.iri!\ ni l.-_'.'M'' i- inniled hv 

H'l.iiln -11! r pmn la l'r.iiue 7n,4(in. and li>l,()4(i \ntrd i,.r 

I r.mee. 

\lai-. eli ie!.ahli--,ini le e.ileiil tri l'ai!, making; the ealenlatinn a^ il 

Milli dnil (Ire, e'c-l-,i-ihie en -e r.i]i- -Imnld he in.ide. th.i! i- t. ■ -,i\-. le- '|ii il ì{\ a \ eritaMenient i|tie iiieinheriiiL: iheia were reallv 

1'' ei .inniiiiu'- .|ni .iieiil \ntr pniir le nU nineteen i iiiiiiiniie- whn \nicii 

pape, la iiiainiiti- (lv\ leni Imn ¡ilii- inr the l 'npe. the iiia|nrit\ in ia\nr 

Inlte t-iiiiiie en laveiir de l.t |-raiu'e, ni li.iiuv lieenine^ -till L;re.iter. 

Car. CCS l'i ciiniiiiimi'> ne eninpre- I he-e niiieieen emniniinev enin- 

Iiaill (im- .ÌO.AAr ili(li\idti>. il eli re pri-in- nnl\ .ìii.M)7 indix nhial-, the 

-iitif cu l.ivcnr (le la l-'iaitee mie dii- le-nltin^ ditiereiue m i.i\nr ni 

lereiiie de 7().,^7'' hahilaiit^. Si a ee Ir. mee aniniint- In 7( !.,v ' ' inhaliil- 

Ilollllile nti .linìite cchli ilcN individu- ani- li In thi- nninher i- addrd 

Inrillalil la pnpul.ilimi de- 17 niin that ni the mduidnal- inriniiiL; the 

nniuo <|iii. a\aiit émi.s en a\rd el m n pnpnlatinii ni -eveiiteeii enininmie- 

Ifitr \ 11-11 I'll favtnir <lc la !•' ranee, n'en who, lia\inK vntcl in t'avnr ni 

fint cmiv ile iiniivean en faveur tin I''r.inee diiriin„' \|>nl and M.i\, did 

|i.ipe. la niajnritc deviendra cnmre imi \nie a.uain in favnr ni i!;,. rnjie. 

i'ieii phi- eniisidcrahle: car eelle iini.Mi- the nia|nrit\ >mII U' emi-iderahU m- 

-\\li,\i»\ ANI) Tili-. \ |-;XAl.sM.\. 17.11 



liitioil ■-'('■k'vc a l?/i77 iiiili\ iilii> i|iii. 
i\uiii^ au\ liil.ii4(j ,|iii niit \(ilc ]iirin- 
la l-raiu't' il;ui^ !l> 5_' c(imimiiii.'-., fur- 
iiR'iit IUI tiiial de 1 Ui.'J.i lialnlam-, 
tandis (|\ril ii'\ fii a |iiiur ii' iiapc iinc 
.iit.'i*)"; ¡iki-. dan> lu iiuiiiliri.- ih- iinix 
1(111 liiit \ipie ])<iur k' pape, il s\-t 
irniuc mir iiiiiinritc a^-tv r. .iisidcr- 
alilr i|ui a \Mto puiir la l-'raiUL-: (.•iitrc 
antffs à X'aliea-. à !'. :i--iiii. a \'ilk- ti 
a I'lcikiu- ( '(.■ > !rs (kl)i;i,iali' Ills 
clk's-iiirllifs (|in cil Inii! ini: ;'i (|1U'1- 
<liu'--iiiR's. soni aiincxfcs ,k-, pritcs- 

1 A' M I'll (k' tmitc- Ifs (I iiiiniuiU's a 
eU' pailailtiiK'nt lilirc, (ar scm, j^- 
\iMi\ iks iiHMliatcui s ik' la I i aiicc-. l'ti 
]iii-si'iu'e di's irniipis ,1,. l)M^iu' ii <ks 
j,'ardcs iiatidiiak's iraiii^aisos, plusieurs 
ciiiiiiimnaiiti's cut \<i\¿- p.nir le pape; 
(.i lem s (kliluTatii Ills p, irtcìit lU's ri'- 
iik rni'iik-iits aii\ iiicdiatcurs pmir 
avmr as-ani' la liliciif (k-s npüiiniis. la 
siiriii- (Ics piTs.iniU's li dcs jirn- 


l'anni Ics pi inninir.ius i|iii mil 
\ciic pdiir k' ¡> ii'i'. 11 avaient ^■aini- 
siiii lraii(;ai-c ipTcllcs avaient de- 
in. iiidcc pour assurer leur IilnTti- pli\ 
sii|ue et nmr.ile: il est ilmu- iiiipnssiliit 
lie dire. ,i iiiuiiis (|iiiin ne son de li 
jilils in;tti\aise fni. ipie leurs deliher.i- 
t II Ills n'mil pas etc lilircs I ne d'enti e 
elles, /l'ii//,');, . .avant, ilepnis remis, |i jti 
de s, III \>cn puni le p.ipe, nilcrln ipic 
siiii inteiii dciii.indait sa niininii .'i la 
l-'r.inee. .1 cent .'i l'un des incdi.iieiii s 
p'iin diniander a se rasscinliler dr 
H'invcin II a icpniidn. avec la dit;- 
Piti' Ipil a -a mission, i|iie le 
\an .i\.int lie eniis let;,iletnent en fa- 

ere.iscd ; mr tli:- ¡x .pulatimi aiiKuiiits 
li> \r.(>77 individuals, whieli. .nhied, 
to the K 11. I 4(1 whn vnted l'raiiec 
in the titty-tuii edintiiiiiics. makes a 
t. nal di 1 l(i.7_'.ì mli.ilni.ants, 
i"r tlie l'e, here were .in!\ .ìil,()()7. 
.Mnrenver. m the nnmlicr oi thnsc 
unini,' îdr the l'epe, tlic'-e was .1 
tairlv eutisidcralile mmnritx '..lii. 
vi ited inr Ir.iiiee: .aninni; ntlier 
|ilaees ,it X'alréas. jkiissdn. \ille and 
l'inlene. The resnlutidiis theiiiselxcs 
prove this; to s,, mc ni ihcm deel.iia- 
tiniis ;ire .atlaehed. 

I lie vntt- ni ,all ihe enmniiines 
entirely free. l'nr. under the e\cs 
ni the l'reiuli .Medi.atnrs. ,,\ ihe trnnp, ainl ni the Ireiuh .\,i 
tiniial ( iti.ards. enmninnilics 
\nied tnr the l'njic. and llieir re-nlii- 
liniis cniivev ihcir thanks tn iju- 
mcdi.itnrs, i,,r 1i,i\¡iil; sciiircd n. 
lliem ireeilniii ,,\ npininn and -.liclv 
"I persnii and "i prn|KTtv 

Amniiu; the iimeteen eninniiiiic< 
wliuh vnled inr ilu- l'npe. ile\e!i 
Ireiiili Liarrisniis, inr whieii tlic\- 
askcd. m nrder tn s<ciire |ilivsu-al ami 
innral irccilnm, h is, thereinre. 
mipnssililc tn st.ate. unless nm- ,lncs 
s" m had iaidi. llieir dchlier.itmiis 
were lint tree I Ine .ininii- ihem. 
/'('//('■/Il-, aiter h.iviiij.; \nted Inr die 
I'npe nil scin-id llinutjht ilccidcd that 
lis mteiest demamled its iminii wuh 
Ir.aiice. .iiul wr.ite in i,iie ni the 
Medi.ilnrs askini,' t" asscinhle .ii;.i:i! 
lie replied, with ihe dunnlv hemm 
lili; tn his iiiissmti. ih,ii the vnic h.n 
iiii: Ikcii IcL'alK east m i.ivnr ni tin- 


!)i nr. Ml-: XIS 

vfi'.r lili I'^il"-'. il IH' iKiincUrail '\\\'<n 
\w \,iri:ii' ]i:ì- ;iìiim ilaii- un -i lourt i--- 
]);tcc tk' ti'iiil»-; ■ : M''"-' '•■■ '!'" ■'''■'■'' *'''' 
tait l'i-taii liuim-iit <.■[ Ivi^nk-uwin 
( in'^ii '-(-■ 'luv artnrllniiL-iit '\uv la 
liliiiti,- iK- -itifi-a^r-- u'a jia- rie l'il- 
turi' et i|UL' le- iiK''liatfiir- •■ni eluTiiu- 
a accaparuf ii.-- i ipinii .ii~. Dan- i\uv\- 
i|i;r— uni'- ile- cninnium-- i|rn nnt mi'c 
]iunr I.i l'vatKr, ik-- nuliM'lu- ^ni \ > •ti- 
l;liriincnt p' au" k- pajir. et letir^innion 
e-t in-rree .lan- Ir- (K-lllHTa'.i. 'n-, tille- 
i|n',i \nliiL;n,in, a l'.eilariiik - un -ie- 
■^i-.m ra--rinMre rkvti.ralr. a i rr-Ict- 
,1 1 nlni!ia\i\. a Lille, à I .illia. a la 
l\Mi|iie--ni -l'etile-, an I ii^r et a \ ai- 

l'iipe, lì' ,\ipiilil IH >I alliiw tlletii lo 
elìan^e u :ii -■ > -li' t! a -pace ni' time, 
anil that what \\a- ijniie IkuI I'een 
iliiiie ilnl\' aii'l leLi.'.lly. Xn "lie 
e'luld dare ni-w t^ -ay that -ullrauc 
wa- 11"! emnel\ I'vee ami ilie 
Mediati'i" -Mii^ln t,, inilnenee .i]rn- in -I'liU' ni tile i.-nniiiuiiie-- 
wliieli \'.Ieil ii'V I'laiu-e. in- 
ili\ idiial- freely x-Ied ior llie i'^pe. 
and ilieir npninii i- in-erted m lìie'r 
ri--i ■Inli'M!-. a- al \nIi'L;nan. at I'.edar 
lale-. where ihe |-.leel. ,ial \--eni!i'y 
w .- -iilni-. at tia-lit-. at j-jiire- 
ehaii\. .at l.iile, l.illia, Iv ).|ne--iir- 
I 'erne-. I h'lr and \ ai-'ill. 

11 e-I ene. ire a reniai i|iie'- iiile. d.ill- 
le- .^J ( I .'îininiic- .|iil .'tit Vi .te ¡inlir la 
!■ ranee, '' -eiilenieilt ,i\ aient L;arni-iin 
.■r.nn;ai-e. et inie. eiiinnie jo l'ai 'leja 
du, -nr 1'' Ipil .ml M'te ]).air le pape, 
li avaient L:,irni-iin ir.HK.n-e, et )ier^ 
-.iiine n'i^iliiire i|lie le- ^,irile- nui"- 
n.ale- de- ilep.iriunenl- \iii-in- dn 
(.'nint.-U de-irent \i\enient 'a renninii: 
(liuie le- i>ni iinpinse tmi- 
Ivur- nu A en- pnnr .i--nnr la liherte 
,k. ..linn.iii- et \ -'lit p.n\enn- 
1 »i.iu 11 nii--!i .11 de- \ii n\ en l.i\ enr 
lU- 1.1 1 ranee a eîe lilire et -p. n'iaïKC, 

I ,■ v.i n .1 tie -. ■!• :nu-I ; ear |i,>rt.'ni 
il ,1 (te einis a]>ré- une 1 1 .nei >e.ili"n 
laite à »"11 de trmiipe mi ile Lun'min. 
et apre» (lt'> attiche -i prealaMeiiient ap- 
posées; les ras»aiiil)k'< niit eu lien 
dans les étíHses. tu plein inir et aver 
l'appareil "Hi'eNi^eait itm- 'M o'e .n--i 

! tu a été lépal: ear U a etc 

Il ;- .il-ii wiirth remarking: that m 
the l! It\-tí\.i eniiinnine- wliieh \..ied 
il ir I'' anee, i 'iiK nine had h reiii h 
L;.irri-. .11-, .ind, a- I pre\iiiu-l\ -,iid. 
Ill the nineteen wlneh xnted Inf the 
I', ele\en had I reiieh L;arr'-.>n-, 
,and 111 I line i- i^^ ni the i.ut 
die »iiiard- ni the ne;i;hliiir 
iii'j deparlineni- tn the < nint.i! 
e,iL;erl\ .le-ned imiiill Iherelnre. 
the Mediatili- enipl.ixed e\e.y 
tii -eeiire lihertx ni npininii- and -ne- 
eeedeil in ihe'r end iMir-. I lureinre 
the vi ititi}; 111 i.iM.ri'i Iranee w ,a- Her 
and -pi iiit.anei m- 

I he \i lie w a, -uleiun. inr e\er\ - 
where It wa- east after .i -•innnnn- 
li\ iniinpi'i .and diiini. .and .aiui 
prelinnn:ir\ plaeard- had heen 
]'i«-led Ihe .a--einlilie-- tnnls plaee 
in the eliiirelie-. in limad <la\'iii;lii 
atv! willi all the snlenmily (leniaiukd 
Itv so iinpnrt.nit an DCC.nsidii 

The Mite was leL'al, i'>r it inllnwed 

.\\Ii,\ii\ AM) Ti ii; \ i:\-AISSI \, !7'il 


la .-Ulto (lu train- iL' paix ,-i-iu- à tliv trcal_\(ií ¡u^u-c >ì-ik-.ì at i l^.m-o 
< )raiij;c et j^araiui ¡jar l'A-^ciiiiikt' na- ami i;iiaraiu<.f.l I. v tlir \'aiit>iiai \-- 
tii.iialc: j'nrdrc dc (.mu c natimi a tir -niiMy I lir ..iirt .>i i. .iu Mcatu rii 
(liiuiR- par l'a.— i,'!iiMr i-kviiiialc li'apix-- wa^ -ivfii i,\ the I '.Iccli irai A—ciiiMv 
1 iinitatii'ii (k'~ imdiauiir- ; tiiMtc- Ic- acconliiiL; I" llu- in\itati..n ni liio 
ltjniiuliti'> dit <.[<,■ ii-üiiilie-- (lan- k'- nir.liaidr-. .\il tii(.- i. irnialitu'- w i la- 
assen i!ik-i.>. car dii _\ a p-^i^ok- a la c 'mplu-.l -.\itli m tlu- a--(.ni|jln-,, i,,r 
ndiinnati^n ■11111 priMík'ui, .l'un -e- tlu\ j.n »acMcl 1,, ihe n, .nnnathui ,ii 
i-ntauf et (].• tr. •:- -cmiaKiir-, aim'- a i)ri'Miknt, 1.1 a Mcictarv an.l nf 
s (.UV liKalaiilciiRiit a--(.'nilik-- -. Hl- la llinc -crutaidr-, at'icr haviiiL; iirc. 1- 
ITi-uk-iKX' (hl jihi- aiuan (\':v^v. aiii-i cii-lv a-M.-nihk-.l under tia- ]r.\->i- 
'¡\K' k' iMa-cnvcnt le- decr(.'t> .k- l'a-- ('ciu-y ..t' the ,.IdeM 111 aL;e. a- pre- 
-einiike liati-nale: 1 m \ a iKmuue, en m rihed li\ ilie deeree- ..f the .\alidnal 
nue (!e- depule- p-m p..rter le- \.eli\ .\--ei)il.K Mu v then n..iniiiated 
a 1 a--eiiiMee eleel. irale (|ui, aiire- le (kjiuije- t,, earrv the v. .te- Im ihe 
reieii-enieiit de- delilieratK .11-. a ecn- lleet-ral \--eiiihl\. wlueh, aller 
Mate h mai. inte, el a enii- elle-nieiiie \erii\ni- the mum-, aun. .mu cl the 
-.111 \. en en la- eiir de la riun!..ii, aui-i mai(.rii\ ami ea-i ilieir (.e,n v.iie in 
i|ne le ii.irtellt I.Minellenient le- pmi- l"a\,ir ..t' nmen, aie..rdin- !.. llie -..r- 
\(iir- d..un<'- a MM. le- .lepnie- de mal p., wer- -nen t.. the depiuie- (.1 
eetle a--e:ulilee pt.iir -e rendre a TA-- ilii- .\--eml.l\ t.. I,e earru.l j,, the 

-einliUe nationale de Iraïua 


.mill.- •Ht (l.ine e(.i' '11 (|ue le \ijte 

.\.iti..nal .\--eml.l\ ..i inni. e. ', ,,ur 
(■.■miiiillee-. thereidie, ai^iced tlial till- 

ie- e. .minime- était iilire, -oleniiel et \..|i ,,f ilie ...nriiuiie- wa- Iree. -. .! 


/:.s7-)7 (/,■ i:iit,i\t ,/, ¡<i I r.'ihi- <i\u- 
i rf'li'r ht icniiinn .' 

\ ( '- ('. .mité» \( .u- I itit\ e. .Me-- 

euin au. i lei;a! 

Is It /.I til,- iiìlrr.-^t :■! Ir, ¡v, , .' . 

!/(■. t-pt tili- IIIIlKll .' 

^ "111 (■(.mmiilee- ha\e rcmarKcl 

-leur-. (|ue rin.kiHlidanee de- .\>i«- t.i y..n. (■eiitlenien. tliat the m.kpeii.l- 

iKiiia;- et (ji- ( '. .uiia.liu- a\aii de in 

eiiic ..! \\ iMii'di au.l the ( ..nitat uà-. 


e(.nte>tal.leiiieni ree..iimie pir IW- ine. .iile-iai.U reK..!4ni/ed li,- i!ie X; 

-eniMée iiatK.nak' dan- le- deerel- de- (¡..¡lal \ -eml.l y m tile deeree- oí 

-'3 mai el 4 iinllet; .pT. n c.u-e.iueiue. May J5 aii.l iuU 1. that m e,,ii-e- 

CfS peuple- a\aielll le .k' \.iter (pieiiee llie-e pe..ple- ji;,,! ilic ri^^llt t,. 

sur leur etat p..l:!i.|ue; .pie lem- de- vote ,.11 iheir ¡..Iilieal stani-; that 

lihiratioiis avaient etc priM-. ave, ili. ir re-,.htfi„ns uere taken u itli tint 

eeite lilaTti- <le snrfraí,'c et d'.ipiiiK.ii-, l,l,erty ..f stilTra^e aii-l of ..pinion, 

.lilimente pent en earaeteri-er la k- v hicli alone eharacteri;'e le;ialitv." 

^^'='''" " -•'-" ''^' ^■'^'" ^' 1' I' I' ticccssary toknmv whether it is 
I ranee a mieret daeeepier la leui, .he inten-t ..f I'rance to aere,,t th.- 


i)( )cl MI'lN 1 S 

(liiii.iiuUc |iar la niajnriti- dc^ .\\v¿- 
iiniiai- i-l ik- CciiitailDi- rtninis. 

1 I'ttL- iiiic-tmn a iK'.ia etc a,t,'iti.c ut 
liiMUtix- proiiiiicU-iiR'Ht <laii- (livcr-cs 
-taiuc^ (Ic I'A^-iT.iMii.- iiatiiiiialc. 

la iininiitr ik- lU'iiuti.-- ik'- (k- 
¡iartviiK-iu- \iii-in^ ik--iri' cotti.' n.- 

!,'iiitt-n't 'k' ni>^ iii.inuiactiircs cm- 
m-rait i|ii'"ii ciitdiiiat dc liarruTc- 
.\\i.l;ii"I1 v't k' t'nimat ; ct iMniniont 
]».uriait-'n y ]\ cinr -aii> ck-> irai- 

itUIllCll^L'N .' 

\\it;ii"ii. (lai >a -itnati'Hi. «-'-t mi <k'- 
l„,iik'variK '\c la !"raina\ du ccitc <k-- 
iiiMiilaLjiir- iiui luiit It.' Daiiiihiili' L't la 
rrn\ciua' a\i\ l-'tat- (hi fili ile Sar- 
ilai:-;tu-; it il ■.-t a-^tv ai-i- 'U prmtrcr 
iii-i|n'a latti' villi' ¡lai k'- ^lU-i"; di' (.•-■■- 
¡UMiitaullr- : ll f^I dnlic di' l'ititiTi-t dc 
la I ran. I' d'. .■.■ni|ii'r un p'-.^o au--i 
iniiii>it:int ; il f-t (k'lu' dc -m iuti'iit 
d'aiia'iiiir la rtMiii"ii Ac^ 2 ktat-. 

uiiiiin a>k(.'d by thu niaient) ><{ ilic 
uiiiti'd iici>i)lc ot Aní^iihU and 111" ihi- 
( ninlat. 

Ilii- i|ut.'-tiiiti has already bvi-'i 
.i,L;Uati.'il and i.'.\liaii>tivfly disini>>fd 
m \ aril ms ■^ittnis^^ ui tliu National 
.\-si.'nilil> . 

rill.' niaiiirity ut' thf ik'iiutii.-. imni 
till.' lU'i.uliliiiriiiL; ik'iiarlincuts (k'-ire 
till- nnii'ìi, . . . 

Till' inti'ri.'~t iif Olir iiianut'acturi--. 
\\, I i,'\ai't till- irt'i'tii'ii lit barrier- 
an :iid \\i,uniin and the I'nnitat and 
how could tin-- lie done without iiii- 
nien-e expeii-e .' 

A'vi^iion. li\ It- situation, i- a bul- 
wark 111 !■ ranci' on the >ide oi the 
nil i\uitaiii-- whiili ronnect the 
Dauiiliine and rro\eriie with the 
donnnior.s of the Kiiiu' oí Sardinia. 
.■;nd it :■- ea--\- enough to ]ienetrate 
■,s a- tlv/ cit> li\- wa\ ol the 
niomuaui i^ori^es. It i- therelore lo 
the interest of I'r.-nire to oei'U|i\ sn 
inijiortant a imst ,nid to acie]it the 
union oí till l\wi slate-. 

/ ,-A- iiii'i-'iis rtriiiii/ryrs T-rnoiilrUrs 
d'un .1 // tr.niiiiiilìi- irtlr i\-iiiiu'ìi.' 

I lite .|nestion a déjà été tres Imi- 
j^llellKiU di-i utee. 

I.i's Men- lie bonne t'oi )ieiueiil-il- 
n.'ire i|Ue ee -era k |irete\te dont 
les i,in--,\ni('- liran^eres se serviront 
|i,.ni noti- alt,ii|iier. si i.iinai- elle- en 
viennent .i celle e\trenn!e. ce i|UC llioi. 
]);ii III iilten meni, je ne crois pa- ' 
Deimis J ails ello ont trouve ik's cu- 

ir/// Ihr fon-i, III Uiitii'ii.' /',■ :c;7/- 
¡lui t,i ,/( (■(■/'/ tins inui'ii ' 

Tills (|Uesiioii .alreaiK been dis- 
itls-r,'i ;it i;reat k'ir.;tli. 

I- It |)ii--tlile tor ¡leojile of mumiI 
laitll lo believe that it will coUslittite 
a |irete\t. of wliieli the loreii^n 
r. .wers will make u-e to attack n-, 
h. iild -Ulli an i-xtreniitv ever arise. 
wliuli I. I'lr one. do not believo.' 
l-(.r tvMi \eais tliev ha\ e toniid cir- 

A\Ii.Mi\ ANI) 'IUI.; \ |.:\ MS^i \, ]7'i\ 2.v" 

r(iii->tanccs liicn ¡jIu- l;L\i:ialilt> pniir cuiii--taticc> ¡muh mure ía\nral)lf tu 

lililí^ faii'c la ^qiriTc : vu ( .11; (.-111.'- \\:\.r: did they pmlil 1}\- then;'' Xn. 

])rilit(..- Xnii: !" \ydi\\- (|n'elli.'~ lon- I ir-t. Urau-c iliex ku:i\\ Kiir ciicrjix 

nai^>fm untre iiicrj^ii.-, ct iiotic aiiiour and ..iir mde^tnietiMe i(i\e ni 

iiide^tnictilile ]Mmr la lilierte, liKerU. 



I nil-, le- (.tranters ci iniiai>>eiu aii-^i 
liieii I ine nnti^ nn> drnii- -nr ee'- ]ia\ - ; 
\\> -a\ent Men i|ne dan- k'> eirron- 
<tanee> acluclle> Avii^iuin et le ( mn- 
!at ne ]]en\ent exi-tei -an,- -'inci ir- 
li' Ter a la l-'rance: ii< sa\ent liien (|ne 
Hnirc i)iii->aiice n'en >era jias aug- 
mentée, et (jiie. tnut au ])lu.-, eette re- 
nninii ne ser\ira (ju'à dnmnner i|uel- 
(|ue-; géne> coniniereiale-, I'er-dtine 
n'a jamais i^Minré i|ne, tut on tard, 
A\if;ni)n et le «."ointat de\ aient rentrer 
-un- nutre domination. Si Avignon 
et le {' existaient au milieu de 
l'M-liagne, de l'Angleterre, de l.i 
.'-»uède, de la I'm—e ou des ]'".t;it- 
héréditaires de !'l-"miiereur, trou- 
\erion--non- m.mvais ijue les prinee- 
ijui gouvernent ees p.iy-, euni'' 
leur- droits ;ivee le- \ieu\ du peuple, 
elierelias-ent a le- renmr à leurs au- 
tre- dciiname-' Xon, -an- d^ute; eli 
IiienI cro\oiis. sans elierelier a noii- 
taire des mon-tre pour les eomhattre. 
(|ne 1,1 r,ii-on n'e-t p,i- eiKi>re tot.ile- 
ment liannie di - ealiinet- de rJMirujie; 
et i|Ue -i le- |im--,iiu'e- elr,ingere- \eii 
leiil nun- ;itt.ii|uer, ee ne -er.i pa- pnnr 
le l'unie pieleMe <le 1,1 reiimun d'.\\ ig- 
nun. I )',ulleur-. je maintien- ipie l,i 
leuniuii null- met en nieilKiin' pu-i- 
l'"ii- ( ,ir, i". niliic ie 1 .11 du. en -u|i- 
l'! 1,1 j^'iierre. non- ;iurun- di- 
niuin- à eojnliittre de- ennenn- inte- 

lAery fui eigner i- a- t';muli;ir a- 
i'ur-el\e- with mir nL;lit- u\er t',f-e 
euunirie-; tliey knew \cr\ wel^ thaï 
rnder the conditions A\ignon 
ami the (umtat can not e\i-t withuut 
lieing mcurpurated with 1- ranee; the\ 
know that our ])u\ver will not he in- 
creased therel)\-, ,ind, .at the 
most, thi- union will onl\ -erve tu 
dinnni-h ;i tew cuniniercial iiieon- 
\tniences. Xo une has ever lieen 
igiiurai.l of the fact that suuiier ur 
l,:ter A\ign<in and the l 'oiiUat would 
ha\e to come once more under our 
cuiitrol. It' .\vigniin and the Com- 
t;it e\i-ted in the mid-t ot Spam, 
l-'.ngiand, Swedeti, !'ru>sia. or the 
lieredit;iry estate- of the l'.ni|)eror, 
wuuld we con-ider i; wrung it tin- 
])rince- governing the-e cuuntne-. 
Mending their right- with the vute- 
ui the people, -huiild -eek lu unite 
them to their uther duminion> - I 'n 
doul.tedlv no. \cr\ udl. then let 
u- lielie\e. without tIMiig to make 
tor uiir-cKe- m.iii-ter- tu he l'oubli!. cumniuu -eii-e h.a- nut \m heen 
entirels li.mi-hecl i'n.m the i.iliinet- 
of I iirupe ;m.l u ilie lureign 
I'uwer- w i-h t.i ;ill,ick u-, it will uut 
he lur the iiilile pn îe\t ut tlu' nniuii 
o| Axigiiiit lle-ide-, I, 
that the nniun ] u- 111 a lirtt.r 
po-ition : tor, ,1- I h,i\e ,ilrea.l\ -.iid. 


1)1 iCl'MI'.N'lS 

ric-m-^, plu- dany;crcux i\w sni.iu..ini; wc were m hruc war, we 
k- i-\u-ncurv wniiM itu have m ti,L;lit dniiR-^tic 

ciRMiiie--, wIki arc iiinch nvirc ilan^aT- 
(ni> than thc)>e (lUt-ulc. 

I:sl-il i/r iinicrct d^'s Jctix IlUils 

l'en aiijiflle; 1" a leur- déliliéra- 
tidii-: -" a l'état attreux ou iKUi- le> 
re<hii-wii-, -1 la reunion n'a pa- heu. 

Is it t'' '/<■■ ¡iitrrrst oj tlìc two states 
lo oc uiìitcd to l-rüitú' .' 

I call attention. t"ir-t. to their dc- 
liheralion-; -eeonil, to the frii^htíul 
...nd'tion to which we will reiluce 
ilinn. It' the uiiion doe< not take 

l'ai pioiuc >|ne ce vieu avait ete 
etili- a\ec toute la liherte et la solen- 
nité (|ui en a--ureni la let^alité; 

( Ine la niajorite de- coinniune- et 
de- indiMiln- ;'v;;it \ < ite pMiir -e reunir 
a la 1- lance ; 

< hie rintcìct liieiì entendu <le la na- 
tion íran(,-ai-e était d'aciepter cette ré- 
union ; 

( lue la crainte (|ue cette reunion ne 
-ervit de pretexte aux pui-ance- 
ctratiij.ére- ¡lour non- attaqner. était 
\aine. ilhi-oire et indii^ne de 1 \--eni- 
Mee tiationale . 

( lue linlvrci de- \\i,uiionai- et de- 

I .mil, [dm- était (|Ue cette .etinioii 

'' .pi ; 

I iiii' 1,1 nie-iire du -ei|iie-tre elait 

iiiiu-te et d.iiiL'enu-e pour la i i.ince; 

I )iir riiunianitc et riiomieiii na- 
tional exii;eateiit iiu'oii Ile u ici. il ¡ta- 
le Vieil de- \\ 11411011,11 - et ilc- « oiiita 

I lu'eiilin le ictu- de Cl- Men rei'lon- 
^erait ce- deux peuple- dan- toutt'- 
le- horreur- île !;i '.;iierre civile et de 
l'ati.iiaiue ; 

1 h.ave ]iroven that tin- vote wa-í 
ca-t with .all the liW'rtv and -oleiunily 
whu li ill-lire it- le^'ality ; 

I the ni.iiority ol the coin- 
iiiiine- and of the indiv \ oled 
to he united t.i h'rance ; 

That it i- clearly to the intere-t of 
the I'rench nation to accept thi- 
uiiii ,n the thi- union 
would -erve .a- pretext to the !orei;^n 
I'ower- to ati.ack u-. i- vain, illu-ory 
and nnworthv of the \- 
-I'liiIiK : 

rh,-il it i- to the intere-t of 
\\i'.^non .tnd the this 
uiiiou -hould he accoinpli-heil ; 

That the nie.i-nre of -ei|iie-trati"n 
w.a- iiiiiu-t .anil dani;eron- lor 
Ir.uice ; 

rii.ii hiini.iintv and honor 
dem. mil thai the vote nf Nmlmiou 
and tile ( -h. iUld not Ik' re- 
jected ■ 

\nd la-ll\ that the lefii-ai "f thi- 
■,iile w.'iild airain |ili!iiL;e llle-e two 
peo]ile- into .ill tlK horror- of civil 

A\li,\(i\ ANI) •Ull-, \ l'-.XAlSSIX, \7'>ì 


\ "-, colimi'-, (li-ttTinini.-. ¡lar tmitcs ^'i.iir (.■(uniiiittcc^. di-ciilcd Ijv all 

cc-~ CDiiMikratmn-. (Mit l'tr d'axis llu>c' (.Mn-icK-ratidiis, art' of ilu- 
<raat',,t<T la reunion: I't c'c^i en leur m],iiiì,,ii that llic nntmi slumlil lic 
Unni <|tk' j'ai riidiiiHMir <ic vmi- pro- acct-iitcd, ami it i> in their nanu- tliat 
l>o-cr Ir ,k-cri-t -iiixaiit:' 1 have the honor t.i propuse to ,oii 

the loll(j\\ iii.r cjeeree. 

l-oniui! Chunji-s Broiu/ht Aijainst th- M,;li,¡í,'rs hy .Ihh,- .1/,;!(;\, !h-f.>rr tlir 
.\\:iii>iiii¡ .Issi-iiibly. and Nrplirs ,'j tlic M i\li,it.-i:<. Srf^l,-inluT l.ì. \7'i\ - 

M. i;Aim;|- Mm kv. . . . Me-Meiir-. M. i/Ai::;!. M \, .,v. . . . (¡ciitle- 

\oin une ac.u-atioii ,loni ie \ai- don- nuti. here ;- an aeeu-ation whieli I will 

lier lecture a rA-~enihlee ielle e-t écrite rea<l lo the \ it i- written 

et siyiieede ma inaili. Je la deiio-erai and -i-iied h\ ni\ hand j willlhei; 

eii-ihte dan- le hureau, e-perant de la depo-Jt ¡t mh the hiirr.m. hopiiii; that 

ju-tice de r A-^-enihk'e qtrelle -era a- the iu-tice oi the \--enil.Iv will 1., 

»e/ frapiiee de l'imporianee de eetn- -nlìiciently -truck unii the import 

aecu-atioii p,„ir -eiitir toute la nece-- an. e ot' tlu- aeeu-alr.n t- leel the ah- 

-ite de piinu- le- médiateur-, -'il- -ont -ohue necc--it\ of puni-IniiL: the me 

eoup.dile-. Oli la néees-ité non nioin- d'ialor-, ii they are -uili\, ..i the 

-.urei' de le- ju-'.ifier -'il- -ont inno- iieee--ii\ n,, k-- -acred of ju-tify- 

''^'"'''^- uil; them, if they are iniioi-ent. 

\ oici, Me-iems, mon arte ikaceu- iierc. » .enllenien, i- mv arcii-a- 

-ation: ,„,,, 

" I. 'A-emhlee nationale -'étant ré- ••'Mie \-,-nilil\ lia\ in- 

-er\ele- lonctioiis de f^rand iure ponr re-er\ed to n-di the function- o| a 

de.-ider -'il y a lieu à ;ieeii-ation iuntre -rand inr\ lo d<'eide il there i- (.iii-e 

le- a,-.iit- iìu -oiurrneiiient. ¡e Ini i, .r .iccii-ation a;,;aiii-t a-ent- of thr 

deiioiicr MM. l.e Scene de- Mai-oii-, ( .e. ernment, ! wi-h io den,,m,ce to 

WTiiinae .^amt-Maur et Miilot, cui n MM Le S. eiie de- Mai-on-, \'er 

mi-;iire- nuMiatem- ch.n-e- de r<- nmac Saml-M.uir and Mnlot. Cniii- 

'■■''''"■ '«' '"■" 'T'Ire et la lr,in.|uillite im-ionei- of Mediai'. .n, . !iar-rd 

dan- \\i,L;no,, ,1 le Comtat. lede \Mt!i the rce-tahli-hmciit of - 1 

mande a être autori-,'- ,à le- poiir-nnre ,.rder .ind onu-t In \M-non "a„d 

(kwant l( trihimal pros,-,, ire de la ihe < ointal I ;i-k to I,,- amhor 

haute cm- n.ilionale -cam a Orkan-. i •< d to pro-ecute ilicm hefor.- ih- 

eomme -' ren. In- cnpaMe- de k pr,.M-„„,al .•! th,' IIil;1i \.i 

I Sic thr hi'.rrr ..t liii.iìi. p, "4; tli. l.-vt. ar"j i'l-jiui-.a!. 
2./r.7i. tari., 1-1 -cricv. m.I. MK p. (ili. 


i)( ìc rMi-:\TS 

lanialiir la ¡.hi- iv\ . .Itanlc (k- alni- H-H; 

il ( i.uri -ittiii.u a; ( ìrlcan-, a- 
,l-,„„„-„. !., ,,1;,- n.iM'K-. .k- la ,.n.- l'aM.i^ l'^'^n ^nilty n< -l- nv,.l rc- 
„,,,;,„, ia,, In. -ran.lak.u-..!..nn..auN N-hm- partialny, m ,h. n,n>i ,n- 
,, n,tn,. avai-i r,,n- ,.|uü. .1. al.u.c nf authnnu. n, „...^t 
tran, k' Inn .k- k'ur nii~>i.,u. -an- -caihlal. .ti- pmu-cliun .^nn, tu \.vv^- 
as.,ir ianiai-vuuiu.'.i ix-.nplirW vcn- an4-: Inially. ,.t havn- art.M om- 

, , ', ■ , irar\ t.i tlir ..Licet .'i tlu-ir tiii-i'.ii. 

til. Ir i il'li-i, • - . , • , 

withi.ut i'\rr hav'.iiL; ilv-irod ti. ac- 
ca .ini. li-li il- real ..l.jccl. 
•■ i-,,,c.,n-c(¡r,cncc, ick'-aocn-c. -ur •'In c. .n-citicncc. 1 accu-c lluni. 

,,.., ,-c-iM.n-al.'ilitc. ,l'a\ vcc'i, dc- mi my rc-j). .ii-ikilitv. . .1 liaviii- In c.l. 
1^,',,, arnvcc a Oraimc .Ian- la [.In- the nL.tncnt ..f their arrival at 
.,,an.!c nMlll;■.tca^ecle-eheí-<k- l.ri- Oran-c, in tlic -reate-t intnuaey 
Jan.l- .le \ aiuiii-c : .le k- av.ur fail u ith the chief- ..1 the l.ri-an.l> .H 
r,<;uvev. a\e. le- (.artie- c .ntractanle-, \auchi-e; of havin- niade them ti-- 
c.'iniiie ehei- .le larmee de \auclu-e. i:re. uith the c. .ntractini: parties, a- 
o.nmie partie- c .ntractanle- avec le- chief- ..f the army nf \'aiiehi-o. as 
c. .111, .nine- .r\NÌi:ii..n et .k Carpen- cmractinfi partio with the .-..m- 
ira-: .Ten fait lenr- c..n-eil!er- nume- ..f .\\ ijiiL.n an.l .)f Carpentra> ; 
ci leur- onvivo. Je le- accn-e «le ,,f havint; nia.le them their cnniciUors 
n'a\ .lesarme (pie le> -eul- citoyen- aii.l .i;ue-t-. 1 accuse them ..f .li>- 
,lu (■..mtat.aprc- aiming only the citi/ens of the t om- 
cni..ÌL;nait aux .leiix i.arti> .k> poser tat. alter a pr. .clamation which en- 
k■-arnles;.^a^ lai-e entrer I'armee ]..ine.l on l...lh parties t.. lay .l.iwn 
,k- hri-an.l- a .\vii;ii..n. .>n elle a their arm-; ..f h.ivin¡; lìcrmitte.l the 
c..mnii-"t..iite- -..rie- .le cniiie-. ..íi ü- army ,.f lite l.ri.i^an.l- t.. enter Asiiî" 
,l,.umr'nt en - aiveram- et ou il- se n.m. where thev onim ■■.1 ail s,,rt- 
M.iu etnp.are- r.-ceniîiieiu .lu palai- et ..f crimes, where the\ rule as -..ver- 
,1c l'ar-enal; .ra\.'ir rM' aux cii.i- ei-n- ami wlierc llicv have recently 
veil- .|in -e plai-naicnt .le .ette ¡lar- taken p..--c-i..n ..f the and ..f 
iKi'.itc. .|ue le- arme- étaient hien the ar-cnal : ..; havin- rejilieil t. . the 
placee- eiiir.^ le- mam- .le ce- .uon-là citi/en- wii.. ...mplaiue.l ..f thi- par- 
et 11..U ilaii- le- -leiin.-. .hreiit-il- an tiaiity the arm- were hetter 
-leur X'iiicc. pK.cureur de la cmiiinnc ¡.luci in the han.l- ..f tli..-e pe..])L- 
,r \\iun..n.ei .r.avoir or.lonué f..rmel llian in their ..wn, a- th.ev reniarke.l 
|^.,„^.,i'l ,|,u' le- l.n-au.l- -cratcnt t. . the Sieur \iucc. l'r. .curai. .r . >f the 
.j,.,,„;, ( .itnmune of \\ ÌL;n..n . an.l "f hax int; 

f.irni..M\ .>r. lerci the armiiiL; ..f the 
linv .U.1-. 
,rr> place, d'al.or.l ' ! ,accu-e 'hem ..f liaun-- place.l, 

•• le le- a. . U-e 

A\li,\(i\ AXi) ini'. \ ICXAISSIX. \7'i\ 


■-ail-- .■uitiHUf. (kv- Liann^i 111- ilc triniju.'- 
(K' lit^iif ilaii- la iMiiimiini.' du < nnitat, 
ft (la\i)ir lii-iiiti.' ri.ii\i •\ (.'■ cc- ti"i'ii])c- 
(k- liu'iK' c|ii: r<.'in~aK'iii df --vciiiii'n"- 
Iciir ill. -|)i iii-iuc ¡xiur \ -iili-tiuuT tlc- 
^'ar(k'- iiaiiniiak-- clc I'rancc <!an- k' 
iiiuincnt ik' la rcvnltc; d'avnir tire- i.x-~ 
.U'ardi's iiaiu iiiak'-- dt- \ illc- dc XiiiU'- 
ft dc Mai'-vilk'. (k' k'-- avdu' iin hmt- 
daii> k'^ 1' iiuiii'iiK.'- It'- phi- paÍMlili- 
(in (.'niiitat i.u rii-ii ir' -«ijjicitait k'tir 
a->i>tancc. ci >]i(.(.iak'iiK'iit dan- le- 
ce ininmnc- i|iii avaifut inanitcstL- leur 
lidelité au |)a\-, (|Uiii(|ue ce- ciu.i- 
iiiuile- ne <e--aient de deuiauder au\ 
ci'niîiii--aire- l'eie lii^nenieiit de tr'iupe- 
iiuitiles et -muem tré- dtléreU'-e-- aux 
Cl lUiuuiiiaiité- ; d'axe m' iprdi itine -an- 
aucune aiitiin-ati'in aux district- vui- 
sins df ])a\er le- -nhk's (k' ce'- i^arde- 
natiiiiiale- i|u'i!- eni|ili'yaient ^a:i- 
nécessite. et d'avoir mérité par là le- 
arrétés de deteiise ile^ départeinents 
<lu < iard et de- !HUiclie--au- Uli^iie nui 
ont a])pelé leur- détaclienients et i|ui 
(iiit déiiuiice le-dit- lueiliater.r- à l' A-- 
seiulilée nationale et au 'uini-tre de 
l'inléiieur. en le- accu-Mit icniuelle- 
iiient de -ervir la uiésiiiteiliijence entri- 
le- corps adniini-tratit'-. en (k'iiiandaut 
a r \s-eni!ilee natii maie i|U elle mit un 
frein à l'alm- de leur autnrite. entin 
en lemeii iant le- diiectnire- de di-- 
iricts de s'être tenu- en ^aide ci ntre 
leur- m-inuatii in-. le le- accii-e 
d'aM'ir lelu-e. -iir la demande e\- 
ple-^e de la niunu'ip:ilil<' d' Xviljiii'II, 
de l'aire de-armer le- liiij,'and-, de le- 
aviiir tait entrer au contraile <.n tri 
(itnplie dan- cette ville. taiiilii,ur liât- 

at lir-t w itili un autln.rity, i;arri-i.n- 
i.| triinp- I il tlie Ime m llie cipiiimuiu- 
iif tile ( iiiutat, and nf lia\ iii^; lat; r 
di-mi--eil tlie^e ir-'n]!- m' the Ime. 
wliii rel'ii-ed tu -ecmid their de-pnt 
i-ni, in nrder tn -uh-iitute Xatiniial 
fiiiard- ni l'r.ance al the time ni llu- 
re\nlt : i>i h.axiiii,' drawn the-e \a- 
tiniial ( II- ds t'mm the cities m' 
Xime- ,aiiii \lar-eille-; ni h.ixiiii,' -eut 
llieiii tn iIk- nin-t pe.-icelul cniiiniiiiie- 
ni the (nuitat. where their a--i-t,iuce 
■i\a- iint needed. ;md e-]ieci;i!l\- tn the 
cnmnmne- which had manil'e-ted 
ih-'ir Invalt) tn the cniintry. althmmh 
ilie-i. cnnimune- iiice--aiitl\- rei|iie-ted 
the cnmmis-inners tn remn\e the-e 
trnnp-, whn were u-ele-s and ntteii 
\ery hiirden-nnie tn the cniiimiinitie- ; 
m' haviiiLT nrdcred. witlmul .authnr¡!\, 
that the neiijhlM irmy di-trict- -Imuld 
pa\ tlie-e X' ( ¡uard-, w hmn 
they were emplnyiiiL; wilhniii nece-- 
^ity, .and <<{ liaNill:.; ile-er\id therein 
the re-nlulinil- ni Cnlldelim.itinn ni 

the I )e]iartment- nt the (lanl and ni 
the IliiKches-aii klu'iiK which called 
in their det.achmeiil- .and deiinimc-.'d 
the ^.aiil iiiedi.atnr- tn the X.itimi.d 

\— eiiilily and tn the Miui-ier •<{ tin- 
Inlerinr, hy inriiiall\ .accu-in^r them 
111 h.avinj: ere lied mi-under-t.iudmL; 
helweeii tile .admiiii-lr.itive hmlie-. 
and liy dem.andiiiL,' the 

\s-cnihl\ [Hit .a curii mi the ;diii-e ni 
their .aiitlinritv : linalK 1>\ tli.ankin.ii 
llie directnrii-- nf the di-lnct inr liav- 
im: heen nil ^Mi.ard a^.-iin-t their in- 
-mii.alinn- | accu-e them ¡ti li.i'.inf; 
lelu-ed the expre^- reipiest ni tlic 

1)1 )CT.\1I".XTS 

t.nii, im-.hcal'miiirf, i.-rtaiili--!! ínrnir M unuii.ality ..f AnÍ-iimii t.. (li^inn 

,k- TMcai'li' liiir carte ^iiv la^iucllo ■ iU itu- iM-i^aml-- ; m iiavin^^ caused ilu-e. 

li-ait ci- iii.ii- üni.rinR-: 'llraM'^ , m the cmitrary. tu filter the city m 

I, iman. N ile l'aiiiiee .hi clepartement Inuniph. (h-nni- l.eatmi,'. t.-rehe^ 

,le \aniln-e; et .le le> av. .li" eiDnpli- li-hte.l aii.j weanii,- m the l..ini .li a 

nieiiu- ai:\ ¡H.rte^ .le la \ ille en pre- cekaile a ear.l, ..ii wliieh e..ut<l he 

eme .K- ir. .upe- «le lt,L;n"; d'as. .ir rea.l the-.' prime. 1 \\..r.l-.. ' l'.rave 

eeiit ime l.Ilre miprmiee daii- la.|;ielle l.n-aii.K ..Í the arm\ ..Í the .lejiarl- 

iK man. leni a r..rn. ler L;eneral <|ni nient ..i \;nu-li!-e ; ' aii.l ..t lia\in- 

cniniaii.le en l'r.. vence .[iie ee. hri- e. .mphnieme.l theni at the -ate^ ..1 

-ami- menlent e-tinie et .■■ .n-i.lera- the city, m the pre-eiiee .)! the ir ...p- 

ti.:n. .l'ax.ìir la!, reii.lre an\ hri.L;an.l-. .'i llic line; ..Í havin- >\ritten a 

ilaii- la ville .le li le. le- ariiie> .Hi'.ill prinie.l letter, m which tlie\ inl'..rme.i 

leur a\ait ..tee-. t'"-' general uiìicer e. .inmamlini; in 

l'r. .\ elice that ilie-e hri^all<l- 'le- 
.-er\e.l e-teein ami ci.n-i.ler.ati. .n ; .;! 
ha\int;- can-e.l t.. he retiirne.l t.. the 
hrit;an.l- the .arm- which ha.l heeii 
taken Ir' ni tlieiii. in the (, ity .>1 i-le, 
•■ le le- ,iccn-e d'av.iir pre-i. le (le " 1 ,accu-e tliem ..l' hasiiii.; iire-i.led 
Meiir \"^.iint-Maur I an clnh . ihe Sieiir \ l'niinac S.aint-Manri at 
(l' le .ih'mh lit la m..- ilie Mnh . .f A\ iun. m. .m the .lay that 
ti. m et .|n'..n \ decid, i Í' innellenieii' the in.iti..n \sa- inaile ami it wa- 
ll', nuaiuir le- criminelle- Í. .iniall\ deci. led t.. annul the crini- 
ili-trmte- à A\i,i;min entre le- chel- pr. .ce. hires m-litute.l in Avi^^iiun 
de liiit,'aml-. .le i.ncer la mnnicipalile ,,;;,iin-l the hii^and chiei-, an 1 t.. 
à le- recnnaitre p.. nr l...n- p.itriule- í. irce the Mmmii.alit) t.. recn^iii/e 
et .le pr. .le,i;er -p. cialemcnt l'un .l'enN, tliem a- i;. .. ..1 patri, .t- an.l t.> e-peciall\ 
le -ieiir r.niieal. 1 .e nume -ienr pr. .lect ..i tliem. Sieiir Imireal 
\ .riimac ."^aim-Maitr. ..iiMiaiit - 'H I he -ime Sieiir V'eriiinac Saint-.Manr. 
cara. 1ère ile médiateur, a eie ¡iie-i i. .ruettini:^ hi- character ..!' me.liat..r, 
.leni de la >.'ciete .le- ami- ile la l '.111- u.a- pre-i. leni ..f a S..ciet\ .n the 
-litmi-.i .1' Am-h.ih ; i' a écrit, en .ette I rieml- ..f the ( '. ni-tilnti. m .'l' Avi^- 
■ inahle, ile- lettre- lini- le-.|iìclle- il ii..ii; m tili- c.ipacity he wr..te let - 
l.ail l'eLi^e .!e- hri^aiid-, en a--nranl ter-, in which he prai-ed the liri^and-. 
line pei-'ime n'u-e le- aciii-er, i.mdi- i:i\in^ ,a--iir,ince that iid une dare ac 
qiie la ]) in-trnile .'..nlre e!l\ k\ì-,' ihem. the pr.icee.liil.u- m-tiime.l 
,a (le aiie.imie et ipiil- -e -uni \em;e- ,iL;am-l them ha\ Ìiil; i.eeii animile. 1. 
di- ..iViciei- numicipanx .1' \ > i.uii. .n, an.l -latniL; that the\ h.i.l ,i\eii'4e.l 
lem- .U imiiiiate'ir-. en le- i eiii'ei ni;mt iliem-ehe- a^ain-t the miinici]),!! ulti- 

A\I(,\M.\ AXI) •nn-. \ I'.XAis-.lN, 17'»! 


<l;iii^ nn c'u'lint, i.n il- -utit i-nci 'fo an 
!■ inni inn a la inni i dr^ liiiL;aniN, 

" If k'-- acculi' d'axdir ilu iiiiMi(|nr- 
innit a \ ilk-ncn\ c, an\ iiuii;rani- 
d' \\ ìl;iii 111, (|n'iN IR- li'nr pvi inn-itauiil 
>nrt,-ti.' (laiw la \ illi.- d'Ax lum in ipia 
i-i inilitiiiii iin'iK Hi- Ndtcraiuiit pnni; 
p'inr Ic pa]i(.': dc ■■'t.'lre (i]i])ii-e a Ii 
l'I 'n liTtii '11 d'nii ]>ri ici'^-N filial i|ni di-- 
\ait O'li-ialL-r k> \ Mk'iu'i> ck--~ liii- 
L;aIld^ ]i"n;' fniccr k-- A\ ìlìH' inai^ d-; 
\iilcr pulir k-nr n-uninn a la I'laiui.'. 

" If If- afin>e d'a.Vdir parfiuirn tunt 
If ( I limai >aii^ aiK'inif iiii^-inii, -an- 
alienti nrdrf df rA--fn!lilff natii malf. 
ni du Tili, pulir Millicitfr If \if\i df 
iftinioii à la i'raiiff ; cl'avuir rliaiiL;f. 
df Iftir -ftil autiiritf, If imir tixf pnnr 
If- a--fnil)lff> iiriniaii-f-, liir-i|n'iN iif 
lrnn\aifnt ]ia- If- f-pnt- di-jm-f- a 
,-ftiindfr Ifiirs \ ir- - : iTaxn'r annun.x- 
an\ liakitaiits lf> ])lu- aÙrfiiN df- 
snrdres, s'il- ret'u-aifiil df -'incnrpnf-fr 
á l'finpiif írani^ai-; df Iftir a\iiiv fx 
]iii-f If- ii: inifs If- iiln> >fditifii-i'- ; 
d'a\i'ir apj !f piihlii|iifnifiit If ]iap'.' 
tin ik'-pntf I A'i'cí'.v ) dan- nn pa\- (ni 
r<iii lifiiit dfpni- pin- i\v I) an- la 
dnncfiir df -mi L;i>u\"f nifinfiit patfi- 
iifl. ft d'a\iiir nrdiiiitif an\ fi nnniniif - 
<pii rf^taifiit à If nr -luivfram. <!f rf- 
tiriT df- pDrtf- df Ifiir citf If- arnif- 
df 1 rancf iiii'nn \' a\ait ]ilifffs a\'f'' 
liMiinfiir. ]iiiin' intiniidfi' If- citnycn- 

ffr- 1.1 \vi;;^niin, tlifir acfti-fr-, li\ 
-luiiiinL; tlifiii iip 111 a dini^fnn. \>. hfif 
ilif\ rcniain tu ilii- da\ . at du- nuTfv 

I it tlif liri^.'uid-. 

1 accn-f tlifin nf ha\ in^- piililifl\ 
-aid tu tlif finii^'raiit - ni Aviiiiinii at 
Xillfiifiuf, that tlif\ winld prmni-f 
tlifiii -afft\ in tlif i,ii\ di \\it;n.iii 
(iiily un fiiiidilKin that lhf\ umild ii' it 
\iitf liir thf I'lijif; ni having hffii 
i'l>pii-fd III thf drawniL; np ut an nlii- 
fial rf])iirt wliiih \\a- tn ]iii.\f ihr 
\!iilfiit art- ni thf liri^and-. m nrdrr 

II 1 11 ircf thf pfi ipk' I 't A\ ii;iii m !' i \ i iir 
il ir nnii m w iih 1- raiiff . 

I aiiii-f thf 111 I ii ha\ lili; tra\ f r-fd 
ihf whnlf ni thf (i liutai w itili iiit an\ 
!in--iiiii uliati'\fr. with im nrikr ni 
any knin irniii ihf Xatimial \--fnililv 
imr irn;ii thf Kiiil;. m nrdfr in -.oHcit 
thf \ I itf II ir nnii iii \\ ilh 1 raiu r . •>< 
having; fliaiii^fd. nn thfir nwn an- 
ihnrity. thf da\ ti\fd inr llu- priniar\- 
a--finlihf-, whfii ihf\ did iini lind thf 
])fi iplf di-])i i-fd II 1 -ffi mel thf ir vic-\\ - . 
ni ha\ini; ihrfaifiifd thf iiiha''itant- 
witli thf nil I-I iriL;litinl di-nrdfr-. ii 
lli,-\ rttn-fd In Iif nui.rpnratfd in tlif 
1 rfiifh 1'nipiri-: ni having; phufd hf- 
inriit ilifin iiin-t Nfdiiinn- inaxiin-; 
i'i haxiiiL;- ])iililulv fallfd thf 1 'npf a 
df-pni i l,iiiiihli-r ) ill a fnniiir\-. 
wluTf Inr iiinrf than -i\ vcar- thf\ 
li;i\f l>lf--fd thf -Wfftiif-- ni hi- 
lialfriial LTnx friinifiit. and i>\ h,i\niL; 
nrdirfil ihf cnininniR'- vvlm wcri- -till 
Ifti In tlifir -n\frfii;ii In if inn\ f irniii 
thf -atfs ■.<i Ihfir ci;-, tltr ann- '.i 
hraiiff whiili thf\ had placfd ilifrr 
in hniii.r. -n a- In ininnidatf thf 

Cltl/f 11- 


pi )Cr.MI'.XTS 

" le II- ari>i-(.' il':i\iiiv lait iiitrci 
lini- la iiuiniciiialiti' d' \vìl;iii 'ii, K- 
ilu-i- ili,'^ lirÌL;aniU i|iii ilt'iiiandaitjiit. 
a main aniuf. iiiii' -nlilc de 4i' ^mu^ 
])af i^iir 'HI lini- L;ratiliratiiiii, «.■! 
d'avi or l'ait eiiiiin-i iiimT, de leur aii- 
iiinie |in\ei', de-- ei!"\ens a\ÌL;iinnai- 
-au- aueune ;i'jt'inié i|iie leur M'iniite 
-iipreiue; d'a\'iir ii'intet^re le -ienr 
kapliel, iiií,'e d'A\ luinni, ie\iK|iie (»ar 
le- -eetidU- de -e- fniictinii^ <leinii- 
Mii'il -'etaU un- à la ,-uite de l'aruiee 
ile- liri^aud- ])iiur y iut,a".". ili>ait-il. 
le- crime- de le-e-uatn m : d'avi lir 
rendu une pri Klauiatii)U ]inur nrdnuuer 
aux lit'ticier- utiui-teriel- de recuu- 
uaitre le -ieur kajihel pnur jui^e et 
¡tour declarer, en xentalile- -luuerain-, 
i|ue se- iui;eiueut- et leur execulinu 
-eraieiit ]irntéi;é- ]MV ti iute la lorce 
]>ulilii|Ue ; ie le- acc\i-e d'\- avi)ir 
reconnu, -ans raiMiu, la -ouveraineté 
de ras-eiiil)lée électorale el de lui avoir 
adres-e un di-cnurs qui le,t,'itinie toiue- 
le- \e\ations dont le- lialiitants du 
C onitat sollt le> victimes. 

■' l.a jiieuiirre motion de cette a-- 
-einlilee. haran,L;uee par ie -icvir \ erni- 
u.ii-Saiul-.Maur, eut pour oliiei la 
uoiiiinalioii de M. l.e \'ictoriii Mulot, 
uiediateur. à l'ex ei ile du departement, 
('ette -eance -e leniuua jiar une rixe 
i|ui -'éleva cutre les électeurs; M. 
.Mulot ne tut ]ioiiit élu pour occuper 
ini -iè,L;e i|ui n'était point \acaut. et 
r,i--.einlilee électorale \ieut de rendre 
un ariete i outre lui en le deiion(,-anI 
à 1' \--enililee n.uiouali. ; il e-t -"iti 

" Í accuse tlieui oi hav inj, ca.used 
the entry intu the nuinici])ality ot 
\\it;non of the hrigand chiels, who 
licnianded, arm- in hand. ])ay oí 
fortv -ou- ]ier da\- or a i,'ratuity; ;md 
'■\ liavuiL;, on their prixate authoritw 
impii-oued -olile citi/eli- ol Avij;- 
noii, without any other authority 
than 'heir own su])reme will; of hav- 
ini; rein-tated tlie Sieur Kai)hel, 
lu<lL;e of .\\i<,nton. recalled hy the 
sections after he had placed himself 
auion;^ the followers ut the army of 
the liri'^'and-, to jud.ííe, as he said, the 
crimes ni hi.íjh treason; of lia\"in<,r is- 
-ued a proclani.ation orderinj^ the 
ministerial ot'ticers to recoj,uiize tl'e 
Sieur Raphe! as iud.i.,'e and declaring, 
as veritalile soverei.uns, that liis judj^- 
meuts and their execution would be 
])rotected hy all the puhlic force. I 
accuse them of havinfj recoj¡;iiized 
tlierein. without reason, the s^ver- 
eij^mty of ilic {■".lectoral .Xssei.ihly ainl 
of having; addresseil ;i discourse to it 
insti fviuLT all the annoyances of 
which the inhaliitants of tlie Comtat 
lia\e heeii victims. 

" I'he tir-t motion of this assembly, 
.iddre--ed liv the Sieur X'erniuac 
."^aiut-Maur, ha<l for object the nom- 
ination of .M. l.e \'icti>rin Mulot, 
mediator, to the bi-ho[)ric of the de- 
partment. This -es-ion ended in an 
altercation, which aro-e !)etwccn the 
elector-: \\. Mulot was not elected to 
occu])\- a -ce wliicli was nut vacant 
:uid the l''1ectoral .\--rmbly h;' •• 
rcuileri.'il a decision atjainst hini, while 
deuiiuiiciu'' him to the Xation;d .\s- 

.\\1(,.\()\ AM) nil', \ KXAISSIX. 17'»1 


<Iu I pniii >(.■ rOiu^iiT cii I'raiu-f, 
ilaii- la \ illc (Ic L'liiirtai^tiii. 

"Je k'-' accni-f d'avnir I'tO ~]K\ta- 
ti'ur-- traii<|uilk'» dv-^ ¡iliis ^faii(k''> tK-— 
iTdrc^, (le I'aiiarcliie, (k's assassinats 
ciiiitimicls. ct il'a\iiir fait «k-^ ur^^ie-- 
eDmimielk's a\ec le^ clief^ (k'-- Uri- 
j^ands (|iii ve ~'>nl rendus maîtres (k- 
la \ille d.\\i^Miiin en k'tir ¡irésence, 
sans ([u'ils >e soient o|)])osés a cette in- 
vasion, ni au\ vexations inouies i|in 
en oiit cté la suite, les tait<. «[tie je 
ni'enf,'ai,T à pioiixer léi^alenieiit, aii- 
iionciiit une collusion et une com- 
plicité (ju'il est de l'honneur de la jus- 
tice de la l'rance de punir exemplaire- 

"J'accuse les médiateurs de tous 
ces délits. 

" Je les accuse de tous les désastres 
actuels du t'ointat (|u'ils auraient pu 

"Je les accuse enfin de n'avoir ])as 
Voulu remplir leur mission, d'avoir 
lait le contraire de ce <|ue l'.Asscmlilée 
nationale leur avait ordoimé, et je nie 
reserve d'articuler contre eux ¡ilusieurs 
autres accusations majeures lors(|u'il 
me ser.a permis de les traduire au tri- 
liunal de la haute cour nationale, me 
so'imettatit à toute réparation civile 
et Ions dépens, doinniajjes et intérêts. 
I Uircs et iniiniiiircs. ) . . 

" Va a tous dépens, domnia;ies et 
intérêts, si je ne justifie pas devant 
les ministres de la loi des faits que je 
dénonce et de ceux i|ue je me reserve 
de dénoncer à la ju-tice pour prouver 

semlilv ; lie le it the ( 'otiital in order to 
take refi'^e in I ranee, in the ciiv oi 
I ourtaisoii. 

1 accuse them of liavin.^'' heeii 
ijuiet spectators of the ^^reatest dis- 
orders, of anarchy, of continual as- 
sassiiKitimis, and of haviiiL,'' had con- 
tinual orgies with the l>ri,i,'aiid chiefs, 
who, ¡11 their j)re-encc. made them 
selves masters of the (itv of Aviu;- 
noii, without any oii]io>ition on their 
])art to this invasion, or to the un'old 
annoyances which followed. The 
facts, which I undertake to prove 
le.L;aily, proclaim a collusion and a 
com])licity which the honour and jus- 
tice ot hrance demand shall lie e\em 
]ilarily punished. 

I accn-c the Mediators of all these 

I accuse them of ali iiie present 
disasters in the Conitat, which they 
could have ])revented, 

" I accuse îheni, finallv, of not hav- 
iiiti wished to ■nlfill their missi-n. of 
I'.aviii^r done the contrar\- of that 
which the National .\s.semhlv had or- 
dered, ami I reserve to niy>clf the 
ri.uht to formulate against them sev- 
eral other major accusations, whru I 
am ¡lermitted to indict them heforc the 
trilninal of the High National • 'otirt. 
I.akiin; upon mvsidf all compensations, 
anil all exjienses. damai;es and inter- 
est. I l.aiK/litrr aiui iiuininirs. I . . . 
" .\nd to all expense^, dania,L;es 
and interest, if I do not justifv he- 
tore tlie ministers of justice the facts 
which I denounce and those which 
1 reserve to denounce to justice, to 


1)1 M I M i: MS 

(|iH' lc> iiuiliati-.n- n'nii pa- ili- le- 
avilit- ilr la iraii>r, mai- '|U li- -^^ 
-uní ci'iiiliiil- ccinii'a' Ir- aj^ctit- il iiiic 
arnii'c ile Itnuaiid- el A'wuv :í~-v\u\ikv 
(railiiiiiii-!ralc-iir- iiüru- -iir k-iiiK'!- 
il, n'avaii'iit ani'iiii |i"U\iiji, ajita- 
a\"ir ía\iiri-i'' iii-iiuau -l'amlak' Uni - 
cull i-|iri-v- (i U-ur- allriilal-, 

•• A l'ati-. Ir 1.^ -Lpu-mliiv \7'>\." 
Va i 'a i Mi;r.c. 

\ 11 iiKllaiit irt ai.tL' dai-ni-alH mi -mv 
Ir Imnau, iu lU-lliaiulu ¡iiaiiUtiiam a 
r,\--ciiil)lt<.'. cI je la -.iiliplic <k- \nll- 
Imii iiifii aii Ufillir. par un iltrn-i. ce 
i|lic i'ai rilniíiKiir di- lii! 'u'iiiainkT 
-ur Illa ri--|ii iii-aliilitc. i l:.Víltiiní¡- 
liiuts ti (itinclir. ) 

le \(iii> ])rii- iK' futi-iil i'iT i[\w 1 :'c- 

CU>;itÍiin i|VH- vnll- \riu (1 illtcllilia' 

c>t ap|)iiyie -ur le- litre- lc> plus im- 
p(i-aiit- t't il'- ]>lus ri--pfOtalilc-. -ur K'- 
iKiii'ii'iatiiiii- lie- (U]iarti;iiiciil-, -in- 
do lettres écrite- de la main de- cdiii- 
missaire- eii\-iiKiiie> ; ei>tiii. -nr de- 
preiives par ée-rit de t'Ui- le- tait- i|ue 
j'ai atm()ncé>. sur des faits de iiotn- 
riété piil)lii|m'. Je ecii:seii- à ee que 
11- médiateurs preiiiieiit la partie, e' 

■ ciiiime lie répniidre, article par 
aiiKie. et par <ies faits, à mes cliel- 
d"aeiii>atii)ir. tout le reste ne serait 
i(ne <le vaines declamati. ms; il ne faut 
i|u'ii \ieiiiieiit me produire des le'tre< 
tnriiilit'e- un écriu- par de^ liahitaut- 

■ '.it 

/ H 111,-iiibit- : ijuelle- -diu 
Mitres ' 

M I,' Anni' Mai RV. D'apre 
faits, vous voyez que le rai>p«<it 

pi'.\e ¡iiat the .Medialer- were n^l 
aueiit- oí Iraiiee. lini lliat they >-mii- 
diicteil tlieiii-ehe- a- a;;eiit- ni an 
arili, "i Ijrii^aiid- and ni au a— emlil) 
ni iimu-ne adnniii-tratnr-, nver 
wliieli tln\ lia'i lin pnwer, Imt wlmin 
tlie\ la\nnred In tlie cxteii; n) -cau- 
dal 111 all tlieir eiUerpn-e- and. nnder- 

'■ 1 'ar;-. Seplellllu. r 1 .\ 1 7' M . ' 

And I lia\e -luned litis. 

Ill ]i',iein.i; tili- aii'ii-alinii nii llie 
I, lille, 1 llnw ,1-1-. llie \--einM\. and 
1 ile^ iheir. tn lei'ene \\':!i a decree, 
llial whiili 1 lia\e llie linii -'ir ni ;i-k- 
iij; nil in\ nwii n'-pnii-iiiilil '. . I /;.i'- 
. Itiiiidliiiiis Ull thr li-p I 

1 lieii vnii tn enii-ider lliat llie aeeii- 
-almn ln >\liiili y>u l.a.e in-l li-- 
leiled. i- lia -ed nii elailil- llie nin-l iin- 
pn-ini; and llu- e;n-; re-peelalile. nii 
llie deliniieiatinn- ni tlir di-pallnienl-. 
iiii letter- uniteli li> ihe liaiul ni ilie 
cnmiui--iiiuer- theiit-eh e- , tinall\. nii 
llie wnlUii prnni- nf all llie l.ul- 1 
have -tåled, mi iact- ni |iuliln- imlnri- 
el\ 1 am willnii: llial llie Mediatnr- 
-linuld -peak inr 'lu tii-eKc- and 1 
-ummnti iluiii to ;m-\\er, article liv 
artide, and 1)\ facts, my accusatimi-,; 
auvtliin^; else would lie merely \aiii 
ilcciamaiioiis: they mu-i tmt prmhue 
letters lieR^cd for or u ritten !■■. n 
li.iliitant- of tlie (oiutat, 

' nu'iiilh-r. Wliuli are your-r 

!Uii: Ni \t KY. .XccordiiiK to 
ilie-c i.iits, vou can sec tli.ii tlie Xvii; 

A\Ii,\ii\ AN!) ■mi-, \ I-:X AlSSiX. 17'M 


<i'A\ ii;ii( HI, i'i'IkU- ~uv ill'- pi' ix'- \i-T- Pull >I:il(.-iiu-iit, iniiiiilcil nw nlVu-ial 

li;m\ i|ni .-'int 1 i nu ia;;c 'Ic I'c^ iih-i1ki- ii.-|iurl- wliii'h ;irf llir work ni Un'-i,- 

k:ir-. iiu ]n'm jiln- rtrc di-intv nu(liai> ir-, (.'.in iii i l iiiucr In' il:-i u-'-v-.l. 

\ l\ii\\\ ri iininuiirrs. ) j'o-c (Itc à { I AiHiihtrr ,:iuì iiuniinirs \ \ darr!" 

r \--t,-!iilik-i.- i|iU' ji.- lu- ri-iliiiitc piiiiit va\- til ilir A-'-t'iiiliK iliai I ilu imt 

K\-i\- ili-i ii--ii 111. ft line i'i.--]icr(.- iK icar til!- ili--i.ii->ii 111. .iiiil 1 111 ijic ti 1 I'liul 

tiiiiutr il.aii-- Ic- .liti'- iiiciiH'- iiu'iiii HI tlu' \t'r\ ,nt-. wlinli arr |iri'-riiti-ii 

Hull- ])rt-riUi- k'liirniii- la ]iri-iuc ilii ti> ii- :i- ]iriiiii ui tiii' nmIi' iiI I üi.iii, 

Mill ilr 1,1 riuniiiii. k- iiiiiMii- il 111 llu- iiKaii- "i ]irii\iiii; it- niillii\ 
¡ir. iin vv 1,1 millitc. 

AV/v'v I'/ I. c .V. ,'•/(,• i/,-.v .l/,í^v,l/^^ 

Uitir-^t'- lie- ]ii iii\ I lir- lie r \--r!ii- 
I li'i' natii iiiaU-. iiunuri.- di' l.i c.iiitiaiKi' 
dn jiiiiiMur i'\iTiiiii'. Hull- n'avnn- m 
I'.aiUri'- in-inu-iii 111-, ipir wi- iirupii'- 
1 1|- : c'c-i la i|iu' 111 111- as Mil- .iiipr:- r.- 1- 
(k'v nil -. 

\rvi\c- a ( Ir.ini^c. imn- .-ivnii- t.ut 
ce i|iic If (k'\i>iv iiiui- di'ta:l, \'"ii- 
voyii)ii-i (k'vaiit noti- iiii |i.i\-. i|ni. 
depili-. A nini-, était le theatre dr 
tciiite< les linrreiir> (!<• la í,'ueirf civile; 
unii- limi- -niiinie- .irrite- à ( )r.iiiL;e. 
e!. I .li deia en 1 linlilKlir de le dire ,i 
!'.\»eilllilée. imii- iinii- y ■Miiniiie- ,ir- 
rèté-- paree (jii'il était iiiipnrtant il'' 
voir les elieí- de tmts le-, enrp- arnu-. 
tnittes les autorités aliir> recoiitiiie- 
et i|ii'il fallait établir I.t \v.\\\ 'nr 
reniplir vos volontés. 

M r.ihlté M.iury nous a rcproelie 
il'avnir ailniis à ees cotiféreiiees le> 
<lépiités de l'asscnililéc représent.'itive 
«ili p.i\ -. ninni- de 6.^ priK'ès-verliails 
(¡Ili kv'- avaient etalilis. (.'ette a-.>eni- 
l)lee avait à ses ordres l'armée «lite «le 
Vandusc. «pii était un «les partis prin- 
cipaux entre tous les partie intéressés. 

(^ed with the pnuer- "i the 
Xaliniial \--einlil\. linnniiied willi the 
eniilideiiee ni' the e\eeiui\e ]iii\\er. 
we Un nther in-lrnetii iii- 
Miiir nwii l.i«-; il i- there ¡hat v\ «' 
le.iriled niir dii'ie- 

\rn\ei! ,ii (^e. \\ e did \\li;il 
diit\ du I.ited. \\ (• -;i\\ hel'nre iN a 
eniinti\, whuli. l'nr -i\ ninnili-. h;id 
hei'li llie ihe.ilre ni .ill llie ha ri.r- ni 
,1 eiMJ war; w i ^tnjiped al < hMiii^e. 
;iiid 1 li;i\i' ;dri'.id\ h:id the Iw iiinr ni" 
-t.-itillu; tn the \--einh!\ l!i:it we 
-tnjiped llieic liee;iii-e il w.i- inipnrl 
.tilt inr Us tn -ee the eliieí- I all the 
arinv r«irps, ot all the then reeoijnii^ed 
:iiith(irities, an«l In-eause it \\a^ tieee-- 
-ar\ to estahlisli ¡H-ace in nrdir tn 
.icenmpli-h \niir wishes 

M r \1i1k' \lanr\ h;is reproaclie«! 
tis ínr liavini; .iiltiiitte.i in these 
eotil'ereiiie deputies frntn the retire 
sen; «'inldy 

artiud Willi si\fy-ei^;!ii i.-nual ¡uiu- 
utes liy wliieli they had keen accrcd- 
itefl. This asseinhly hail tnulcr its 
orders the so ealled arm 



Ami- i|iii (Icwi iti~-iii 111- (liiHi- iraiuT ilii-i-, wliiiii w.i^ diic of the iiniK!|ial 

pi'iir CM.- Ilk-!' \')> 1(11-; -i null- n'ap- partii.-- aniniiu all tin- iiitL-ri--iril lac- 

pfiiii!!- pa- It-- nrp- ri'i'i iiiiiii- aii\- tii'ii-. With w hi iiii i-i inM wi- treat in 

i|iul- l'aniur i ilii-i--ait : 11 tu- iiini- i-nk-r In cxcciiti' \inir nrik-r-, ii \\i: 

appartenait pa- il'entii-r ilan- tuutc- ilnl ni i! -iiiniiii ai the u-i-in.;ni/eil ImuIÌi-- 

le- iiijiire-. ilan- ¡•iiiie- le- i ippn-itii ill- which the a: ii\ nleNeil' It \\a- lU't 

(!e- ili\er- ¡larti-; il ne nmi- apparto- mir ¡ilaee tu enter intn all the wrniiL;-, 

nail pa-, (-iiiiime à M. Maiir\, di- trai- iiit'i all the (li-pii¡e- nf the iliiïereiit 

ter ee- L;en- ile 1 incanii-. Xml- al partie-; it \>a- iint mir place, like M. 

In III- nu tiri- Li p;n'; panni cu\. Xntie .M;iiir\. tn tre.'it thc-e jienple ;i-. 

il(-\iiir liait (le k-- enlendre el fie le- ht luriiiil-, Wk- were t(i hriiiL; tlieiii 

kIhk-Um ;ni Iraitv pin i|iic d'eiiN en ]ieacc 'Mir ilul\- \\a^ tu hear iheiii, 

partie (kpeiidail i-e'^c p-ii\ (pie \(in- tu ailniit iheni lu lreat\-, liei;in-e i iil 

ndil- a\ie/ chargé d\l,ililir. '•'/'- llicin p;;ril\- depended th;it pe;icc' 

pliiiiiiisSiiii, Ills ,1 i/iuit II,'. \ . . . \\liicli \(in h;id ch.-irued il- tu c-tali- 

i;-li. I . ¡¡'f'hiiiM "Il lili Lrjl. !.. 
Il- 14 iiiillet, nmi- -ii;naiiie- le pa-.ii ( )n Jnl\ Id we -ÍL;neil the pact liv- 
en vertii ilii.]r.el ch;i(|iie paili ]iu:i. ■lirliie dl' which e;ich p.'iru a^^reed to 
rcn,L;a^'enient de mettre li;i- le- arine- l;iy down iheir arm- .-md to c;irr\ ■ mt 
et de rein]ilir witi (• 1( li de lu-eiu-iemeiit »mir nrdíi t,i di-lMiid. 1 )i-' -ui(lm;4 
— I.icelU'ier une ;iiiliee iTe-t p;i- de-- .'.n arinv i- iidt di-.-irmiiit,' a Cdimtrv. 
arilier tin pa\ - Vctre Im iMii- drdun- ^■|lllr urder direi ted ii- id di-h.-md two 
nait lie linlicu-r deii\ ariiu e- iim -c lii;htiiii; :iniiie-. winch were -pre;i(l 
ha lairlii (|ili rep;iiiila!eiil Ic tlniilile in- truiihle in their luiintrv. W'.i- it 
dan- lem pay<. Xmi- apparten, lil-il i mr Ir.i-me-- to mter])rel \ i nir i inler- ? 
d'inlerpieler \d- loi- - Xml Xdire Xo. ( itir iliit\ w;i- to carrs them 
ik \dir et;ul (k le- c\ecii!ei . Xmi-li mil We (li-h;mdcd the hnt 
cencMiiie«- le^ arnieo. mai- nmi- we did not take ;iw.-i\ the ;irin- ni m- 
n'dt.iine- jm- le- arme- de- individu. du idn.-ii-, who. returning; pcaceíiilly 
i|iii, retmnnaiit p.-ii-ihlemenl dan- !o ilieir comiimne-. li i their I'.imihe-. 
leurs ciimmmii'v, dan- leur- íimiille-. -till nec(|ed ihem in the-c tir-l mo- 
cil avait'iit encore iic-mii dan- le- pre- ment- of ai^itatimi. which the hi-lory 
imer- moment- li'ai^itation ; el I'hi-- ni ( ari unii h i^ .uniilv ¡n öved to voll. 
Il Hie de • .III lililí ne \mi- l';! ipie Oi ip 
plolUl . 

.M. lahlie M.niry \mi- ;i du, Me- M h Mil»- M.mrv !i:i- iol.| \ou. 

sieurs, c|tlf. -1 limi- n'i-lioii- p;is ar- i;i-!ltleiiicii, lh;it we iii it armed. 

rivt'S. si nous avion-, retarde <|Utli|ite-. ¡lad we del.ivcd lot- a iew da\-. ]>eac»." 

jiuirs, la jiaix s» si-rait retalilie dan- would lia\e Iktii i'-t;iliiished in llic 

le Conilal. Ollelle et. m ce p.c ' miai W hal wa- this c.üilry? 

(."était \v |ia\> «le 1,1 iiiori. la p.iis di ■ Il w,i- the iomiir\ oi ik-,ith, the ])eacr 

A\lì.\ii\ WD ■[■\i\, \ i:\ AISSIX", 17i»l 

24' t 

Il 'iiilníuis ; (.'ilait'iit ; / I " Il I li.iiiiiiir- 
<|ui vu aui',iK-iii rL;iir,i;i. .\i HJÜ rcn- 
iiTiiir- dan- la \ )lk' 'le l arpciitra- ; 
<|iii. (il la. ]ii. iiiiuiiauiit la <k'strnctiiiii 
t't la iii'iri ilaii- la \illr d'Avi^ncn. 
\i.:Ia la paix de M. l'AM.,- Maiiry^ 

I / //X üf'f'lillliiisSi'llli-l! s d ¡/(lllíllt-. I 

\iiiw \(iii- rappcii.'/. -an- ilnuu-, la 
inalili i!i(ii-c lii-tnin- ill' ( 'ariiiiili,' . . . 
.\nll^ avdic- dr-aniK.' k'- auteurs de ee- 
eriiiK^: iiüU- lenr a\lln^ l'ité leurs 
armes. C' intne mi airaeiie le- dents 
óu\ liete- t'eriìC'.'s et cuninie ^n de\rait 
anaehir la l.iiij,'ne .lux laloniniatenr-, 
I / lt.; iippi,iiii!is':niii-iits ¿i i/duilh-.) 

le le deii!;in(le à i'A--einlilée : Si 
iiMii- a\ Il '11- dé.-ariné ee ]ia\ s, si, centre 
le- 1» invilir- i|ni non- éiaient eunliés 
par H' lire nii--iiin, ni m- a v inns ar rae "né 
le- ,iiiiie> à tiinte^ le- inìMinune-, à 
tuntes Ics j,'arde-- nalmnale-. quo ne 
dir.iit jias aim's M. l'alilié Manrx ' 
( e-t alnr- iin'il anrait |ni imns dire: 
\i'il- a\ e/ viiik' le- l'iis, vun- ave/. 
nteiiie alni-e de \ntre jn iiiviiii'. VHn- 
apjiiirte/ de- viens á l'A^-einlilee lia- 
tiiiiiale, el ipu'l- ee- Menx" 
•Jni'lle valeur unt-il-, Im-ipie vnn- 
avez eiiinmeiieé par arraelier le- arnie- 
aii\ lialutanis ,In l l 'intat, et i|iie. dan- 
la eramte. il- mit eie l'urré- en Mitre 
pri'-eiii-c, de taire ee ipie vmi- .ive/ 
iiidmine \lms ij y anrait lien de 
11(111- inenlper Mai-, liir-.i|ne imn- 
av(i!i> été iiliéi à l'esprit de la Ini. i<' 
eioi- lini" la seni'.- elin-e i|iie M l'.ililie 
.Manrv ri-yiette. e'e-t ijne iinii- n Cii-- 
-ii'ii- pas fait la ilm-e meine dmii il 
■ aecusc. ( .tf'f<laiiili.s:unirnls i) 

i/inu lir.) 

> Si',' iIh- kii'-it m I e s- . : I .|is Maison- y 

<<i the tmnli; it wa- IJ.i "in men wir. 
wmild hävt- -traiiLjled .í.OOi' -lint ii]> 
111 the eity nf ( '.irpenira- ; vvlm ir.nii 
there vvmild lia\i- earrii'd de.iili :nid 
I'e-tnieiimi tn the eitv m' Avii,nimi. 
'Miai is the ¡leaee "f .M. l'.Mihé .Manry. 
( l.i:-i-ly tipl^ldu.u- fii Ihr I. rf t. i 

^ I'll nil dmilil reniemlier the un- 
happy hl-Inl \ 111' I all'Hill, , . , W e 
llave di-aniied the aulhni- ni the-e 
eriine>: we have i,iki-ii awav their 
arms, ris (mc pnll- the ti-elh nl^e 
hea-t- and a- mie -limild tear mil the 
I'lii^tte cif ealnniniatitr-, ( I.irrl\ uf' 
l^ltiiisr frulli til,- I .rft. \ 

1 a-k the \--einlilv. if v\ e had di-- 
armed tin- emintry, if. eniitrarv tn 
the pnuers eniiluled tn n- Iiv nn'' ini-- 
simi. we iiad sei/ed the arms tt\ all 
the ennininiie- nf all the N'atimial 
( iii.irds, wmild M, 1' \lilie 
Manrv liave -aid then- lie ennld 
then have -,nd ; ynn li,,ve vmlated 
the laws, ynn h.ivc t-vcn ahiised \mir 
]'n\\cr. Villi have hrnii^ht vntes tn 
the Vatimial ,\— I'nihly, lint what .ire 
the-e vnle-- ( If n\ hat .alne.are ihev , 
when vmi he^an hv -ei/in^' the arm-, 
nf the inhahit.iiii- nf the • nintat. wlm 
then, in fear, were fnrred m vniii 
pre-enee in ,\'< what \ mi nrdered. 
There wmild then ha\e keen rea-mi in 
aeeiise ns. lint, .a- we were nlwvid 
111 the -piril n! ihe l,iw , I lieheve lh,lt 
lile I'lilv re^ret i>\ M k XhU- Mam v. 
1- that we did imt A^' the \ erv thini: "f 
w hii'li hi' ail n-i ' ' 

/'ii(;( ilir l.rfl. i 




\)l- ^'I■iIm■■^ cl «k--- \i' nu c alicer pre- 
ni'.'''liU'-- .-(,■ i-i iniíiK-nau-in partnut. 
{'\-~\ |i(iiir 111 rnipci Ihm IV-ltct que nmi- 
\-iiiiin.-. (Ian- !..nlf- le- CMniinun'--- du 
('.■'litat: (|Hu m m- allaiiic- à l'igiene. 
MU liria IHK' mai-I in. ri-nfcniiani phi- 
-iinr- riti'\<n-. itait a^-ic^i'i' par i'ini| 
un -!■■ reni- liMMKiic- ; i|ik- ni ni- al'.anic- 
;'i l'I -Ir. mi la iiKinr ilm-r ari'i\a!t et 
mi iKia l'uii -i' l'ii-illail ]iar le- Uilc- 
trc-, ( 'e-t pulir icla ipie iiiiu- liiiiie- 
nhli.m- ile ileiiiaiuler le- ii 'l'ie- i|iie M. 
l'.aMie Maiiry mm- leprmlie il'aMnr 

l>a])iè- l'expéiienre ile- eritiie- 
rniiinii^. pii'ir éviter eeii\ ipii -e ])re- 
]i;ir.iient enei ire, nuli- lume- nlili'^e- 
il', ppeler le- uari' • iiiiiiiaU'-. emiinie 
la III! 111.11- > l'Ili l.a lui iln 1 I 

iiiillet. ijiii pili la la ¡garantie ile la 
Irair e \u:\\\ la -mete ile- per-niine- et 
<V'- ]iriiprKte-. limi- aiitmi-ait à .iji- 
peler le- carile- natmiiale-, nuli- le- 
appt'lanie- ]iarei' tpie le- timtpe- ile 
libile et.iiiill eli tii 1]' ]ietit III iiiibre 
le- (lepii lenient- \ni-iii-, p.aiee ipie 
le- Ci imniaml.inl- ile re- enrp- inin- 
re]ii iiul.nenl ini'il- ile pninaieiit iinil- 
eti imirnir. it .'i ei t in-t:mt neme, le 
réj;inielll il-ile\ mi ile la I eie, i|lle 
nous CH.'ìsÌdII* ptl en p.iMie lei|neni, 
;i\;ut ri\"it dit tiiini-tre l'unire ile par 
tir pniir la I'm-e Nmi- éti"ii- ilnin' 
forci'^ d'appeler ie> i;aiilt - n ith iii.ili - , 
•t. Me^sieiir-. eli ai)pelaiu de-< ijardc- 
nationales irain;ai-t'-. dc'\ iniis-nnii^ 
intu> attendre <|iie li m iimi> en lei ait 
tni i-riinc dans IWsM-iiililéc: <jui 
<lcvi<iii.s-ni>iis croire, (ini t-talilirait 
mieux !a juiix jiartni !es halii'.ants dii 

('rime- and premei|iiate¡| \enL;eaiiee 
were emiimitted e\ery\\here. It wa- 
in (le-trii\ their et'teet we Inirried 
tn all tile Cl iinniiine- ut' the ('luntat; we went tu I''- lene, where une 
!'iii-e in wliu'h -e\ eiti/en- had 
-lint theni-el\e- iip. w a- lieiiii; he- 
-'eü;ed li\' ii\e i ir -i\ hundred men; 
that w I' went to Nie. where the -ame 
iIiÍül; w.a- lia]ipenin,L;' and where iIhw 
were -In u itini;' each ■ dur I'lotn the 
windo\\<. It wa-- 1 tili- aci-oiiiit 
' we were oMii^a'd to re-k for 
ti^iiip-, ,\liieli M. I'Ahhe Manr\ re- 
jiriiaelie- iis for Ii.a\inu ealled for 

Ilax'iiiL;- had evperiene; o'' the 
iTiine- eomimned, .md in order lo 
jireNellt ihn-e m eoniem|i!alioii, we 
were (^Mi^ed to e.iil the Natiiiial 
( iiiard-, a- the law -einiired I he 
l.iw of lnl\ 14. wliieli c.irried with it 
the •.,;narantee of I'r.inee for the -.iiety 
of per-oii- and iiroperlie-, aiithori/ed 
11- til eall the X.itinnal ( lii.ird- ; we 
e.dled them heean-e the troo]i- of the 
line were tin« few m nnmluT in the 
neiidih. iniii,; dep.ii inieiit-. Iiee;m-e the 
eommanihiiL; ntfieer- of the-e iroop- 
replied lo 11- thai ilie\ roiiM not fiir- 
m-Ii !i- men, and hi'e.iii-e at tili- \ery 
time the formel la 1ère ret;iiiHMr a 
pat I 'if w inch w e iiiiL:lit lia\ e hi-en .ii ■ e 
III 1 eipii-ilioii. had rt'ieixeil nrder- 
fr.iiii the minister to leave for ( hi-hm 
We were therefore forced to call the 
.\ational (iitariK; and, };cntleiiieii. 
were we to expect mir calimi; 
the N'ational (liianls would ho ealled 
a crime in the X'atiunal \sseinlily? 
Were we not to think that a citi/en 
"uard w. iii'M !>c most certain to p>-tal>- 

\\ii;\i>\ WD nil.-. \i-:xAissi\, i7"i 


( iinitat, .-! cf n'l^i uiic ^anlc cii"- Ii^li ]n.-ai(.- aini'H;; 'he inlr''itaiil-. ni 

_\cniR-.- (jui ili\ iiiiis-niin> irnivc. (|ui lln' ( (Uiual "' \\ i-ru w c mu in 1íi'1r'\(.- 

-r jirrttTau iihtint aux \'ru\ ik- ¡laci- lliai tlii'v wmild k'licl thum^uK c^ liiere 

ik'atiiiii. à imi^ Ic- niii\cn> (k- cnn- rradiK tn tlu' (li'^uc l'nr pacilica;!' ni 

filiatiiin (|iR- null-. \ i uilioii-. ciii]ilii\(.'r ' ami {>> .ill tlu' humii^ nf r"iu-ilia'.ii m 

I )r\ iclll--l^'U■^ altcmlif "na- M. i'alilir which we wmilil \\:sh t" fiii|ili i\- ? 

Mani) ii'iiis rcpriichat iMiimic un \\ rrt- wc tn (.'xpi-ct ihat M. 1' NMió 

criiiR' il'a'.nir appck- Ics f^'ardc^ r.a- Maury wnuld n-|)i"i>ac!i u^ hirha\nii; 

ii"iiak'>.- iiiitiiii;Hf,l a crune ui cailnii; the \'a- 

tinnal < ¡uarik ': 
J i.'iUvn(k ilire aupiL- do nini i|m.' 1 hear it ^aid mar im- that i; i- a 

I'e^t nil iTiiiic, ^i c'l'-i -m^ lU't t'>-itt.- itìiik' it iinm.\-(.-^ \ . I will ri.|ilv 

II- rt|i. iiidrii i|iu' l'in-nrrrttn in par- ;liat tlu' ]iartial in^iirrcctinn ni" A, il; 

li(.ll(.- d' \', lanuti, 'in-, n'a\ait licii do iinii. wliicii had nnthiiiL; m c-niiiuinn 

rnuaiiiiii a\t'c Ic (Miiuat, n'a cu Inn witli tlu- ((luitat, tnnk ])'at-c (.iilv hc- 

ijnr parce (|n'il n'y a\ait pa^ dc L;ar- caii^e th.ere wa-. im yarii-nn. liecan~e 

ni-i'ii. parce i|iie tlnn- ctiuu- >an^ \\ e were willmiu Inrce^. and hecaii-e 

ti ircc. ]iarce ipTa!' ir- lieauci ii!]! lie i^eii-- a L;rcat uiaiiN pen]i!e w Ii" had, par- 

f|ni a\aiint ile- interci> particulier- à tictilar iiitere-t- in di-cn-- with lli'j 

di-ciUcr a\ec le- cnt|)- adtiiini-trati t- adiniin-tratne limh which cmu- 

(|ui II 'niniandaieiit dan- Amimii'Ii. de- iiianded in \\i^niin. -cciul; in ctir 

i;eii- (|ni ue vnyaient pa- dan- iim- liand- tin mean- nf keeimiL; tlu in in 

main- le- lunyen- de le- Ii'iiir a l'nrdre. ürder. ahandi >iieil lllem-el\e- !m that 

-'ali:;iidnnnerent à cette el't'erve-cence I'Milieraiice n\ which 'I'nuldll wa- then 

dniit I. ail, ,11 dniinait alni- un e\em- ui\ m^'- the i'\ain|ile 

I'.t iin'nii ne ernie ])a- (|ue le iinmhre Xud dn imi ilimk that the niimhcr 

dc CCS ¡carile- iiatiniiale- i,it tie- n;' the-e Xalmnal I iiiaid- wa- \erv 

i;rand ! 11 n'\ a iainai- en 'Ian- le ;^re,it, Ihere nc\er were iiMre than 

( niiitat ct I'll ii d' \>i;^nnii, ilan- \i>in) nu'ii. ilrawii I'rnm three ilill'ei ■ 

NO et '|iicli|ue- cniiininne- dnni la pin- eiil department-, in the i niiilal and ni 

part .niii ,1c- i;randc- , die-, il n'\ a the -i.aie m' \\ iyfiinn : t'li^htN' odd cnm- 

jainai- eu ]i!n- de l.diì ' It'iiiinie- tue- ninne-, nin-t •<< which ;ire i.-ir^a- cilU'-. 

de .^ dcpaiiemeii! ^ dilleieiit- \in-i 1 lierefnre the \--enit)lv will -ee 

r.Xssc'inbiec verra i|1K' nous a\<>iis etc we were \crv -p.iriiii; in mir call inr 

très à l'ép.irpic pnur appck-r des N' ( in.'rd- ; tliat their Miiiininii- 

>;> iialiimalc-, ipie leur .ipjul a Oté was ihc rc-tilt nf I.ihnr and ,i tiuiUf;lil- 

le fruit d'un tra\ai! cl dun caknil re- i itt calculation, which jjlaced a IhxIv 

dcchi (|iii pl.K^ait un corps (k' UK) à l.=^0 '-i «me hundred in nuc hundred ami 

liniiiines, (le manière à iitotcfxcr ,^. 6. l^fty men in -uch a manner .is tn prn- 

" <t meine S coinniunes. .\nii-;nnns feet five, «ix, seven, .-süí! exen eu'ht 

|)( iclMI-'.X'IS 

d. itic lie tie- à l'epa ru ne. el imii- 
ii'aN'iii- apílele '|ue ee (in'nne iiece-- 
>ile null pell-. .lile ii"ii~ pre^eri\;nt 
■ l'appi-ler. l'.l i|1Kiiii1 le- avMii-iKiii- 
appelée-'' A l'ili-taiit mi je- erime- 
ijtie ¡e Villi- ai annniiee- limi- ilun- 
iiaieiit la ¡ihi- \i\e ini|iiii-tiiile. lù 
le- ileliri- ile eette armee qui, selmi 
l'alilie Matirv. lievait r iiiuner la Jlìin. 
(HI le- deliri- ile eetle arniee (|ii'iiil nmi- 
aeiii-e d'avi ùr fureée à nivttre lias le- 
arme-, s'étaient réparti- dan- phi-ieiir- 
iiinitnuiu's et \- a\ aient C(imi)loté l'a-- 
-a--inat de leurs frères et de knir- enn- 
cilii\eTl-. Ali muyen de l'eiiiiilni de- 
uaide- iiatiiiiiales, la ¡laix -'e-i retalilie 
dan- le Cumiat. 

... le ]iriiu\erai à M. l'alilie 
Maiir\ hiMiieiiie. ipii -a i)atrie de \ al- 
lea-, mi il \i.n- .1 dit i|iie 130 t;'a'"'l^"' 
natii inaiix ;i\ aient été envoyé- s.ans 
i|n'i.n -ache pmiriiimi, .avait demande 
ei'tie treaipe. -ur la réiiui-itiun de- nt- 
l'ieier- numi. i]iaux. 

ei immune-. We were there 'i ire \ery 
-]i;iriiiL; and we called milv thn-e 
\'. liieh ;ii! immedi.ate nece--iiy i)lilij;t'd 
u- tu e, ili. -Vnd when did we i-ari 
them- .\t the mmiietit when the 
erime- i h.a-. e -|inken ci" were causine; 
11- the <^rreate-t anxiety, when the 
lemnaut- ni' the arni' . which, aecnrd- 
inii •" l'Alilié' M;mr\ w.a- tu l'stalihsli, when the remuant- ni thi- 
.irm\, which we were accu-ed of hav- 
inji forced to lay down their arm-, had and <inne into several ei im- 
mune-, where the\- ])lntte(l the murder 
of their limther- and fellow citizen-. 
]'.\' mean- of the u-e of the Xatimual 
(In.irds peace was reestalilished in the 

... I will prove to M l'.Vhhé 
M;ir.r\- him-elf, his jiotne town 
• f X'.alréas, to whicli. acconliiiii to his 
statement to \ou, one liundred and 
tiftv X;itioii;il < in.ards had heen sent 
with no .apji.arent reason, had a-ked 
for the-e troop- on the rei|uisition of 
the otiicers. 

A\ant ipie i'ali.andoniie la mie-liou llefoie leaviULr the -uhjeci of the 

r,d;iti\e aux -ardes nation. ile- il e-t XatioiiaM ¡uards it is imiiortant that 1 

iuipnrtant i|ne ie vmi- mette -mi- le- -hmild '-.all to yonr attentimi to wh,a'. 

\enx iii-i|u','i <|U(i de.ure, l.i calomnie deL;rec ealnmnv can poi-mi a <unu\ 

p lit (inpoi-miner une lionne .action, ."ciimi N mi have heen told. I rcL^ret 

(hi \mi- ;i dit. le -ni- fache dele ré- in he iililÌL;cd tn it, thai M. 

peler. i|iie M l'alili« M iilnt a emprunté' 1' MiU'- Miilnt Imrrowed .^oOO li\re- 

,Vtii"' livri'- à .\\ÌL;niin \'mi- i-on- t' \\ii;nnn. ^'nn are , aware, ' len- 

ti;ii--e/, Me--ienr-, l;i lenteur .i\ee hi- llemeii. nf the -Inwiie-- with ,\hich 

(luelle oli p.ave les i:.arde- natmii.ale- the .X.ilinii.d ( ni.ird- empii ixcd in the 

eillploves d:tii- le (', ti- ne re- (" .ire p.iid, "l'hev h..d recer« ed, 

e.iivenl point d'.ir.i;ent. il- nmi- en de- i n nione\ .and a-ked ii- tur -nme : Inii 

Diandaieiit ; mais l;i Ini ipu iinn- a\.iit the which permiited n- tu cali 

donné !e move- a' .ppelev !=■-. i.-'-de- -he X.üIoiu! '¡nan!-. (Hd un! -ive n- 

A\Ii;X( i\ AX!) Tin: MCXAISSIX. \7'i\ 


natii 'iiak'^. nv \vn\> a\ait dniiiK' aucun 
moyen [mur ks |)a\cr; mui^ L-iii|iruii- 
taiiies SUI- notre jiroprc resjion-aliilitc 
iu-ipi'à 7,_'"0 li\Tos i)our paxcr le^ 
gartk's n,, otiak-^ dont k'^ l)e>oin> 
étaient urj^ciit^, dont i|neI(|ueN-un> re- 
ti ■ni naieiil dan^ Il ni' \>'.i}^. et \oila. 
.\[e---ieur-, la elio-e dont un noiN a 
lait nn lin ne ! < 'e-~t de notre de\ oue- 
iiient : c'e-t ik' l'eniiiloi de nos pr..|]ies 
ni'iyeiis ¡i. .nr \eiiir au -ecuur- ik'- 
},Mr<k's nalionak's, qu'on iimu- tait ici 
un i liei d'aecu-ation. 

Les eheiX ik' l'armée, lorsqu'ds en- 
tent ramené les i^'ardes nati"nales dans 
A\ÌL;n";i. et le- 4< • pie» es de eanou 
i|n'ils (.Ml a\aient extraites, k's élu fs 
de l'année imai^inèrent peut-être. 
l'iiinine l'avait j.idis t'ait la lloll.iiule. l;i Re\olution i|ui doiin.i la liNertr 
à ee pa.\s, ipt'en mettant la designation 
de lir.ases lui^ands sur eu\-menies, ils 
feraient toinlier l'opinion ^ M uniiiiris 
rt rirrs i) ;//,■;/,■ i ; eoinme i-n l-'laiidre 
jadis des liummes eniuLattant d.iiis j.i 
même dis])osition, au\i|uels mi av.ait 
donné 1,1 desii;n;ition de },;ueu\, pour 
i;ure tomlier cette (k-sij:;tiation à cens 
i|in portaient -m leur halm une eeuelle. 
A\erlis (|ne les s.ild.its purtaient eette 
désij^natioii, tii'Us nous reiidimes hors 
de la ville, i-t iioiis e\it;e."imes de 
rarniée di' la l',iiie tomlier. Il n'en- 
tra iiersoiii'.e d.ins la \ille. poi tant 
cette desiij;n,it'on ; et \oilà ce i|ue M. 
l'.ililie Maury .ippelle aller coiii|ili- 
inenter l'arnu'e. i . I pf-ldiiJisst'iiintts 
1/ ././/(, ¡Il- I 

I..1 (lésiRii.ilioii de hr;.!;,iiids. 
j'.idopte celh'dà parce ipu' l.i persniine 

tlie nieaiis dì p;i\ ino iJuMii ; we hor- 
rowi'il on Olir own rcspi iiisilulitx ;i 
suin aniountitij.; to 7,211(1 livres in 
'•rder to pa\ the ( .nards 
\Nliose need was urt^eiit. ;is snnie ot 
tliem were leturniii;.; to their .iwii 
country: and this, (k'litlemen. is 
has hcei! constituted a crime on our 
jiart ' It is ni' mir de\otioii to dut\ . 
It Is I ii OU!' eniplo\ ini; our ov\ n mean s 
;i' order to coine to tile .assist, ,||,(.- ,ii' 
the ( intirds. a cause oi 
accusation lu-re heeii made. 

The tirniv •■hiel's. ai't r hriti-iiiL,' 
lack the X,iliiin;il < Inards I,. .\', i-- 
I'oii and the !'iirt\ cinnnii whicii tlie\ tiikeii :i\.\a\. im.a^uiied perhaps, 
as lldlLaiid d:,] during the reviilntii.n 
■ Inch Ui'ive Cinmtrv it- hherf., 
that in cilliiii^r themselves hrave hru'- 
ands, they wmild put an end to this 
I ipinioii. I iiiiiiiiini< iiiiil li!i(</lit,r fnnn 
lilt- rii/hl I ;is III l-'I,aiiders df \,,ii., 
when men fought for the same ideas, 
the i!esi^r,i;,tj,,,i 1,1 he.t;L;ar i;i\cii 
in order to put ,an end to this name 
L;i\eii to those who wore ,i piirriliL;er 
■III then cintiles. Xotilied tli;!t thi' 
siiidiiTs e.irried tills des¡..^iiati, ,n, we 
went niltsidi- ni' the city, .and we de- 
nian(k'<l tliat iluv drop it. Xo 
entered the eitv we.arinii this sirrn . 
■and that is M. i' \hk- M.nirv 
cd! >i.,'ip'imfiitiiii,Mhe .arnu i . //-- 
/^/ii//.w .o; th.- ¡.■ft. ) 

I he design,, -Iti,, II ,,t hri-ands, \ 
.idi'pt this niu- iiecause our .icciiscr is 


1)( iLÌ"MI'.X'l'S 

lini 11M11-- ;ucii-(.' f-t ilu parti t^ 'iitrairc. 
la ik-~i.:iiiati'.n ■!(.• lin^amN ili.-\riiait 
ilniii' pmir ii'iiK nil ¡Irvnir, inir nlilii^'a- 
•.iiiH -irulr ill- rlui'cln r. autant <|n il 
liait Vìi ii"n-. à la l'airi- ii>inlii-r rt i-ni- 
lucliir -r- iiian\ a;> i-ti'i-t- i|iii |i(iii\aii-nt 
|ii-r]u iiii-r la t;iu-rri- eu île. i.c-- ilii-t- 
(11- raniK-r irani^-ai~i' i-i-aÌL;iiaiii i-n\- 
mi-iiii-^ i|uc ci-Hi- Mpiniiiii m- m- pii'- 
liiliL;i-at. Ill '11- nuitiri-iil à leur i-rrin- 
inii- Irt'ii- i|iii rtait mil' --iirii- ilt- inn- 
ilialii'ii i-iiîn- t' iU- li-^ parti-, 
t 'ttait a i-itii- rp'ji|iR' iiii-;iii', "il 1 ' ¡u 
\i-iiait ill- 1 1 iniiiiciiri- ili-^ a--a^--;nat-. 
nil il ri--ta;t i-nri .n- dan- \\il;iiiiii i|\ii-! 
i|iu-s ilitai-lu-iiuiil- i|iii n'a\auiit pa- 
ri-uauiu'-- li-ur pa_\ - : il l'iaii ilniu- iin- 
pnn.iiit iji- ]irri-lu-r la ]iai\ à \\ii:ni'ii. 
ill- pn-rlii-r à tnii- l'aliaii'l' 'ii ile cc- 
ilr-iL;iiaiii III- ill- parli; i-t ii-tli- k-ttri-, 
iliiiii M. l'al'lr .Maiir\ x.-u- a l'itr utu- 
plira-i- iiiiiinu- un l'iici il ai-rn-aiinn. 
i'aiirai lin mm-iir di' la nu-ttri- en i 'ri.L;i- 
nal -1111- 11- M-ii\ ill- r \--t-inMK-t'. 
\ "II- iiii^i'ii'/ >i I'l'-pnt 'il' la iiii-ili 1- 
tiiiii n'i-tait lla■^ i-.nil'nn-n- à la un-- 
^iiiii, i|in la iliar^i-ait il'iiaMir la \ku\ 
ilaiN 11- pa\--. i-l ill ]iu-\i'nir K-- ili--(-ii- 
-•. iii- ri\-ili--. \ I •ni r"lti' K-'ili 1 

" I .a ini --I' m il- Mit n. m- -■ iininc-í 
i ha I'm -, Ml iii-u-ur 11- < k iii-ral. r-l tolli"- 
iiK-iit 111 T^ k'^ iiK'snri--. m ilmain-- aux 
lriiiipi'> (11' lii;m'. <|ia' iii)ii> a\on- iTii 
m-i-f>^airc ilc xmi-- faire ci'iii- littre 
pulir i-tro c iniiniinii|iu'-i' à M?\l. les 
otticicrs lie l'aniici'. aliti qiK- tous 
i-iitu-iiiireiit au --tiii-é- ile iTilre iu';^iu-ia- 

timi. 1 .' \---('IIilik-i' Iialiiiliak' ri k' lui 
eut viMilii icta'ilir la pai\ ilaii- itiu- 

l'i' till- n]]pii-iti' party, thi- ili--i,;;iia 
tinii l'i' lirÌL,'ai!il- inaile it mir iluiy. a 
-tnct iiMi^aiiiiii nil 11-, til -eek. a- l'ar 
a- it 'a\- in mir pnwer, tu lia\e il 
ilriippi-il alili tu ]ire\eiu any liail et- 
l'i-ei- ',', liiili iiii;.;lu perjietuate eivil 
war. The I reiieh -irnu eliiet- tllein- 
-el\i--, fi-:i; ìiil;- that thi- feeling;- ut' 
hatred wniild he ]iri ih 'ii.m-d. invited 
II- til write thein a k-tter. which wa- 
a -iirt 111' ci iiieilialii ill hetweeii all par- 

Tin- 'A a- at a time -i\ hen -exeral 
nuirder- had keen ei iiiiinitted and 
■,\lu-ii -nine ilet,iehiilent> which had 
lint \i-t retiiriiid tn their nwn cmintry 
were -till in \\ÍL;nnii. It \\a- there- 
i'nre iinpnrl.-mt tn jinaeh peace m 
\\ÍL;iinn; In preach the aliaiidniíni'.^ 
ni all ihe-e pari\- ile-ii;"n.itinii- : and 
tili- letter, l'i which M. 1' \l>he Maiiry 
i|iintiil In \nii niie -iiiteiKe a- cau-c 
nf accii-atinn, I -hall ha\e the Imiinr 
III' ]il;icin'.,r in it- nri^in.-il I'nnii liefnre 
the i'\e- ni the ,\--eirM\. N mi will 
i;iilL;e if the -pint nt the inedi.-itinii 
wa- ii'it in cnn inrniitx- with the ini-- 
-inii, whiih charged them with the e-- 
tahli-hnient nt" neace, and the prexeii 
timi lit ci\)] .li--i--.i-inii-. din- I- the 
k tier : 

"The ini--iiin witii wliicli we are 
charui-d. 'leneral. i- -n entirely h ir- 
ci;;!. In the niea-ure- mdinarily 
adnpted li\ till irnnp- nt' the liiii-. 
\.e lia\e ihnii.di! it necessar\' tn write 
vmi tin- letter In lie cnmniiimcated tn 
the nriicer- ni" ¡he arin\ . in nrder that 
all nia\ innper.iti- m tlu -\icce-- i>i 
mir neL;;iilialimi- d he Xaiimial A-- 
-(-iiiliU and til' Kin^ li;i\e \', i-hed tn 

\\ii;\ii\- Axi) Till-: \ ¡cxAissix. it'm 

i'"iitrri' "II la iiattiiii a lai^-c <i'^ druit- 
iiiikci-- ui-.i|u'aii I (. talili-s-iMin-m dr 
ente paix. Il c-t ili'iu- imli^jiiMiNalilc. 
[)iiur (ilitfim- Ort (.tût i|uc le^ iriaiiii_-> 
iraiiçai^t - iliai ;;i>- du iiiaintR'ii de l'i pp- 
dri- ai-i-nrdciit à t"U- -iii(.-u- de- \nr- 
■•oiim'-. ui dr- ]ir. .|i' '''<■-• M"'-'"'-'^ "-'^ I 
li-i;t a\i'c ^-iTupulf aiuuu acio «¡ni 
rid,'>|itf parnalitr i-t pia-dik-i, tii 'H ]iii!ir 
aucun ]) ivti ( )ii (ImÍi iikiîhMi iu a 
ri-u\ i|Ui.ii a|]]>i.llr iniiL;raii! -, tuai-- il 
laut liieii -(.■ i;ardi.-i' de Irnr diniiiK-r a 
k'ur ri'tdur l'air dn tri' i:ii¡i'u-. |iiu-'|i!e 
(•i-u\ (|u: a--e/ taiMc- ]» uti' al-ati- 
d..ninT 'a eli..-!.' iiulil¡.|;ie en .linger 
n-.iii le de reiiaraitre ;u ee 
un I. rollili ¡ti-ult,iiit panni le^ eitu- 
yen- i¡ui l'.iiit defen.liir. Il ne iaut 
¡.a- U' :i ¡ilu- i|iie cctix .|;ii «.nt e.iui- 
l.allu ¡l'Hir leur patrie en alm-ent p..iir 
vexer eeux .pii uni dr.. il à la pr .!i'. - 
ti. 'Il de la 1"' ; eepen.lant. il ne faut 
|ia- 'iiiilier i]ue eeiix .|iii levienueiil 
■ le i'ainiee de Mcilteux -..nt de- eitu 
ym- lini nut tun -aeritie à la Iil erle. 
et (pn niériteiu lV-tinii- et la ei.n-i.lera- 
tii.n. { l:.y, ¡(I'll, ¡lions ./ ilvai!,-. i 

" < hi d,)it -ui't'.ir e'.iter le- de-i;:- 
nati'-n- .K- parti t.'uii.ur- l'dieii-e-, 
mai- m. .in- pard. .iiiiaMi-- ene. .re, 
ipiaU'l l'Ile- t'.nilimt -uv eeux .jiu i.iit 
en le ci'Uiauie de \ er-er leur -aii^^ jmnr 
inainleiiir leur liLcnr. l 'i . .teeii. .n a 
toUÑ, eniiiliiite éj,'ale i-lUel^ 1..1N, li 
aneline tli-tJMetioti de per-nniie- : telle- 
<rint le- mesures exifiée- |)ar la niédia- 

e-ial.ii-h pi',uT in a e..iiiitr\ iu \\lueli 
the ii,ali..u lia- left her ri;^!u- nude 
termine. 1 nntd tlu' rer-taMi-linieni <.l 
-Util pt-aee. Il i- tlu' iudi-- 
pen-,il.|e, m order t.. ..lit,iin tlii- r. - 
■nit, tli;u ihe h'reiieli tr'.'.p- eliar-cd 
w iili ihe ni.ainien.auiT ..i' ..rder, -li..iil(l 
,L;rant t.. ail a--iiraiua' . .Í ilu- -ai'e!\ ..f 
per-')ii aii'l i.f ]ir..prrty, tli,ii tlu'v 
-li'.uM -empiii. .ii-l\ awi'l ,iii\ aet 
w liieli nii-lit -li'iw p;irti,alit\ ..r i.i . .r 
ili-in t.iw.ard- an\ . lur j.;irl \- l'r'.tec- 
t'"!! i- line l" th..-,' wli.. arc eallcd 
i niii;r;uit-. Lui .-.are iiui-t lu- i.akni 
thaï ilii'ir rrtnru he iii.i 'j_\\i.-\\ \W -mi- 
hl.m.r "Í niu'uph, t',.r ih"-'.- \',h" .iri- 
\M'ak en.'U'^li !.. ;i!i,iiid.'ii llu' pul. lie 
eai!-r 111 lile iin.incnt ni' d,inL;er ha\e 
n.. r l:!iI X" reappr:ir with in-ulnn- 
pr-de .aiiL'lii; the eili/iais w h. . de 
i'eiided i!. it i- ir .t ri-hl. either, 'hal 
th.. -e will. r. 'ULiht I'l.r their e. .untr\, 
-hmild ahu-e ihi- privilege l.\ in..!e-t- 
iii^ tliM-e will I ,are entitled !.. tin pr. .- 
!eeti..u ..t the Law ; h. .w i\ir. it niii-l 
I'.. I he il irii' liten tîii.-e wh.. re- 
turn t'r. .Ill the arnu ..f M'.iiti'iix ;ire 
eili/en- wild h.ive -/lerifiied e\ er\- 
tlinii; !.. hhi-rtv . .lud \. h" ile-rr\ i- e-- 
teein ,ind ii m-ideralii m ' l\ v, ¡niiia- 

I'lons ir, lili tin- l\'li/i'll. I 

" ' >Ilr -hi.uld .ahi.M- ;ill ;i\'.!d p,u!\ 

de-i^nai:.'!!-, a!wa\- ..ih.,u,. I, m k--s 

p.irdnnahk' when .api.lir.l in ihu-e 

vvh'i ilii- eiiur,iL;e t.. -hed ilieir 

k! i iu the defiiui- III' iluir liiierle. 

I'n.Ie.tii.n In all. e.pi,il Ireatnienl tn 

.dl. wiilii.ut di-tiiielii.n i.t per-.n-: 

llle-e are the nu,i-nre- i-x.aeled h\' 

the niediaiii.ii ni l-'reiuh nllieer- ami 
,! i; 1... : i„, ti. , ' .. ! ! < 


m ICI. Mi: NTS 

Miiirc iflk-^ 'UK' la l"ì c-niiiniaiiilc cl 
(|iii ^Miii la rr-iiiiiivaliiliti.' iiiili\ iiluc-llc 
lie lull-. Ir- iiiricÌL-r> ciupliivc-- claii-- 
.\\ i.mi.'ii Lt k- ( nimat. \'iin-> coiinai-- 
~iiii- t'ii m'iK-ral Niiirc ]iairi<)ti--nn.', et 
ii'lii) iK-> triiii|n.-- lie lii,'m'; nnu^ ne 
«Imiii.iiis pditit lie rfiiipre^-fiilciit a 
remplir m i-> wu-- ; mai- il était île ni itre 
(le\ipir lie ili---ilier le- tintilile- repan- 
ilii- par le- jireiiiLje- ile- ileiiv ]iarti-, 
et i|ni ]ii nirraiem le- iiiilniie en er 
reiir. " 

X'nilà la lettre i|;ii l'nniia un ellel 
(i'aeiii-aîiiiii I { . I f^f-liiuiiiss.-iiii-als i) 
Hüllt lir. \ 

M, l'alilie .Maiir\ imu- a reiimclie la 
plira-e mi imii- ili-imi-- que eeiix i|Ui 
-'étaient liaitu- puur leur lilierte meli 
taient e-iime et ciiii>iiler,\ti. m, Mai- 
i|!ie!le était Untre ])i>-itii)n? I)'tin 
<iite nne armée qui a\ ait lai--e a])re- 
elle t'iiiic- le- traee- île la t,nierre 
eivile: lie l'antre enté un parti qm a>- 
-a--inait de la inaniere la ]ihi- atri ree 
ei'n\ qni rentraient ilan- lenrs tnver-. 
le \nn- le ileniamle. ne ilevMn--nnn- 
pa- null- jeter an milieu île ee> lu mi- 
me- Il 111- erimiiie!-, et lenr eniiinianiler 
lie ne |)lii- empiii) er de- de-ii^iialinlis 
qm ne nmi- |iriiinettaient que de nun 
\ean\ erinie-. de nuineanx assassi- 
nat- : 

l.e ehet d'aeensatinn qui |)uiie -nr 
]' \--einl)lee eleeturale. et -un admi-- 
-mn an traite de ¡iaix. Je n'y répun- 
drai |i i- i.a lui du 4 juillet me le ile- 
t'end. lar il ne m'est pas pernii- de 
eunimenter \ ■'- lois. i . l/'/'/i/K./i.ff,-- 
inriits iliiits li\\- tribiiiu-s. ) 

and uliieli are the per-uiial re>puii-i- 
l'ilitv ut ail lie nl'tieers emplii\ed m 
.\\i;.jnun and tlie t umtat. We are 
aware in general m' yuur ])atriiitisni, 
and ni that ui the truii])s i,i the line: 
we du Hut duiilit \iinr eaLCernes- tu 
rarr\ i >nt mir view - ; hut it i- unr dulv 
tu ili--ipate the di-turl'-mee- .-¡iread 
li\ the preindiee- ut huth partie-, 
wliuh mi^dit ha\e led them mtn 

Tili- i- the letter whieh I'urmed a 
lia-isiii aeeu-atiuii! \ AppLiusr frinii 
tlh- !.rft. I 

M. r \l)lie Maur\- has rejiruached 
n- with the -enlt'iiee in uhieh we >aid 
that ihu-e w hu had I'uu^ht fur tlieir 
iihert\' de-er\eil e-teem and euiisider- 
atiun. !!nt what was our jiusition' 
( )n line -ide an arm\- whieh had leit 
hehind It all the mark- uf civil war; 
I'll the other a jiartv which murdered 
in the niu-t atrocious manner those 
w hu returned to their home-. I ask 
voll, wa- it nut unr diit\- tu throw onr- 
-ehe- into the mid-t ol" the-c men, all 
criniinal. .-md to cummand them to 
rtq'rain I'roin usititj de-ifiuatiotis 
which cullili onl\ cause more crimes, 
I're-h muriler>" 

The .aectt-.ation relative to tlie 
électoral .\--emlil\' and it- admis- 
sion to the treaty of peace, I will not 
an^wer. I he law of July 4 forhids 
it, for 1 am not ¡lermitted to comment 
on yunr law-. { . I pf^hntSt' in ¡he i/iif- 
l,-rirs. I 

M. l'ahliL- Maur\ a iirétendu que la .M, I'.Xhln- Maur\- lias claiine<l that 

\\ l<..\"( i\ \.\l) -mi-; \ KX \iSSI\. \7"\ 


nil .liatidii a\;iil autdn-v 1' X-^cinlilir 
(-■Urtnralc à k-\ cv ilfs iiii]i(it-: il a prt'- 
tciulu (in'tllc a\ajt auiniivc i^.ttt. mriiio 
a^-fililikc a -\-iii])ar(T ik'-~ liu'ii^ oia'lO- 
-ia-ii^HU'-. l.'A"(.'i!iiikr i.'kTtMrak' ii'a 
I)a>. a ma '■Miiiiai--anci', w^u aiiiami.' 
li-claiiiati.iii. ¡iMiir a\Mir Irvi- di'- mi- 
li' Jt- : I'lk- li'a p. ■ill!, à ma (.■"iiiiai--aiu-e, 
>ii|iK--trc m;i lait aiu'.iiir i--inTt' (rafie- 
iii.t'i- k'~ liH'ii- cfckNia-tii|iii.'~. 

II I'-t Kirn \ rai 'iiic Ï X—i'iiiii'vc ri,'- 
IntMiitalivr .run [n'iipk' i|Ui .ivait di- 
ilarc -11 iiidrpciKlfiUf (k'liiii- jirc- 
'1 nil an. i\uc rc-tlc \--iiiilik-c n.']iri--cn- 
iaii\c. fii \rrtii .lc> |ir(, niiir- ai'it- ik- 
lai|uc'llc k'~ jiciipk'- axaient ce^-c de 
jiavcr k- dinu'- i-t -'(.taii'iit confi irnic-^ 
en Hint an\ drcicts dc lA^-t-nilik-e iia- 
tii'iiak'. (|iic Citte A"emMee. di--je. 
avait >ei|ne~tre lieaiuuiip dc Imcii- ec- 
ck->iasiii|iie>. si cc n'e-t nieiiie la to- 
talité, je iMiìi- (¡lie tout était -eiine — 
ire a l'arriNee de la mediation . . . 

Je \on> ai dénioiiívé ,¡uí: Ic- ;dk''i;a- 
tion- an -njet de- tronlile- dn (omtai 
n'étaient p. mu \ raie-, je \ou- |iroii- 
N'erai. de la niainere la pin- coii\am- 
cante. (ine le- emigrant- re-lé- 
dan- le ( oimat ; (pi'il y avail á ( )r,inL.'e 
phi-ieiir- laniille- dn t omtat ipie de- 
terrenr-, pent-eire eNai;ere-, ¡leiu elle 
reelle-. ,i\aieni force de -'t xpatrier. 
je le- ai f.iil rentrer le ( ..miat, 
II e-t iin de- iiiemlire- de cette \--em- 
l'Iee. (|ni tieni à ce- f:miille-. el (pn 
peni dire .iu'elk- -ont rentree- ei de- 
inen rem tr,ni.|m!lenient. pai-ilileineiit 
ilan- .Maialicene. 

the niedi;iii(.n antliori/ed the Idec- 
toral \--einlil\ to le\ y t;i\e-; he lia- 
cLiinied il aiuliori/ed lln- -.une 
a--t'iiilily Io -fi/i. ail eccle-ia-lieal 
,^""'N- I he l' .\--enililv ha- 
not. l(j niy kiioule.l;;e. received ,inv 
compl.aim ;.,r ha. in-" le\ led la\e-; 
it h:i- Ilot, Io my k.tow led^e. -e. |iie<- 
traled or coinnntled an\ act lo ilie 
jireliidice o! pIdperU. 

Il 1- very irne that llu' repre-eiil.i 

Ip.e a--emlil\ iif 


dccl.irtd their inde]ieiideiice n. irlv a lln- repre-eiil.itn e 
.■|--enil.¡\ . m vrliir ,,\ ih,- |ir.,t ;,, |, \,^, 
which the pe. .pie had cea-ed i.) pa\ 
tilhe- .and c..nfornied in r\er\ 
ihlllL; Io Ihe decree- of the .V.ilioii.i! 
\--eml)l\, ihi- ;i--emliK, 1 ..i\ . 
had -e.|ne-trale.l ;i L;^ood deal n not 
.ill ecck--i.i-l!c;il pr. .pert\. | heliexe 
everMhiüL; w.i- -e(|ne-trale.| .ai the 
time of iIr. .arrival ..t the niedi.i- 

Iloll. . . . 

I h;ne denion-iraied to von 

the alleL;;iti(in- coiuernniL; the 'li-- 

iiirh.ance- in the i oiniat were 

true. I uil! prove l,, \,.n. m ihe iih.-t 

c .nvmciiii; m.imiev, ih.ii ,all ihe eim- 

,i;r.inl- reni.imed m the (; 

there were m ( ì -e\ f.imilie^ 

ot the ( \\, per- 

l'..ip- ;niaL,mie(i, p(.rh.ip- real, had 

lorced l.) exp.itri.ile lliem-t |\ r-. I 

ni.a.le them reliirn l.. ihe ( ..mi:.i 

I here i- a menilur of ilii- \--ei]:l,l 

wh.i ■- connct led v uh ihe-e f.-incl;,-. 

;m.l who c.iii -t.ale ihev reliiniel 

md .are Irciiif' 

.ind p'-;it-eii' 


1)1 H 1MI,\T> 

Il n'i'-t 'II. m- ]ii- \r:ii 'im'iI \ ait 'W- Il i- iIrtci' .rt- ii^t tnu- Unie 

liii.iMi.'- ilaii- 1l' • l'iiitat; il n'c-l duib' arr di-turliaiRi- m ilir l'unitat: it h 

|ias \ rai i|;U- ic- iniÍL;raiii> n's aun; tlR-rrÍMn- iint tnic that ihr i'naL;raiit> 

jia-. joui ili' la lihcru-. Il (.■-! arrivr were imt L^raulcil Iihcriy. rriri-cls' 

liri-ci-ciiuiit k- (i.iilrain.'. r\-t .|iic k'- ihr l'Miiirarv i .k iiku'c. inr. ihr (.-lui- 

i'-ini.L,'r;mt^. rt'iiti'i-, un grandi' Íií'it. niii ^rani-, laiiirii'ii;^ m uirai • ¡îw-, iiial- 

iiiaitraiii', tlia-T, ii'itaninniii a Maiali ift^aicd and druxc mit ih^i-c \\hi> wen 

ci'iu'. i-(.'\i\ qiu- l'Ili a|iiiilait pali ii itr-. callrd iiatrinl-, imialilx- at M alamene, 

(■f-t an niilicn de ri-ili' ¡laix ijiK' k- Il i- m the- inid-t ni' liti- ]icacr thaï 

(l'imimm-- ><.• -uni a^-cnîMif- l"';ir de- tlu- <;• iininnnr- a--fnihk'd tu ilfliluTati.' 

lünrrr -nr leur -mi |i"litii|iu-. I U-ia mi ilinr ]Hihtical -tati'. I hc-f dc- 

ci'- ikhln-raliiiii-. a\"a'a-nt 1.11 lu-ii an - Iihi^Tatii 'ii- had alrrady taixrn place 

U-\ I HT ik' cette aniH-i', tin avait nii- mi lehrnary _' <■{ ihi- \ ear. The 

-1 .11- \i I- \ en\ i'éini--ii'li lie ce- \ u ii\ ; \iite- ea-I nere iilaeed lieliire m lU ; 

on axait allei^ue. eninine anji 'Hrd'lnii. it \\a- alleged, a- tu dav, thaï the xnle 

i|iie la liherit- n'\ n'avait [la- iiie-ide. et '.sa- iiut iree. and the vuie- were re 

ce- \ir;!\ avaient ele reiete-, ijiiel iei ied. What w a- the ]iriiui]ile uh- 

etait l'iihiet |iriii ipal de liuis ceux qm iei'I ni ail thn^' w lin were eniitraet- 

eunlraetaient avec nni;~ à (liante.' nii;' with n- al i>ranL;e'' Il wa- In 

( '"eiaii d'nhteiiii le- ninveii- de relahlir nhiain the mean- <>i ree-lahli-hini; 

l'nrdre dan- leur ]ia\-. dan- nn ¡lae- nrdi'r in ilieir eniintry, in a emintry 

lini avait ileelaie -mi indeiiendeiue. which had de<'Iared it- indejienik-nce, 

i|ni avait adnjite la l 'mi-ntntii '11 l'ran- which had adniited the I-'rencli cnii- 

i:ai-e: nn |ia\- ijni avait déia mi- en -titillimi : a ci mntrv which had alreadv 

vii;nenr 1:11 urar.d nnmhre de \ n- de- jinl intn elïect a ureal nnmhi'r nf vniir 

eret-, et -iirtiint rniLtani-itinii ninnici- decree-, e-])eciallv the niunicipal nr- 

';. '. ¡ni i\!-\ l'an- tmili- le- ville-, L;ani/atinn which e\i-t- in .all the 

meine à \ airea-, Ciii..'-, even a, \ .a'rea-, 

\in-i dniic. ce |ien|ile n'aiicricv ,ul 'l'ilerefnn'. ihi- peuple cn-.iM imt ,ee 

de terme à -mi anarchie, de tin a -e- anv terminal inii tn ii^ anarchv . .anv 

malheur-, ipie dan- la ]irnnnnv-iatlnn end In n^ ini-nirtiine, except in the 

lie 1.1 deci-mii de -e- drnii- pnlilii|ue-. ]irnni luncemeiil nf the deci-imi nu it- 

II en il. ni -1 cnn\ liiicn ipie, d ills le- pnlitical rii'ht-. Il w.a- -n cniiv inced 

]irélÍMiinaiie- de p,ii\, il esi;-;e,i i|i!iin ni du-, thaï m the l'relimin.irie- ni" 

article pnrieraii i|n'nii -'nccimer.ait dn l'cice, it dein.andi'd thaï niie .article 

sort ]inlitii|ne <In p.av - à rm-taill -hmikl jirnviile thaï the cnii-iileratintl 

même. \iii-i dnnc, "n ^'e^t nccnpe, '■]' ilie jinhtical iate >'i the cnmitrv 

iinii |ia- à l' meiiu', parce ijne -hmild lie t.ikeii np ,it niice l'Iie 

le- triuihle- de (amml). ¡larie i|ne le- mailer wa- t.aken np, luit imt inime- 

as^a-^sinal- exiueant i|n'nn ret,dilit la dialelv , Iiecaii-e the ili^tiirliance- ai 

tr-niiniillilé une Inn nul vnlera l'nin- ( .ir.imli :ind the innrdi'r^ ileni.ind- 

.\\ii,xm\ and 1111 \i-;yAis>i\. \~<n 

lii'i' (Ic la -iiriU- ] r-M iiukIIc. nintii'iit 
1 A^-i-iiililiL- (,!( \ii 'laK' a ilciiiainkr 
i'cniis.-iun dc cc \ii 11 un prii |)Iii^ lai'l. 
I .'iini-sidu ik' i\' \n'\\ ^\--i faite dan- 
la pin- j;iand(.- tranc|inlliti- ; v\. en \ain 
I in \(iiidrait vnu- rappckT ici riii-ni- 
rcctiiui d' \vi,L;iii)n, cjiii n'a un lieu que 
(ì -emainc- ajjre- reil!Ì--ii iii de ee- 
\n U\. 

I ,'in-urreeiiiJii d'Avi^nnii, il e-t I'nn 
de le ie|ieiei', e-t nre i"-Ufieeti(in [lar- 
tielle qni e-t arrivée dans mie \ide, à 
rai-' in d une n\ alité entre deux parti- 
i|ni à ddininer mutuelle- 
nient, ('ette nisurrei ' n ii'a\ait au- 
cun rapport avec le "'a pa-' 
iiienie el'llenré la traiii|Uiinti ' .- 
neres et (k'S petites cunuiiuiies i¡ 
partieiinent à l'Iàat d'Avignon et ■jUi 
l'enti lureiU; cette in-urrection n'a eu 
aucune e-pèce di'eùet -nr le- \au\ 
(|ui \iius ont été pre-enté-, pui-(|u'elk' 
était pnsterieiire de h -einaines à 
lenii--iiiii de ce- xuiix: cette iil-ni'- 
rectiii 1 ne peut pas être à la diarize des 
me Uateiir-. 

X'ius aviin-, dit M. l'aliKé .Manr\. 
l'ait rentrer les l)ri,t,'and- ilan- leur- 
lever,-. Mai- je demande à M. l'alilié 
Maury ccimnieiit les eitiAin- ne de- 
vaient pas rentrer dan- leur- lialiita- 
ti'iii-. cnnmient les j^anle- ne de\aient 
p.i- retourner chez leur- femme-, ne 
pouvaient pas retourner dan.- une \iile 
dont ils sont citoxens. dont il- -ont la 
population" II- -ont entré- dan- 
.Nvi^Mion. iia'-.r 'luWv il;!!"!) était leur 
demeure, leur iloinicile. leur pos-e-- 
sion. Il était inipo--iIjle, ¡e croi-, .à 
la niediatioii. de clia--er l,i uoiiulation 

Uli,' that (¡niel he re-toied in to 
he .lille to V ote under the a --uran c of -.(fi.ty, f. .reni th. h.leciora' 
.\--emlil\ to a-h for the ca-tillLj ... 
ihi- vole ,a little later. The ca-tin;; 
o I tili- vo'e took ]il;ice m the L;reaie-1 
i¡uiet: ;ind it i- \;iin to tr\' to remind 
_\ou here of the in-urrection at .\v :;;• 
lion, which only took ]ilace six vveek- 
aller the-e vnte- lia.l hcen ca-t. 

The m-urrectioii of .\\ÍL;non. it i- 
well to rejieai. \va- .i pai ti. d in-ur- 
rectioi,. which took pl.ace ;ii a cit\. 
.and w,i- i.iu-ed li\ the riv.alrv he 
t ween twn parties who nnituallv 
-ou!.;ht to doiniuiite. d'hi- m-urrec- 
tioii iiad no connection with the ("oin- 
tat, did not even mille the tr.aiiiiuillitv 
of .\Iorier', ar.d of the -mall Com- 
mune- which heloiiii to the ."^^t.-ite of 
.\vi;,mon .and which -urround it; this 
in-urrect!iin no effect whatever 
on the Vote- which v\ere pre-entid to 
you, as it took place -i\ week- .after 
'he ca-tinj; of the-e v ite-. 'l'Ile 
mediator- not he (hari,nMl with 
thi- in-urrection. 

\ccordin.L;' to M. I'.XhU'- M.aurv. 
we ni.ade the iirii;;uid- return to tlieir 
home-. Ilui I a-k M. I'.MiIk.' Maurv 
whv -hoiild the ciii/eli- not return to 
their haliit.ition-. wh\ -hould ilu 
ij'u.ird- not return to their wive-, whv 
-lioulil thev not return to a citv of 
winch thev Were the citi/ens, of wllich 
they fornie(l the population' 'I'hev 
entered .\\ÌL;nou liec;ni-e Avirjn.iii 
w.i- their home, tlieir domicile, tluir 
]io--e--ioii It w.i- impii--ilile to ilu' 
me(li,ition, I think, to ilri\e out the 

1i. iiinl:it il in o l' '>\iirii,,ii i,, .>r,!<.r t.-. 


2< O DOCU 

il".\\ if(i)iin jxuir plaire au Haut-Cnii;- 
tat. I . If'pliiiuUssniit'nt.s l'i ijintchc. ) 

< )ii a ariiciiic 'nic. I<>r> «le l'cinis- 
>ic)ii (Iti VI lu d'Av ii;in'ti, lin a\ait 
I invert (les tuiiiheaux (Iaii> une é},'Ii»t'. 
I.c l'ait e-.t alisi iliiinent faux. Liii> de 
l'cniissiiiu (In vieu d'Av i-^i-.i.n. i! n'\ 
a eu ni tmiilieaux muert-, ni i|ntTv!li-. 
ni dittaMi.iti(,n>. La j^azelti de \ ille 
neuve-Iè— AvifiiKin. cette f^azette qui 
t>t ])a\ée i)ar le parti de contre-révulu- 
tiimnaires (|iii s"\ -uni rélnijié--. cette 
j;azelte i|ui a fmirni à M, Mani\- la 
plupart (les faits (|u'il a articulés, 
parce (|u'en effet ils y s(jnt con-ifiiiés 
depuis ?t semaines, cette Ra/ette, dis-je. 
a transporté, à cette ép(i(|iie. nue ancr- 
d'ite (|ni est arrivée l()rs(|Ue la j;arde 
nationale d'Avifindii. 6 semaines au- 
para\aiit formait son état-major dans 
une éjilise appelée de- (arnies, >i je ne 
me tromjie. l ne ri\ alité ({"entrée dans 
rétat-maj(>r avait occasione (|ueli|ues 
rixes. On a prétendu (jue i|uel(]u'un 
avait remue une touihe; nous en avons 
été avertis, et à l'instant nous avons 
fait atuiuler les déliliératioiis: nous 
avons tlémmcé le fait à la municipalité, 
et l'asscmlilée (|ui avait été tenue a été 
recoimnencée : voilà le fait «pi'on dé- 
n.itnre et <pie je certifie comme vcri- 
talile. jxMtr en avoir pri> moi même la 
connaissance la phis exacte, et je défie 
M Maur\ de dire le contraire 

je deine i^icore de l.i manière l.t phN 
formelle le fait éj;aleinent pris dan> la 
gazette lie Villeneuve-lès-.\vij:nou, 
que. lorsque j'ai été dans cet endroit. 

plcisc lllc I laill-( nlllt.U. I . //'/■/(/(/.Vi- 

.'/; tlu- l.,-ft. 1 

Il li.-i- lieiii -aid that al lile f.iiic of 
tile ca-tiiiL; "í tlic \"\i.- ;it AvÍl;iiiiii, 
tlif tiimlis were iipcncc] in niie nt' llv 
churchc-. 'l'Ili-- i- .ahsiiltiteK lal-e. 

\l tlu- tillH- nf lile Ca-till^ ni' tllf \i'tC 

at \\Íl;iii'1i there wiyv nn tonili- 
"|n-iR-i!. iiM i|u;irrel- .-iiiil tin de-ciTa- 
tions. The i,'a/ette nt X'illeiieuve- 
les-AvÍL;nnn, the ,L;a/rtte wiiirh i- 
p.'od Ii\- the ]i;irt\- i'i aiiti rcvnliitii'ti- 
,irif- \-. hn tnnk reinar llicre. lili- 
R.-i/etle which lurnished M . Maiuv 
wilh mii-t Ol the fart- lu- -ot tnrth. 
Iiecaii-e, fnr ;i l'act. thi \ have lucn 
imlili-hcd in it fnr lliíae week- pa-t. 
tili- j;;i/ette, i sa., puhli-hed at thi- 
lime ;m .mecdote of an occurrence 
wliii'li Innk plue -ix week- lietofe 
when the .Xaiional < ¡uavd of Avi^'iion 
e-talili-hed its staff ot't'ue in a church 
called the ( armelites, ii I run im; mi>- 
t.akeii. A iu;dr\ fnr pnsition on the 
stall occa-ioiH'd -i>mc .dtercitions. 
It was claimed that -nine niu- nioved a 
tomh: ue were notified, we immedi-' 
.'itely anmilled the dehlierations: we 
denounced the tact to the Mnnicipal- 
it_\, and the a-semlily which \v;is heiufj 
held was hcRun ai;ain : thi- i- the fact 
which wa- d ;tortcd. hut which 1 cer- 
tify as In-ill;,; Irne, fnr | |nr-oii,-illy 
looked into the m.itter \er\ carefully 
.■illd I ilef\ M M,iur\ In cniilr.idict 

1 dcn\ al-o. in the nm-l formal 
manner, the f.act likewise taken up liy 
the p;i/ette of \'illeneMve-lès-.\viiîuon, 
that when I was at that pl.iic 1 was 

A\ 1' ;\' 'X \.\!) I'lii-: \K.\".\!SS!.\. \7'n Jr.l 

i aie fif a-~f' i-n ut';iK-iii.\- ]Miiir nii per- t-\ xt >m (li'iiicntiMl a^ tu •-a\- tn any une 

nu'ttrt ilr (lire à aticnn hipninie ele- tliat the einii^ranl- eiin!i! ri'tmn t^ 

i-niif,'rani- ])iiu\aiem levenir à Avii;- AMu'ni'n i>u c iinlitii m ilia; tlie\ ili.l 

iiMH. à e^'iidiiinn i|n'il- ne voteraient imt vi>te tur tlie l'ii]ie. 1 li(i])e tliat 

pa- ii..ur Ic pape j'e-i)efe '|n''.ii if i I'ni- w ill iniai;Ì!:. that a man elt. .-en 

n'inia.mniirait pa- un h.ininie elmi-i t" execute the law edulil he mail 

[mur lexeeutioii de la loi a--e/ I'lU em iu,l;1i tn in- L,'mlt\' c rl -ueli lani;uaL;e 
[iiiur tenn- -an jiareil lan.i^a.ue. 

1 .e lau e-t i|ue je pa--ai a \ ille- Tile iaei i- that I wa- pa<-- 

iieiivc-le- Avilan« in ]>ar eurid-ite; (|ue in?,' tlinui.uh \ illeneu\ e le- N-.i-n. .n 

là je triiuvai .^ mi 4n() t-nii^rant^ ipie tlimuL;!] enriii-ii\ : that there ! fouiid 

la enriii-ite attirait -ur le rua.LTe. three or hnnclri'(l (■mi-rani- 

je leur a\ai^ <ht : keldurne/ a \\)ii- wlmm eurin-ilv had ilrawu t^ ilie 

non; vmi- _\ jnuire/ enmme le- ha- lank- ni the ri\fr. ... 1 -aid tn 

liitaiits de la garantie pri^mi-e par la ihem: ■■ K'eimii tn .\vij;ii.>n : like the 

Ini et (le la protection de la niediatmn; iiihahitam- von will , )^se>s the L'uar- 

niais si VDii.s vouiez \ letnnrner pmir antet ¡irmnised h\- lau and the protei - 

y CNciter <iu trouble. í;arde/-vnn- Inen tion ni ¡he mediation ; hi" if ynit wi-li 

de le taire, ear nous ne K- pennella ii- i > reiiirn tn nrd<T tn -nr np tmuhle. 

,! aiu-Mii parti, (.//'/'/.)//.//>,«,■/)/,■);■>.) lai^e care nnt |,, d,, jt. fnr \\e uill 

mt permit that to am ]iarl\ " i . i^- 

J"ai été à r.nleni. et là il e-t hien I liaxeheeii in llnlrm and it i> \ erv 

étonnant ipie M, l'ahhe M.iury pré- snrpn-iii¡,>- that M. 1' NJ.U' M.uirv 

tende ipie j'aie pu y avoir (|iieli|ne in- -hoiild cl. uni ih.n | eniild m aii\ \>a\ 

lltieiiee -nr le vu-n du peiii)Ie. Il iiilliieiiee the \nic ■■< the penjile It 

était émis il \ a 1/ jniir-: nu me pre- had heeii east >eveiiteen dav- hei.ue; 

^ente ce vien; on nie presente la dé- the vote was presented to me; thev 

liliération de la cnnimnne |e «lis à presented me the deliheration of the 

la titiinici|)alité (pi'elle avait fort hien commune. 1 tnld the Municipality 

fait, mais en lisant le proeès-verlul, ih;it ih.v h;id dmie \eiv well, luit on 

j'y trouvais une prote-talion qui sup- readiii),' the formal mimile. I found 

p«)saii (|iie Inii jioiivait employer la in it laratiou which sufj^'estei! 

force iMiiir le fane cliaii},'er th.ii ..uld Ik u-ed m order to 

ch.iii.;.;c ii. 

j'oliservai à l.i mnnicipahle ijne. »i I ,,l,M!ved tn the Miimcipalit\ . that 

elle ;i\ail eu le drnit iléinettre son 't it h. id the ri^ht locasi its vole, it 

vtiMi. il était peut-être peu décent w.i- jierliajis scarcelv dei eut tn have 

ir.ivoir 1 \prinié ,|,i',,i, .-ivali ,,, 1,- e^ i.ri--.d i -uspicion the media- 



~im|)(,-iiii (¡uc !:i iiR-dialimi pnuvait l.i 
ti'rccr à cliaiijjcr smi npiiiinn; ji- Im 
(lis ([111' jc trovai-- cela in.ii iKi.t»anf. 
(|ii(; cet article ii'ctait jias a;,'réal)Ie à 
ia iiiéíliatioii '|iii munirait une impar- 
tialité aussi (jécidcc. une jiroiection et 
une ■garantie aussi lurtes. Les anm- 
lie i ranee élaieiu ~ur K- imries ile 
l'i' •lem; je dis à la nuniu'ii)aliie '|Ue. 
i|Uaiid les j^ardes nati. maies (|u"il> 
a\aieiu api)e](!-e>. pour leur Mueu'-. 
seraient retiree-, il était |)i>>sil)le (|Ue 
les armes de i'rance fussent, ¡lar ([uel- 
((iie circonstance, insultées; (|ue je 
croyais (|U*d était plu- -a^e et mieux 
de les ('iter. 

l'u dernier chel e-l d'avoir reinle- 
f,'ré .M K.ipliel. ju.i^e d'.\vi¡L;nuu. .M. 
Rapliel a ele nommé juj,'e d'.Vvi^noii 
par la commune. Dans le lemp- des 
trouilles. la commune char^'ea la mu 
niciprdité de ^'hoi^ir un autre ju.!,'e. 
M. l\ai)liel. re\cnu apre- une .ili-ence 
de 2 mois, demand i a reuiier il. m- -e- 
iotictions, (|u'i| nav.iit jamais ce.-e 
d'e.\ercer, en vertu de sa nomination 
et en vertu de la loi. <|ui veut i|u'un 
jufje ne pui--e être (Ic-titué ipie 
ini jugement. .M. Rapliel s'adres-a à 
nous, et noii> à la municipalité. Nous 
nous trouvions charjiés envers M. Ra- 
pliel triuie sorte de resjionsahilité, 
I)uis<|ue noUs étions les ¡,'aranis de la 
fifopriéte de- pir-unne-, I .1 luniiui- 
palité réialilit .M. R;ii)liel. et .ilors 
comme iioiN seuls avions sur les es- 
ibii- une preiioiiderance d'opiiiiou. 
(|iii préxen.iit les trouMes, nous dé- 
clarànies (|u"en vertu i\u rétahli'^sf- 
nient de M. Rapliel. la force ])ul)li(|ue 
préferait assist.ince à ses juKeineiits. 

!iou Conili lorce u tu cli,iu,L,''e its npni- 
ii'ii; I .-aid tlial I il'.cunlit tili- li.-irdly 
nece--ary. tliai lin- article vv.i- not 
plea-ini;- to the mediation, vvhicli 
íliovve dcciiled iui]i:inialî; v . and a 
proiei '11 .iiid L;uar,'îitee eiiuallv 
-iroUL;", The arm- of I'rance were 
over the fíate- oí lloKin. I lold ilie 
.Muiiici|)alitv iliat when liu' .Xaiional 
liiiíinls, vviiich tliey liad -umiuoned 
for their -afelv. were w ithdr.iw u, it 
\\,i- po--ih1e ihai the .•irní- of h' ranee 
mi';lu meet wilh -onie in-ull and llial 
1 ihoii-ht it wi-er ,iiid heller lo take 
iheiu di iw 11. 

' »lu- iiioie ;iccu-alion is the reiii- 
st.atcment oí \i Uapliel. judue of 
.\vi;.;noii M K'apliel was nominated 
a- juili;e of .\v iijnon l)y the commune, 
hiiriu'.,^ lile time of the ili-iiirh.ince.s, 
tile commune directed ihe Mumci]).il- 
itv to clloo-e .mother iui|'.,'e. .M. 
K'aphel oil hi- reHini after an ;ili-eiu'e 
of two moiitlis a-ked to he iiermitted 
to take up his chnie-. which lie had 
never ceased to ]ieiform, hv virtue of 
his noniiii.itiou ¡lUd hv virtue of the 
law. wliiili directs that a jiidu'e can 
only he reiiiovi-il from ot'tice Iiv a 
jud>,Mneiil ;ij;ainst him. M. K.iphel 
turned to u^. and we turned to the 
Municip.ilitv W 1 foniid oiir-elves 
char;;ed with .1 -ort of re-i)on-iljilitv 
lovv.irds M, Rapliel. a* we were jjitar- 
.iiitors of the s.ifelv of per-oiis. TIk' 
Mimuipahlv reiu-i.iled \l l\;ipliel. 
and then, as we .done had the pre 
ponderance of opinion over the initid-. 
of the people, and foresav\ disturb- 
ances, we decl.ired that liv virtue of 

.WI'A'i >\ ,\\"I) Ti!!-; \ 1':\.\1>SIX. 1791 Jfo 

I't jc cniis (|iie nous ctioii? «laiis [c- tin- rciii^tatcim-nt i>\ M. Kaiiliol, tlio 
tcniK> iufci^ (k- la Ini. |inl)lic iHrcc-. wnulcj Icml a-r.i>taiico , i 

ili- iiul,i;iiu-iu-, and 1 I'clu-w liiat wc 
acted acciirditi'j tn tlu' csarl IcriiN m' 
tile law. 

D'après le Cdinptc qiii.' jc \icii> Ac 
vi'iis rt'iidre. Messieurs. \i)us avez \u 
(|iie la médiation a fait cesser toutes 
le- hiivtiülis entre les ])etiples d'Avi^- 
iii Ml l'I ihi < ' itiilat : \ ■ 'HS a\ e/ vu iju'ello 
a i\talili part' ■m la laix. (|U elle a fait 
rentrer d.ui- le- coinniiine- du L'ointat 
les éni!5,M;uits que le-- tr^uliles, les 
crainte-, ou les xeNatiün- en av.iieiit 
lianni-. l'Ile a ilonc n-nipli htterale- 
nieiit !e liut que r.\-scinl)lée nationale 
-eîait ]ir"pip-e dan- -on de\ret di! _'5 
mai. (. ontoriiiement au.x preliini 
iiaires <!e paix les communes >c sont 
e.xpliquées au -ein ile la trancpiillilt' et 

le la pai.x. I.'.\sstml)lée tiecturaie a 
lecueilli leurs mcux. et les a (léjvisés 
(¡e\ai)t \(jiis. La médiation a donc 
rempli encore le luit de la loi du 4 

iiillel. (join l'exécution lui ei.iit Ci'ii- 

l ne nu idpatiMii p.irte particulieie- 
ment -ur M. \erninac. mon colIèj;ne. 
il r A-semhlée le permet, y 

rep)iuJ:e lui-np-iiu- t .íf>p¡au(lis.u'- 

iii.iif\ Ì 

AicirdiiiL;- to the report I lia\e 
rendered yn. <lentlemen, ym have 
seen tliat the mediation ha> caused the 
cc'-sation of all hostilities hetween the 
people of .\vi:;i!on and the ("rntat: 
}ou lia\e seen it e-tahli-licil pean- 
ever\ where, that it can-ed to relnrn to 
the commune- of the ('ointat the emi- 
i^rants. di-iurlMiii es. fear and 
niole-tatiotis hail hani-hed It there- 
lore accompli.-hed literally the .aim 
which the Xationai .XsseniMy liad 
])ropo-,ed in its decree of Mav J3. 
C'onformahly to the I'reliim'naries of 
I'eace. the comnnnies made their dec- 
larations in the mid-t "f tranq!.illit\- 
and peace. Tiie ''.lectoral .\ssemlily 
received their \otes, and placed them 
helare \ini, I lie mcdi.alion ha- 
thereiore accompli-hed tlie ohject of 
the law of July 4, the execution of 
huh had licni ci.iilidid to it. 
line accu>atinn deaK particularly 
witli .M. X'erninac, my colleaj;ue. 
\\ ith the permission of the A.ssemlily. 
he will npl\ \<>r himself, i . //>- 

Rcf-ly of I'rutituii Siiiiil-Matir 

''•""11 l.i ii'ule de- a.->enion> Aiimnj,' the nnmher of assertions 

énoncées hier par M. rali!»é Maury, made itere yesterday l)y .\l. T ALU- 

me assurance et Niaiiry. uiili a mar\ ellons assurance 

•I"'' l'appellerai ilii nom liien niiti-;é and I will cill l.\ ilu' iin.h 



(!':iii-\,utitnik-, parce (|Uo te v(ii\ 
(I'-ninT á 1" \->i-nililt-c lille li.iiite 
[iretue (le iiinn jir. iií.n.i le-]- t. il 
en 'iic (|lii n'e-l ]ia> iKir.iee <le 

ve- M. l'alihé Mariiv a «lit ;"•■ 

j'awiis aeei'pté la jíré^iileiue de- \iiii> 
de la Constitution lran(;ain' a \\ Ííí- 
nnii. le le confesse. Me---ieui-. et -il 
est \rai <nie cette cndi-scemlaiice de 
ma part ait contrarié mon caractère, 
si cette coïKle-reiidince e-t un tort, le 
m'en!pre--.e île ¡aire la part île la 
\eillance. en m'en avo',t;iiu collji.alile. 
l e tort, -i c'en e-t lin. n'e.-t cejieinl.inl 
])a- ¡ii;it!eiui;ilil( 

le coiuiiieiicerai ]i.'ir voiis instruire 
d'un t'ait e-<entiel : c'est i|iie la l'oii- 
stitiitiDii ir,iti(;;ii-e. c'e<t que \o- de 
crets réjiis'-ent de]iiii> ImiiiteinjK le> 
deux l'tat- d' 'wiqtion et du * 
\ eiiai-siii. I ont ce ipie l'anaicliie a 
jui ¡lermettre d'y l'ornier d'etahli-se- 
inents politii|iies, e>l or^^.ini^' -luv.nii 
Vos lois: et -i M. r.ililn- Manrv m'ac- 
cusait d'inexactitude. iCn appellerai à 
Ini-meiiu 11 \oii- a dit hier, Me-- 
sieur-, (|ue l.i mnmcipalile de l'.oleni 
était allée en édi.irpe ,ui-devani de 
tnoii collèjiue. ( hii. .Messieurs, c' 
une vérité de tan ipie W< den\ lùats 
<r.\\ii;iion et du l oiiitat >e t;oiuer- 
nent par le- lois (jue vous a\e/ faite-: 
et il ii'e-t cependain Li patiie di' \l 
l'aliU- .Maury, ipii n'an une adnnmMr.i- 
tion tnnnicipale, in-titne -ui\:ini \o- 

Ml— ieurs, ii"eiit-il pa- été -nr- 
preiiant qu'il y eitt eu d.m- \\i;.;noii 

miti,i;;ited name of in;ictiiracie-, l'C- 
caii-e 1 widi to i^'i\e to tlie ,\— eiiiliK 
;• luLjIi ]iroot ot in\' prol'ouiid re- 
-pect. till .■ i- o-ie winch i- iioi de- 
nuded ot truth. M l'Alili,' M:,urv 
-aid thai I acce|iled the ]ire-i- 
deiicy of the " hrieiiil- of the l'rench 
< oii-îitutioii iif \\ ¡i^uon." 1 Cl in- 
te-- II. Ljentleinen. :uid if il i- true 
' thi- coiide-cen-ion on ni\ p;in i- 
■o!itr;iry to my cliar;u'Ier. ;iU(l ;t ;lii-. 
coniK'-cen-ioii i- wroni;', then 1 li:i-teii 
io \ ield to ui:ile'. 'iletice m ;u'kiio\\ |- 
eil.uini; in\ i;uilt Thi- w rolli,', if it 
i- one. i- h'i'.\e\er iiot wiihoiit esteii- 
tKitini; circum-t;.iice- : 

1 w ill ln'L;in !i\ e\]il:iiniiit; to \ ou 
one e— eimal f.ict : which •- 'haï ihe 
Ireiicli c. iii-iitiiiioii .-ind \-onr ilecree- 
h.iM' niled f..r ,1 1..I1L; time o\er tln' 
t\\o .Siale- of \\i-iii.ii ;iiid the ( ■■m- 
îal \enai--in. \11 thaï anarche 
conili perniii in tin- formin.u of poht- 
ii:il e-t.ihh-hiiieiil- ;ire or.iiani/ed ac- 
cordiiiu- 1,1 v,„,r l;iw-: and if .M. 
r Mil«' .Maiir\- .■ucii-e- me of in:ic- 
cnracy. I will apiie;ii to ¡nm-elf. I le 
t.. Id Min \e-terd;i\. ( Inillenieii. 
ihe Miini.ipahiN of r.nleiii. we:ir'n;; 
their -carves. h;id yoiie to meet ntv 
colleaiíue. ^■e-. I leiitìinieii. it i- a 
xeritaMe fact lii:it the 1 wo .Stale- of 
\\ÍL:non ;iiii| ,ii the ( are ;.,-ov- 
irneil hy l;i\\- which \im h.ue iii:ii|e. 
and e\en the home of M. ]' \l,l,c 
M;i!n\' lia- a mnniciji.-il .■ulministra- 
tioii. iii-titnled ;iccordiiii; to vour de- 
ci ee-, 

. . . < lelltlemeii. w .iiiid it ll'.I li.e- e 
hcen surprising. ili,!t m \\;j^non there 

A\li,.\i>\ AM) Tili; \F,.\ MSSIX. 17')i 

iraiK'.ii^r-, r! i|ik' (lo> !■' ranimai- (.•ii-.-uiii 
iii-ilait,MK- A'\ |iaraitre 

l'ai- uuc Miiti" lU- tr.uihlis i|iii a- 
vaicni ininiiniuc la \ illi' d'Ai ìi,mimii. et 
'Inram r|iic l'ai;in-i.- iiait en i-ai)i|ia.;;iiu. 
la Smittf iii.'> Amis rjr ¡a ( 'n!i~iitntii »n 
avait rayi- ik' -t ^ rrL;i-trc-. |)lii-icni ^ de 
-<-■- »'cirtaiR's, \ii retour ile l'armi-i' 
apre- K- ìiii-iii ii'iiiciil. ce- -i nietairi'- 
ilemaiidrifiit a rtre vriiiiej^rc- . et imi 
ne ji liai--, ini pmir -nutenir ¡e- iiuT.l- 
l'^iti'Hi- i|!ii a\aiem eté faite-, mi !e- 
iiitta -m- le- rej^i-lre-. et l'on > rétalilit 
le- ni un- (|ni en a\ aient ite elt'aee-. 

Mai- le rapiirnelleinent de- e-|iiu- 
na'.ant pu .-'«.iiérer eumiiie eelm de- 
per-dutie-. et la xieiété itant devenue 
tré- tmnnlniairi', k- den\ |,ar!i- pen- 
>èrent ipie le niu\eii d'v retal'Hr le lion 
indie, et de lUndre en-emlije le- dii"- 
teieiile- p,i--i..n-. eian de imum'er à 
la pie-ideiiee une per-omie c|in. ]i,ir \v 
le-jiei't du à -mi e;ir,u-leri-, impn-at 
-ilence ;m\ re— entimenl- duei-, le- 
aee. inimuat ,iin-i à -e voir de |.re-, et 
aelievat m-en-ililement Kuhn re de la 

( e lut d,'\n- re- eirK in-t,nn f- .pie je 

In- ..une a ¡iré-ider l.i Sneiele de- 

\nn- .,e la ( 'mi-litutiim dati- "wi^- 

11' "ì . ' V lut dan- de- mie- de paiv (pie 

i aeeept.ii ielle pl.iee. 

-llouM he a -.HÌet> dew^ed to the «nil 
"I llie l-'relhii l,i>\ -, ;uid tiiat i-"reiuh 
men di-dained n. Le pre-eiit ? 

In cmi-e.pience oí the di-turlaiue- 
'. liK'li Ii,iil tornienteil the rit\ of 
A\i;,,mou ;mil uliile the .arinv u:i- m 
the held, the ."--orietv o| tile hriend- 
ot the 'ii-iiiutimi had era-ed front 
It- rej;i-ter -ever,il of ii- uiemhers, 
' »n tiie return ■>{ tlu' ,iriny after it- 
di-handnu^ tlie-e memher- ,i-ked lo 
he rem-l,iled, ,iiid no ,jik- .ijipearim; to 
-u-taiu the rliar.-e- wliieh heeii 
preferre.l, the record- were ciiicelled, 
and the iKinie- wliuh heeii er,i-eil 
were n-lore(l, 

l'.m mind- not Ii,i\ j,,o |„.,.,, .,|,|^, ,,, 
.'olile to-elher a- did tile imh\ idii:i!-, 
.ind the -uietv h.wiii- hecome very 
immiliiioii-, the tuo pa-'tie- thouijht 
that the !ie-t mean- of re-ti .riiiL; ■ «r ler 

•■""i "' li."' ni/in- the eouteiKhii^' 

taction- would he to nominate for the 
Iire-ideticv ,i per-ou who. !i\ ¡he rc- 
-pect due ¡11- j... -Iti, ,11, e.iiild mijio-e 
-ilence on the v,in,,ii- f,ictioi|,. could 
accn-toiu tlicni to ^et mio contact, and 
impercepiihlx to etfeci a recoiicili.a- 


Il uà- nrdi ; ihe-e e, iii,|iii, ,n- ih, il 
I wa- united to pre-lde o\er the ,'<o- 
cely oi the ( ..ii-tiiut'.,ii ,it \\i^mun; 
i' V ;,- in ilie mtere-t ,,f tliat I 
accepted the po-itmn. 

3.1, noCTMKXTS 

/>ivrr<' nf t!u- Wiiimuil t'ainriilioii I 'niliiuj .¡vi'jiiou ana tlir i'.'iiitat ¡ 'niais.siit 
In I i\iiu\\ Srptciiibcr 14, 17'M ' 

I.' A-M-nil'U'-c natioiialc. ;i]ii\-^ aMiir I lu- N.inmial .\--iiiiMy, lia\iii4 

futfiiiln k' raii|)'>rt (k' -r^ i-'iniilé~ ili])- luar^l the rrp^n "i h- 1 ):]ili,iiiat;c 

l(iiiiatii|iu's ot <r \\ ii^iii'ii ; I '■.iiiiiiiiiri' ani] u> ( unitili lUc nii 

.\\ii;lii'ii ; 
( 'iiii-i'k'-iaiit iiiK'. coni'iiriiK'nii'iil an\ I nit-iilcriii^' that, a'\-i irdiii;,; tn ilic 
|)ri liminaire-- ik' paix .irretì-- i-t >ii;n('-> I 'rcliniinarif- ¡<\ l 'care a,L;rei-(l i -n ,iii.l 
à ( h-ani;t- k- 1.^ juin ik- (.eite :mnec. -i-üfl at < 'lan-r nn jun.- 1.' ,it' iln- 
]iar If- ik'imt'.- ilr ]':i--fniliki- elrr- \ ear, liy iie ik-|nitu-- ■ ,i the ji lint kin - 
tnr.ile lie- deus reinii-, lie- nm A--eiillily i'I the t'.M> M,i!e-, •,! 
niei])alitéM il'Avi.unnn et <le (/arpen- ilie M niiuipaliiie- ( .i \vi::n. -n ;in(l . if 
tras, et (le l'anne-e de \'aiiclu-e, en ( arpenir,!- and ni the army ni \aii- 
pre-eiice et snti- l;i i;;iratilie ])rnvi-.nire eln-e, m the pre-enee and under ilu- 
de- inediatflirs d-,' l.i I'ra-iee eiuny..'-. pmvi-inn.d ^u;ir;intee "i" the Mid!:i- 
]iar k- kni. .:,M!'anlu- 'pie T \--eml)lée Inr- ni Ir.nire -enl li\ the Kin^. a 
natinnak' a eniilirniee ])ar -on di'-eret ^narantee -Ahieli the Xatmnal A--i.m 
du 4 juilk-t dernier, les rniinimiics dc- ì<ì\ \\:í< ei^nlirnied h\ it- deer, e ni 
deux états réuni- d'A^i.^nnn i-l i nni- lui\ 4 la-t, llu- ennimune- nf llie twn 
tat \'enai--iii se -nin fnrinei-s en as- uinled .'^lale- ni .'wi^imn atid the 
-i-inlik'-e- primaire-, pour delihérer sur t nnii;it \'enai--in li.ave l'nrmed lliem 
l'et.-it pnhlii|ne -le leur pays; >eKe- nitn priniarx a --enihlie-, inr ih,- 

pnr]in-e ni ilel'.l.eratiiiL; reL;anhn;; llu- 

]i'ilitical -tatù- ni iheir enuntrv : 

l'nn-iderant '|ue l.i m.ijnrue de- i nn-ideriiiL; that the niainru\ ni 

entnniune- et de- eiln\en- a lun- lilne- the inmniniu-- aiul nf the cili/en- lia- 

nieiit et -nk nnelletlient -nii \(eu p-air in-el\- and -nlrinnK e'^pre--ed it- 'le- 

l.i reuninii d'Avijiiinn e; du inmiat - re inr the uiimn ni A\ iotinn and the 

\ enaissiii à ri'.iiipire fraiit^ai- , i \ t-nai--in wiih the I reiieh 

1- inpire ; 

('oit-iderailt i|ne, ]i,ir un dieiet dn ( nii-ideriiiL; lliat. In ;i <leeree ni 

_'.^ mai dell lier, 1,-- drnit- de la hraïu'e .M.ty J,^ l.i-t, the nulli- . >i 1 raiu e n\er 

-iir A\it;nnii et le l 'ninial \ eiiai--iii \\ÌL;nnn ;iiid llu- l nmial \'eiiai--in 

ont été fnriiiellement re>er\e-; h;i\i-Iieen inrmalU re-i-r\ed; 

L'.Xsseiiihlée nationale deelare ipreii llu- N.iiinnal \--emM\ declare- 

\ertu ties drnit- de la i'raïue -ur le- thaï li\ virtue "\ the rights ni 1 ranee 

états réunis d".\\ ifiiinii et du (nmlal over the unilcil St;ite- nf .Xvii^imn 

\'enai-sin, et ipie. i nninriiunieiit au ,ind llu- ( nnii.ii \ luai-siii, and iii ac- 

' IiiivcrKicr, Ccllecliotif. vol Í, p 267, 

.wii.xi'X Axn •Ili!. \ i-:x \issi\. i7'm 

V' ■!! ¡uiR'nicut <.-{ ~oli.'iiiu-!Icnu-nl vii:. 
[lar 1,1 iiiaJMr'ti.- ilc- cniiiuiiu'- i-t ilc- 
citii_vi-ii- (k' (,T~ (k'lix |ia\^ ]iciiir rtre 
itU(.r])(ii\'~ à 1,1 l'r;i;icc. Ir^dit^ ikn\ 
i-!at- riuiii> >r \\ 1,^11(111 fi ilu ('.liiitat 
\ ciiais«iii i'miii. ,k-^ cc iiMiiniit, ¡lartir 
int(.\<;rantr ilo T I '.iiijiirt- I'raii^-a:-; 

i. X-ti'ilikr natii male ik'crctc i|iic 
k' Iv'i Niia pra- ile nmiinicT do ti. m 
niissaiia-- (|ui -c rondri'iit iiin --aiiii iit 
a Avi,!,nii.ii c-t daiH If (.1 liutai \ k-nai- 
•ill. pmir faciliter riiicnriiiiiatn.n di- 
vi:^ (k'tiN iia\> à ri".iii|iiiv iraiit^ai-: 

1. .\--^(.nil ko iiaiiniiak" ilóiictc i|iir. 
i!i-- ce 1111 lincili. Imite- M'ii'> (le i"a;l. 
l'iiN ,actes d'Ili i-tilite-, m ■m evpie^e- 
iiuiil deleiiin- aii\ ditïereii- i.,arti- lUii 
peti\ent exister dan- ce- deux ]ia\- 
l.t's coiiiiiiis>;iiri.'s (.'iim.m- par k Ivii 
veillermit à l'eM-cutinn !;i |)his cxai'te 
de- lui-: ¡j, piiiini'iii re(|iiérir, a\ec 
le- liirnu acciiiitmiiee-, le- trunpc- 
<le li.niic et .i;arde- ü.iIk iiiale-, pnur le 
retalili--enieiit et le maintien de 1'. .r- 
dic pnlilic et de l.i paix. 

i. \--enilike iMlp'iiale ilcciète ipie 
-e Iva -er.a prie de l'aire o'.urir de- 
iie^'i.ciatiun- ,a\a'< La cuir de K'unic. 
Iiiiiir Imiter de- iiidcniiiite- et dedmii- 
lilai;eiiient- i|i,i p. iiiiraielll Ini être k- 
iiinieiiient dn- 
L'.\»ciiikke iiatiiiiiale cli,iri;e -e- 
coiiiités de cni)-titiitinii, dipli.mati"|iie 
et d'Avifjtmn. (k* lui présenter iiice>- 
saiiimeiii nn projet de (k-cret >iir l'étali- 
lisseiiieiit provisoire des autorités 
civiles, judiciaires et adiiiiiiistrativc- 

cordance with ¡lu- \,iie iiaa'U and 
-oleinnly expre--ed liy the ni.i|o:itv 
' I the Cl .inmune- and nf ihe citi/eiis 
I 1 the-e t Ull ciiiiiitrie- l'or iiicorpora- 
l'oii with l'nince. the -,aid rniled 
^late- lit' \\i-n..n .and the l'umlat 
\ eiiai—in runii, troni tlii- time on. 
an part of i!),- | r, ne!i rin- 

Mie Xalmnal \--e:i,l,l_v decrees 
that the Kill- -li.ill lie re(|ne-ted lo 
ii.inie coinnn--ii,ner- who -hall re- 
pair to \\ i^nmi and the L'ollUat \ ni 
ai--ill. .Mlh.Hit dr'.iy. in iirde' to 
t.acilitale tlu' incorporation of ilie-c 
two coiintrie- in the 1 rendi I anpu ■ . 
¡'lie Xatiollal \--emlil\- deeiee-, from tin- nnie mi, all act- of 
Molcnce ,and .all Im-iik- act< ;ire ex- 
pre--ly foriiidden to the différent 
p.inic- which ni.ay exi-l in tlie-e 'wo 
cmmtrie-. The coniini--ioner- -enl 
I'.\ the Kin-- -hall -,-e to il,,- carctnl 
(xeciiiion Ol the law-: they ni.n . I,v 
mein- of the .iccn-iomed form-, ..ill 
l'"i- tllc ,aid of ihr ir, M,],- ,,|- the line 
and the X.itioiKil ( in.ird. in order to 
re-tore .and ni.amtain piiMic order .iiid 

I he \--emlilv decrees 
ll'at the Km- -h.dl Ik- reipie-Ied lo 
open ne-oti;iii,in- with the ( min of 
K'otiie ciiiiceniiiijr ^^^^■]^ indenitiities 
and dattiaire- a- m.av he k-iliini n.-U 
di'e It 

I he .Xatiiii,.il \--einl,K cii-irj^e- il- 
Coiiiniiitee- on the ( mi-iiuitii m .mil 
oil \vi^ni<m. ami its I)iploniatic ( nm- 
uiiltee. to pre-ent at once ,-i draft de- 
cree lor the pro\ i^ioual si-uinjr „p ,,f 
civi!. jüfüfia! and "dmini-traîi\e nu- 

2i >s 

\n iLl'.MlCX'lS 

i|iii ri-L;ii'"iU k'-. deux p;i\> icmii- llinrilic-, wl'.ii'li -hail cMTfi-c piUMT 
d'Av i^Miiiii ft ilu t nmtat W'liai^-^in, in the two iiiiiti.'il i'' iiintrii'- >ii Av;u- 

iiMii ainl the (.'iiiiitat W'llai^^iii. tiiitil 
the liiiic of tlicir tliial i ii'Mui/atu iii. 

jii^im'à leur ()ri,'aiii-atii>ii (k-liiiaivo. 

s \\( )\ WD wci:, i;wj 3 

/''•,.<■/,;;;;„'/,„! ,,/ („•;,•,/•,;/ M oiit,-s,¡„i„u to f!ir l\-o[^¡c oí Sa:oy \cp;,-mK-r 

2\. 17'L> 1 

. lu i.niif^ ,/■• Hurnnix. /„ ,/„. /•,,./,/ „, /,'.,r/-,i/'.r. 

A-Jl srf^t.-iiibr,: Srftrinbrr 2\. 

\u iin,„ ,1,. la „atmn trai^-ai^c. ¡n ihc nana- nf th.- l-rc,,,!, „atmn 

liNcrtr, f,t:alitc-. I.ihcrty, lOiualitv. 

1-e .ui-iicral de laniR-e fraïKai.e. Tlic CnwrAi'm cmn.and ..f ihc 
ohcissant à ia vninntc souvt-raiiu- do l-rciu-|, ar:,n . ni ,,I,cdiciKo m tlie -inv- 
ia natinn. char-o par dk- de vcn-cr ks ,Tc-i,i^n will nt the natimi, diar-od liy 
m.inrcs «nie le roi «k- Sardai-ne, an it u,th il,c avcn^^in- nt ihe „linric. 
mcpn- des traite-., a îaae> à la {■ratice u l„ch the Km- ni Sardinia, in de>p,te 
dan. la personne de ses ami.assa.knirs, nf treaties, has done to I-ranee in the 
et k- mauvais traitement- qn'd a per- per-nn of her Amhas-adnr. and the 
mi- <|ue des eit,)vens franicai- epnm- evil treatment which he has allnwed 
\ a-ent (Ian- -e- ktat-, vent faire c.n- the I'reneh eitizens to snffer in hi- 
tiaitre â l'Iùimpe, et F>articulierement Si.ite-, de-ires toaopiaint F.urope, and 
anx peuples (le ¡a donnnation sarde, k's particnlarly the people- under .'^ar- 
justcs motif- qui ont détermine la na- dinian domination, with the iust rea- 
tion fran(,-ai,-e á a,t,'n- eii\er- le roi -on- which have determine.! the 
comme envers un violateur de in foi l"rench natmn to take action a-amst 
puhli.iue et du droit des gen-. the Kin- as a.u'ain-t a v i.ilator oTpnl,- 

lic failli and nf international law. 

Sep.are,'-\nns ,1e vn- t\r;m-: ce -ont Separale fn>m vonr tvranfs; it i- 

en\ -enls ,,ne non- venons comhattre, ihev alnne we are corne to l.attle with, 

i.a chaumière ,\u jiauvre sera l'a-ik de The ponr m.-m'- cotta-e -hall he the 

la paix, lions y ver-ero,is de- cmi-nla- rcfn-e nf we shall there pour 

tinn-. L'année fran(;ai-e ne vient forili con-, .l.itmn, The l'rench armv 

poini dc'va-ier vos campa,-;ne-, le <'nes „nt cnie i,, lav w a-te v,.ur fieM-, 

<|ue -e-,,ins exi-en.iit, le .i;eneral What nnr need- re.|uire the Cenerai 

v(v,„ le demaïukra avec enhance; ce 'mII a-k f,,r cnnlidentlv: he will ever 

sera i,,ni,.nr- r.arueni a la main (¡u'il receive ynur aid with nmnev in h.ind 

recevra \ntre -ecoiir-, h n re-pect;mi \- i,,r vn„r per-,,n-. v,mr home-, 

' ''I: r.iii., Kt -tTic-, vol, ,-.', p ."i.- 



Ih Hl m i: m > 

\..> ]n V-. iiiiiL--. V'i^ ilfiiicnvi'-, \i ■■> ])ri 1- \'iiir ]ir'i¡iiTi\. in •'IIitíhl; \"H it- 

|irictcs, I'll \(iu-. (ilïraitt ■-"ii aiiiilu-. le irni:i!~hiii llu- I riinii iiii']ik' wi-h 

iK'iplr iiançais \cm \"n- iaiir ])ii- \ ■ m ti > -liare w illi it llir lilc-^inu; ili'ar- 

lauiT avec lui le l'ieii le ]jln-> i her à e-t tu iiiankin.l. I.iliertv, lur which 

rii< 'iiiHie, celui dl 'lit re-pi );r ( m K' (le>ir hi^pe aii-l 1o1ii;!I1l: iie\er ila-, cieii :n 

ne ineiirl ianiai>. même ilan> le cuii; ihe luai ! 'il llie ~!a\e, Ma\ y.üi en 

lie Terciase, la liherté. l'iii^-ie/ vnii-- ¡i.) lin- witli^ui il- ]iri ilccli« .n 1 1 hal 

en junir -an- -a |ii'iilectii 'ii I le -era WhmIiI l'orni ilie m.i-I ^'"riuii- -ncci'-- 

le -ncce- le jiln- i_;liirieu\ ])'iiir lin- "l "iii ai'iiiie-. 

Si,L;né : /.i i/i-;;.7'i.'/. ( Si.i;neil i. (it-nrrtil in (.'•'iiniunul . 

.Mn\ ri-'.-i ir 11 if. .Ml i\ ri.-oi mr. 

I ,-!;,-r .'/ i/V(aTi// M í'iifrsiiiii'in to tlir Miiüstír -'/ ¡l\n\ ,ni:ì I '¡scussi, 'ii A', 
i/iii-iHihi it ill tlu- li\iuli Witiiiiiiii i.\<ii:\-iitii'n. S,p!,iiihir JS, ]7'>2' 

( /;.;')//', M'. !•' -'? .>.■/•/. 'i/.'/'c,'. /■(((; ¡I' i'liiiiiilh'ry. Scl^tniihrr J?. War II' 

i/i- /,( ///'.■'7c ,7 /c / i/c I\';i,ili!r. .'/ I ih,-i!y oil. i I of I-.qiiality. 

Taxai- eu riii'iiiienr (U- \i.ii- man- I lia\e liad ihe Iimii.ii- ..f nifiiriniiiL; 

lier, Alnii-ieur, ipie ma première lellre vmi. Sir, that ni\ lir-t letter wnuiil he 

-erait ilatee lie ( lianihér\ ; \ I iu> v< i\ e/ ilaied lri>ni ( h,imlier\ ; muí -ce that 

i|Ui.' ie \'iu- tien- Ji.irnle, 'linit .a lui I ket|im\ Wunl. All lia\e lied, iroill 

ilelini- le- hnrd- (111 l.ic de I 1 le\e ill-- the li.irdel- ni Lake • ii.lle\a tn thn-c 

lillà ceux de ri-ere: et de- deiiuta- ni' the I-ère ; and ile]iiit.(! i. .n- irnmall 

iiiiii- de ti'iite- le- ville- de .'^avoie lile tnwii- •■{ >;i\><y ,ue arri\in,i4 m 

m'.irii'.ent -ncco-ivement jiniir ren- turn lieh'tf me. \.< di ■ liMiiLai^e In the 

drc lii'inma.i^e à la natimi tran(,'ai-e. et i rench ii.aiinn, and tn iniplnre h- jirn- 

]i"nr impli irer -a pi'ntcctii ot. 1 .,i iniie lectinii. The lliyht ha- keen mily tun 

ii'.i de (|ue M n|i r,i|iide, |iin-i|u'il ni'e-t i.apid, -ilice i! i- iiii|in--!lile imì" me 

iinpn.->iMe tratlemdie le-; ennemi-; In reach the enemy ; liut il' I lia\ e niily 

niai<, >i il- n'ai .¡n'uii iadile e-pnir di' ;i -liLiht hnpe ni Lakim,' ihem pri-niier, 

le- f,aire pn-nmiier-. jen -ni- di- i .un cninpen-ated li\ innre n-etiil ca]i- 

dnininai^e |i,ir ik- cajitiire- plu- utile- line- which I n\\ e tn ihe preci)iit,ilinn 

i|lie je dni- a l.i precipit.ilinii de leur ni their iliL;ht I •_;i\(' Iure ;i det.ailed 

tnile le inni- ici un è -ncciiict ^t.itement nt' the ])rn\ i-imi-, muiii- 

de- ¡irn\ i-inii-. de- mumtinn-. etc. . . . tmn-, etc, , . . 

Il m.irchc de ninii ;iriiiee i-t un M\ :irm\ m.arche< in triumph: the 

irininplie; le peuple de- camp.auuc-, cniinlr\ peuple ,niii thn-r ni theliuMH 

1 -l.-.-Ji *.../ Ut -rrl,-,: v,,l ;' n 1 .^.< 

s W' <\ WD \|( i:, 17'<_' .; 

271„ura,,U. rn„ „ . nu . , ,„ . ,h. ,no,l„r o.ka.le i. 

11-"^: la o.cank- tnclure r>t arl.,„v,. .v.nuh.rc ,l>,,!aN .,1 : , .„r nn.-u-.s is 

pan.,ut: les ai.,,lan,li-..„u.M,.. 1.. .-n- arounpan:.,] I. a,,,,la,i.. a,„l ;;:,s „f 

'Iç- l'M^' M.v,.„,,,a;,n,.n, „„,. ,„.. pa. ,.,y. 1 )a v 1k.„„v ..M.nhu a -I.pnia 

^"^' 'In'ma,)..,, ,k. ( lKm>l.cry ,„\..t un m,,:,, . l,a„,l,.r. ran,. „ , \.ek 

venue tn.mrr avant-hi.r a„ chafa). „„■ ai .he rhatean ,!e- March...- ^c^- 

'k- Alarch.-: har nia,,,,, ,,■„ >, ■. te.-,la> :,.,r,„„^ | .K,,,,,-,,.! .,•,„„ u 

'^""•'''■V ■'^■''^■va..v.Ncn,„,,a^„„. f.„- „„, „,,,„ ^^,„, ,,,,_ ,^^^^^^|_.^ , 

'■^' ^•■'"^"''^■^■; '■' ^ l'^^>'- '!>■ --a...... 1).....,, n^hto.,„,,a„.c.,.f^r,-„a.l,c,-. 

'"""■""■'"'"''"^■''^"-'■^■"^^'"- '- ^""1 -Mr pieces n{ ca,„,„ The 

;'";"-l|ah,en,a„e.„lanaIap„ MnnicpaH.v .„c anhc ..a.c 

Kalnl ,lc cc.-cn„.,„c. ,„„.r m'en rc- „. ce.v.,„ ,,nal rohc^ i,, ...v, ^hé 

n.euivle^ de. la- che,, h- la „„..„n- kc>.. The head .„ ,hc M„„,c,pal,.v 

P.-'iUc ,„a cxp,-,„.c le. .c.n.icni. ,1c expi-e^-cl t,, :nc ,hc .c.n.c,., ,,> 

ve.pcc, et ,1 a,.achen,e„t ,h. peuple ,Ic re.j.ect a...! ,,f anacl„„e„t n," ,he pen- 

■avn ,c ,.,„r la „a.„,„ e!. ple,TSa^,,v ...;•, he hmnl, „a,„ „. ■ 

'"' '":'" ''^' '''''- "^"""' ^^^'H^rcM-e. Ta, a,„l. ,„ ,hc „a,„e ,,i ,1,,. ,e,UTn„s ,n- 

l'-.,n. pn,tec,„,„. pa.x c hh.ncau ,„„, 1 p.-:,.,-.d pn .ce „ i,, peace a„,l 

pe.iple ,1e SavMe. je ...c M,,. n,„h,, a hl,e.-.v „, ,he peuple ..f <av,n 1 re 

a ...a..,„ c.„„:„...,e: .-y a. ,eç„ le. pa.rd „, ,he c..,„n.„.,al hall' 1 .hce 

-le... ,1e rcn.h-e a la „a.„,„, cl :,„„e la .e„. ha..e„e,l t,, .vinler „> ,he naP,,,, 

"'':"!" ■'/"■"""^■^■:'""^'--""-"> -^'!""-v!:..le,n,„p,a. ^,^i,e,l,„a 

'^•" "" ^'^'" '"-^-I*^'- ^'va. ,c-,nal .h.Ih ha.l hec, p.v- 

l'ard r, .r h. 

). In l)e 

^"*;""'''''"'' '■"■'"•^' 'V 1^' nhe.-t,: T.,.,la^ the Tree ,„ | ,hert- 

:,";', '''"'":"' f ",""'• '■'^'-""-^' -'• hla,..e,l .„h ,,va, cere„„„u- „, ,he 

''■"'' I""'""''"'''' ''••'^'-"- I--me.pal.,p.a,-c,„-,he,„un 

,,, ,7' '•^'"" ;;'" ^. -1"-"^ -'•' " app..a,-. „. ,„e ,ha, ,|,e ,„i,„i „, 

;!-p.-e- a kev,,l,n,.,„ .c.MaMe ,he ,,e,.plc he,-e .. ,li.p,,.c,l ,,. a rev„ 

:"":';",.' "''""7-'"''"'"i'- 'mi..., .neh a. „„r.: I ha. e ;,,rca,lv 

!"-■' a la lra„ce ..„ S4 ,lepa,-,e,ne.„. heanl ,„a,le ,he,,,, , „■ ,„.,„.,,■ 

;";"';'""-,7-'-^P'"'HMne.„.,. .a =-, ,„ Krance an e,:,,. v- ,-„:,r,h h-parf 

pn.ecn„n. 1, c, a ,le.irer .„,e ,e -ne,,,, „r a, 1,... a repnhhc „n Ir . 

;;•;;;.''• -- -in ..;nver,,e,„en,. pr„„-,.n„„, I, . .u.,,.,,,;,. ,„a. , 

;;:;,'7:r''""'^'"™V""''""'"'- ^'-"'-"o-u .heu,.h.„,he.; n, 

■' ;: ';:;l--'inel„np,-en,ha. mc... f,.r Iheheve .ha, I -hallhe ,n a 

!:::;" 'r:::::'"":":- ''''^ '''' ''^'^-' ':>• '"-'- ■ < i-.. .ai,i ;::,: 

■ '"' "■■ ■•"'•■■=^ -a-,-,,;.,,ei,ne liiai liic nat,,,,, ua. ,t^i\i,., i",-,... p!,,«. 

_';.' IH ICI Ml-. M > 

k-- ¡lit liiirciin-iu ciiaii^ci--. }<.■ \"IN l" ¡au- ..i '.In.- rnuiiiry. iini.' tlic 
prii' lic mc niaiidiT >i jf iImi- iiiiir Ull >a\ii_\,ir,l iiaii ii -liuiiM irccly 
aiitic laii,t;a,uc; iii-i|ii-lá je ii'iiucrri'iii- ihaii,t;c.l ilicni. I In- y ,\\ u> unie mc 
prai pnint k> Inis nnliiunrc-, m 1'- uìrìIui i -¡luuii u-c ■ iihcr laiit;iia.i;c ; 
iiUK'tinns (Jes inaj;islrats. ' mil ilun I -hall muriere neither uiiii 

lile orilinarN lau- ihm' unii the Muic- 
I)' 11- 111 the lll,iL;l-tiale-. 
I'cul-elic iaiiihait-il, ])i'iir rem- rerliap- i! iiia\ he neee--ar_\ , ill nr- 

| l'aiUdrile a'liiiim-tratu e (Ic i'aii- tier in leplaee the ailn:mi-tian\ e an- 
cien i;i in\ cniemcnt. tant i|u il ne -era íhniil-, ni the in: nier i n i\ ernnienl, m 
pa- .hallte, iimi nier nil l;i nucí iiiMii -n i.ii a- il i- iinl ehair^cil. In name a 
general lie ectle pri i\ nice, je nc pens ,l;i i\ erimr i;eiicral nf tlii- I'lnvmee. 1 
\ e\erier ipic lautniue militaire, c; eaii e\erii-e niils iinhtarv anthniity 
c e-t n-cr «In ilinn <le cnni|netc. Jc here, aiiil thai u niiM he tn make n-e 
lai--e cet examen a \ntrc -aldose. "i the ri^lit ■•( cniiiine-t. I lca\e ihi-. 

i|Ue-lli 111 !' I \ I ilir U !-(lnlll. 

Ic ;l''-iic. Mnii-icnr. i|nc ma cnii- I ilc-.irc. Sir. thai m> cninlnct 

iluitc an l'apprnliatinn de 1' \--cni- -hnind have the a])prnval <ii the Xa- 

liiec naliniiale el la \ntre. , . . Imnal \--enili]\ and \nnr.- al-n. . . . 

I ,: i,,'iiri\i! ¡i.- ¡'iiniirr till Miili.^ Ihr u,'iui\ii of ¡lu- .¡niiy of tlic 

."^iL;ne: M(i.\ i i:mji ii n . Miili. 

{ .^ÍL;ncd I M' IN I KMji lui . 

llwi M Ic r.ippcllevai a la I'. \M a; 1 -h.ill recall tn ihe 

('nn\cnl¡nn c|ne 1' \--cnih!ee cnli-ti- tninenlmn that the ( 'nii-titnent \-- 

liiantc. en cnii-acraiii par nii décret -cnilil\, in cnn-ecratiiii; In a -nlemii 

sdkiincl ipTcllc reiiniicait à rainhitinn iKcrec it- rennnciatinii "i cnn'¡nc-t. 

de- cniii|netc-, a rendu le pin- L;rand h.i- icnucrcil ihc ^rcaic-l iinm.-c.ic tn 

llniiima,i.;c a la hhcrte de- peuple-. the lilii-rl\ ni peii[)le-. 1 auhinl tn 

J-'idclc ;i ce pnnci|)c -aire, la ( nn\eii tin- -acred prmcijilc, tili- < ■ lücentinii 

tinii dnii rcjcU'i la pinpn-itiiiii (|ui lui nin-t icicci the pinpn-iimn made tn it 

c-t laitc d'er;;.;cr nn SV dc]i;iricmcn; tn erect, a- iJciiai inient S4. the ¡lari ni 

ia p.artic dc la .'^,i\nic .|ni .'~-a\n_\ uhich iiianiic-t- n- 'n\c tnr 

-nn aninui pnur la hlicrti' en -'ar- hhcrix li\ tearing; it-cli irnni the de-- 

lacliaiit an jnui; <\\\ de-pnt;-mc i Miir- pnt'- \nkr i iiiiirf irs) .and nin-t le.i\c 

ìnìiì\\<\ et Iai--er ce pa\ - lihre ile -c tin- cnunuu iree in Lji^c ! • it-eli it- 

ilnuncr nn ^nin eriKincnt ]ianicnlicr. nun ,L;n\ crnnicir, . 

'íiifí,- i/i' /ii proclamation fiiiu- f'" ■''' ¿•■'"■'rj.' dc l\vmcc du Midi, et afñcíU-c /-ut .t.i" 
ardrr i/.iiic /ii <,¡: ,-ir. 

" All mun ik- la nation fr.iin,ai-e. >;iicrrt au\ (!• .-potes. |uiix et lilitrté aux pcniílcsl 

" Le (¡t'ih'ral i/>- l\i'ii¡,';- lili Midi. 

" .*^i(»tu» \Il>\TK-l>I loi'." 

SA\< i\' AM) XK I-, 17'i_' ,i 


Jc iif -iiii- d'avi-. <Ic" ceux i|ui \w\\ I am iii,t ,.i" tlic (.|.iiiiiiii of ilin-o 
^iMit (|iR'. i)..ur iiu'iiii ]n\ -.iit hell- v\liii iliiiik ihat [..r a ¡u'.iiilc i,. l,c 
ri'iiN, il lam .|ii'il ],. ..-rdc mic L;raii'lr lia|>|i\, it imiM [k ..>,■>> a -roal extent 
elciidii,- ,ic ivrntc.ire^ I ,a I" ran> v e-t cf lernt. .n. Iraiiee i- sulÌKieinlv 
a-e/ va-te. el je ei'M- .|iie ',..11- .le\e/ larL;e. aii.l 1 l.ellew that \,.ii -.l!,,!i!,l 
iiianite-ter rmtenti..n ,le reii..iuer a make |.lain tlie iiileiili, .ii ,\i reiMuiie- 
t(,iu (li-ir .ra-randi-emeiit. Cede- iii'^- all de-ire i..r a,L;-randi-emeiit. 
crei II- |.eu! iin'etre ;i.L;reaMe. ( M nr- Tin- .ieeree eami..t lad f . he plea-m-, 
innres. ] le .¡emanile le renv..i de l.i [Muniiiirs i | a-k that the ¡.miM.-i- 
¡iropoMtion du -eiieral M. .iiie-.|ui. .ii li..n (.1 (.eneial M. .iite-i|ui,,ii l,e re- 
an o.miiedii.l.imali.nie. lerre.l t.. the I )i|,l, .;iia!i.- ( . .inmiUee, 

L-\<KM.|\. !-:t ni..i. ie d.'inan.le la f.x.Kc.ix, And 1, 1 in. .\ e the pre- 

(H!e-ti..n i)real;il.le. Mir le reiiv..i an vi..ns (nieMimi. a- t.. reternni; it Li 

comité, \<.ii- entrez en Savoie ]).iiir the cmmiiux'. \ n\\ mter Sa\ov |.. 

donner a .'e iieiiple la Idierte, et il. .n -ive tin- ).e,.|,le lil.ertv. iiot t.. cu 

polir le con. inerir. .\laiv au nioin- .iiier it. Ihit il i- iiece-.irv at 

fanti] .|iie .|uelqne avanta,i;e v..n- m- lea-l -onie advanta.^U' -h..nld indem- 

duimi-e de- frai- de l.a irnerre. et .|ne mfv y,,ii f,,r the eo-t- ,,i the war, and 

la iin.pai:ati..ii de- prmei|,e- de Li 111.- th.n lii,. -prea.l .,f principie- , ,f hheriv 

erte -me et stable; car .-i ;'i la paix -li,,nl.| he -lire ;m,i lirm ' f..r. :f ,at the 

V..11- reii.he/cespay-ailx de-i-..te